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vention, or receive any of its decrees, until had assembled some forces in that town, imthe imprisoned members were restored to mediately sallied forth, and received theor their functions. The departments of Cal- with a discharge of artillery. The whole vados, the Rhone, and the Loire, also avowed of the insurgents betook themselves to flight, their determination to disown the conven- except a single battalion of four hundred tion; and the first of these actually impris- men from Finisterre, which, on seeing itself oned three of the Jacobin deputies, who had abandoned, retired in good order to Èvreux, been sent thither with a view of propagating where the fugitives at length rallied. their tenets, and supporting their cause. At Wimpffen and De Puisaye concealed themthis critical moment, too, a complete counter-selves; the proscribed representatives berevolution took place at Lyons; Marseilles took themselves to flight; some perished by was threatened with commotions; Toulon the guillotine, others by fatigue and famine; exhibited manifest symptoms of disaffection; while the victorious party stained their triand the cause of the Mountain for a moment umph by a series of cruelty, injustice, and appeared desperate. Several of the pro- bloodshed. scribed deputies, having escaped from their An insurrection broke out at Lyons, and a confinement, now sought an asylum at congress of the department was convoked Nantes, Rennes, Bourdeaux, Caen, and Ev- at that city, in which it was resolved to reux. Others, abandoning an assembly in march a force for the reduction of Paris; which cruelty and injustice preponderated, the Mountain party was declared to be out. fle from Paris and joined them, and a gen-lawed; and the provisions destined for the eral insurrection of the provinces against armies were intercepted. The cities of the capital was immediately agreed upon. Marseilles and Toulon followed the example Many of the cities nominated commission- of Lyons, and entered into that famous coners for the purpose of concerting with the federacy for dissolving the convention, which deputies from the districts, relative to the has since been distinguished by the name measures which the present critical state of of Federalism. On the twelfth of July the affairs seemed to render necessary. Suc- Marseillois issued a manifesto to the Frencia cors of men and of money were promised nation, in which they declared that the sitby all; and the archives of the capital of the uation of Paris was equivalent to the deckaGironde, in which the most zealous of their ration of war against the whole republic; partisans resided, are said to have contained and they urged the people to join their decrees of adhesion and support on the part standard, and assist in reducing the faction of seventy-two departments; but after the which had usurped the powers of the repassions of the people had subsided, few public. On the eighth of July the commitcould be prevailed upon to embark in so destee of public safety produced its report conperate a cause; and a civil war soon began cerning the imprisoned deputies of the conto appear odious and impolitic.
vention: it charged Brissot, Petion, and Wimpffen, the gallant defender of Thion- some others, with being the constant favorville, had been chosen as their leader, and ers of royalty; it alleged that they had conDe Puisaye was appointed adjutant-general. spired to place a new monarch on the throne, Conscious that the success of their plan de- some of them in the person of Louis Capet, pended chiefly on the celerity of their mo- and others in that of the duke of York; tions, the Girondists wished the troops to Petion was accused of having signed the begin their march immediately, and even order, on the tenth of August, to fire on the proposed to advance to the capital, where people from the Thuilleries; and Roland they knew that their friends were both nu- was accused in general terms of persecutmerous and formidable, at the head of the ing the republicans. On these charges the Britons and Normans alone; but the general, convention declared those who had fled from insisting on the advantages likely to ensue the decree of arrest traitors to their counfrom a delay that would enable him to in- try, and they were put out of the protection crease the number of their partisans, con- of the law. These outrageous proceedings. tented himself with dispersing proclama- on the part of the Mountain junto, produced tions; and, on being summoned to give an a reaction, which, in one memorable inaccount of his conduct by the faction that stance, was fatal to one of the most violent had assumed the reins of government, he re- of these incendiaries. A female, of the plied, that he would disclose his motives and name of Charlotte Cordé, enthusiastically intentions at the head of sixty thousand men. attached to the Gironde party, proceeded
On being pressed to advance directly to from Caen, in Normandy, to assassinate MaParis, without waiting for the arrival of the rat,—which she effected at the expense of departmental forces, Wimpffen. at length her own life. Marat was proclaimed a mar: marched towards Vemon, at the head of a tyr, and his death ordered to be lamented as small body of troops. The Jacobins, who an irreparable loss to the republic.
Reform Societies in Great Britain–Edinburgh Convention-Transportation of the
Secretary and two Delegates-French Affairs—Trial and Execution of Queen Marie Antoinette-The Port and Fleet of Toulon surrender to the English-Evacuation of Toulon-French Calendar-Extraordinary Efforts to Recruit the French Armies-- Operations on the Frontiers of France Meeting of Parliament-Augmentation of the Army and Navy-Motion against the War Message respecting Democratic Societies, and Suspension of the Habeas Corpus-State TrialsForeign Troops landed in the Isle of Wight-Augmentation of the Forces Voluntary Contributions in aid of the War—Enlistment of French EmigrantsSupply-M.la Fayette—Subsidy to PrussiaProrogation of Parliament—Changes in the Ministry-Military Operations on the Continent—Corsica annexed to the British Crown-Lord Howe's Victory--Other Naval Achievements-Capture of Martinique, St. Lucia, and Guadaloupe—Loss of the latter-Acquisitions in št. Domingo.
REFORM SOCIETIES IN GREAT BRITAIN.sary for the societies to act, in consequence
- EDINBURGH CONVENTION. -SECRE- of any measures of precaution or coercion TARY AND TWO MEMBERS TRANS- which the government might adopt; and PORTED.
they were fully prepared to carry their docSOCIETIES for promoting a reform in the trine of resistance into effect. When they house of coinmons were, at this period, ex- were thus emboldened, by their increased tremely active throughout the kingdom. In numbers, openly to avow their designs, the Scotland a party zealous for reform had government thought it time to interrupt projected what they termed a National Con- their proceedings. On the fifth and sixth vention; und in October 1793, a meeting of December the magistrates of Edinburgh was held in Edinburgh, which was attended repaired to two of the places of meeting, by delegates from the London Correspond- where they seized the papers, and took the ing Society, and from other societies of the secretary and some of the leading members same description in different parts of Eng-into custody. Three of these were afterland and Ireland. The London Correspond- wards brought to trial, William Skirving, ing Society restricted its delegates to the the secretary, and two of the delegates from obtaining, by lawful means, universal suf the London Corresponding Society, Maurice frage and annual parliaments; but it instruct- Margarot, and Joseph Gerald, before the ed them, at the same time, to enforce the duty High Court of Justiciary in Scotland, and, of the people to resist any act of the legis- being all found guilty, they were sentenced lature repugnant' to the original principles to be transported for fourteen years. of the constitution. The Edinburgh Con- FRENCH, AFFAIRS.—TRIAL AND EXECUvention foolishly adopted all the forms, names,
TION OF THE QUEEN. and proceedings of the French Jacobin Clubs, The Mountain party were now become with such difference and omissions only as the sole rulers of France. This dreadful their peculiar circumstances rendered neces- despotism was composed of two councils, sary. The members hailed each other by one of which was denominated the “Comthe republican denomination of Citizen; they mittee of Public Safety,' the other the Comdivided themselves into sections; appointed mittee of General Safety.' The members committees of organization, of instruction, ought to have been renewed every month ; of finance, of secrecy, and of emergency; but the convention had intrusted these comcalled their meetings, sittings; granted mittees with the power of imprisoning and honors of sittings; and dated their proceed-judging its members, and therefore no ings in the first year of the British Conven-deputy was hardy enough to propose a retion, one and indivisible. They at first as- newal of these committees. sumed the distinctive appellation of the The prevailing faction now proceeded to "General Convention of the Friends of the atrocities of which no former despotism afPeople,' but they afterwards took the name forded an example: its object appeared to of the British Convention of the Delegates be the extermination of all that was great of the People,' associated to obtain universal and valuable in society: it attempted to resuffrage and annual parliaments; they adopt- duce the community to one level—to degrade, ed means for assembling the delegates, ‘at that it might the more severely tyrannize any time when it should be deemed neces-lover, its victims : even moderation itself became a crime to be expiated only by death, out addressing herself either to her judges and virtue received the reward due to atro- or the audience. On the succeeding day, cious crimes. If the father afforded any the 16th, at about eleven o'clock, she was support to his exiled son, if the daughter taken to execution in the same manner as wrote to her mother from her dungeon, the the other victims of this dreadful tribunal: revolutionary tribunal doomed them to the she ascended the scaffold with a firm and scaffold. The external profession of the unhesitating step, and her behavior at the Christian religion was abolished by public awful moment of dissolution was decent and decree, and an attempt was made to substi- composed. Her body was interred like that tute for Christianity a sort of metaphysical of her husband, in a grave filled with quickpaganism. Those ecclesiastics who had lime. seats in the convention publicly abjured their PORT AND FLEET OF TOULON SURRENcreed, and were not ashamed to declare
DER TO THE BRITISH. that they had hitherto deceived the world: The people of Toulon, and the French the archbishop and clergy of Paris renounc- vice-admiral Trugoff, entered into a negoed the Christian religion, declaring that they tiation with the British admiral, lord Hood, owned no temple but the sanctuary of the who then commanded in the Mediterranean, laws, no God but Liberty, no gospel but the for the delivery of the port and fleet into the constitution : the revolutionary tribunal con- hands of the English, in trust for Louis the demned, without distinction and without in- seventeenth-a negotiation was completed, quiry, all the victims whom the tyrants and on the twenty-third of August a body marked out for destruction: proscriptions of men were landed from the English fleet, daily increased, and France was filled with who immediately took possession of Fort accusers, prisons, and executioners. The Malgue, by means of a detachment under number of persons who perished, during this captain Elphinstone, as well as of the batreign of terror, cannot be ascertained by teries at the mouth of the harbor. The any authentic documents; but the prisons French ships were warped into the inner were filled and emptied with a horrid ra- road, as stipulated; and, the Spanish admipidity, and the scaffolds flowed daily with ral having joined the British, the combined blood. The most distinguished victim was squadrons anchored in the outer road; after the ill-fated queen Marie Antoinette. On which one thousand Spaniards were sent on the first of August she was suddenly re- shore to augment the English garrison; rearmoved to the prison of the Conciergerie, admiral Goodall was declared governor, and where she was treated as the meanest rear-admiral Gravina commandant of the criminal; and, on the fifteenth of October, troops. The condition on which this valuashe appeared before the tribunal to take her ble arsenal was put into the hands of a Brittrial, or, to speak more correctly, to hear ish admiral was, that it was only to be conher doom pronounced. The act of accusa- sidered as a deposit to be preserved for the tion consisted of several charges, the prin- use of the French king, Louis the sevencipal of which stated that she had directed teenth, the inhabitants of Toulon declaring her views to a counter-revolution. One of their intention of rejecting the constitution the most singular of them was that, in con- proposed by the convention, and of adhering junction with the Gironde faction, she in- to that decreed by the constituent assembly duced the king and the assembly to declare of 1789. It was further stipulated, that, war against Austria, contrary to every prin- when peace should be re-established in ciple of sound policy and the public welfare; France, the ships and forts which should be but the last charge was the most infamous, put into the hands of the English, should be and the most incredible, viz. that, like Ag- restored to the French nation in the same rippina, she had held an incestuous com- state as when they were delivered. The merce with her own son. The unfortunate English immediately placed Toulon in a Marie Antoinette heard the accusation state of defence: the adjacent hills were with calmness, and, as she continued silent, crowned with redoubts; a new fort was conthe president called upon her for a reply, structed at Malbousquet; encampments were when with great dignity she answered, "I formed at St. Roch, at Equillete, and at held my peace because Nature forbids a Balaguier, the last of which was termed mother to reply to such a charge; but, since Little Gibraltar by the French. A detachI am compelled to it, I appeal to all the ment from the Spanish army in the Rouismothers who hear me whether it be possi- sillon, two thousand Sicilian troops, under ble.” Not one of the charges was proved; brigadier-general Pignatelli, and a detache but, after consulting for about an hour, the ment from the army of the king of Sardinia, jury found her guilty of the whole. With were sent to reinforce the garrison. an unchanged countenance she heard the
TOULON EVACUATED. sentence of death pronounced, and left the In November, general Dagobert was aphall without uttering a single word-with-pointed commander-in-chief of the besieging army; and Napoleon Buonaparte, a na-sinking, set fire to the powder-ships, and tive of Corsica, then a subaltern in the they, as well as the English, were foiled in artillery, by his able conduct in the siege, the attempt of cutting the boom, and delaid the foundation of that military fame and stroying the men-of-war in the basin, in conpower, which afterwards intimidated and sequence of repeated volleys of musketry oppressed the greater part of continental from the flag-ship and the wall of the royal Europe. About this period, lieutenant-gen- battery: the Hero and Themistocles were, eral O'Hara arrived at Toulon, as governor however, set on fire, and the party left for and commander-in-chief. He determined to this purpose, after a most desperate service, destroy the new works, termed the Conven- effected their retreat. By daylight next tion Battery, and to bring off the artillery; morning, all the British, Spanish, and Si and accordingly sent a detachment under cilian ships, crowded with the unfortunate the command of major-general David Dun- inhabitants, were out of the reach of the das, who, notwithstanding considerable dif- enemy's vengeance. Admiral Trugoff, on ficulties, surprised the redoubt, and fully ef-board the Commerce de Marseilles, with the fected all the objects of the sally; but the Puissant and Pompée, two other ships of troops, flushed with victory, rushed forward, the line, and the Pearl, Arethusa, and Toand descended the hill after the enemy, but paze frigates, with several corvettes, joined were obliged in their turn to retire with the English fleet, with which lord Hood proprecipitation. General O'Hara, on this oc- ceeded to Hieres Bay, and there he landed casion, received a wound in the arm, and the men, women, and children. Of thirtywas taken prisoner, with several other offi- one ships of the line which the English found cers, who fell into the hands of the enemy- at Toulon, thirteen were left behind, nine whose force amounted to nearly forty thou-were burnt there, one at Leghorn, and four sand men. On the other hand, the allied lord Hood had previously sent away to the troops, composed of five different nations French ports of Brest and Rochfort, with and languages, never exceeded twelve thou-five thousand republican seamen. Britain, sand rank and file. With these, now greatly therefore, obtained only three ships of the diminished by death and disease, a circum- line and five frigates, which were all that ference of fifteen miles, for the defence of the admiral was able to take off. the town and harbor, was to be occupied and Thus Toulon was restored to France. defended by means of eight principal and Here, as well as at Marseilles and Lyons, several intermediate posts, which alone re- the most cruel punishments were inflicted quired nearly nine thousand men. The on the royalists; and the conquerors sullieu French opened two new batteries on Fort their victory by a terrible and indiscriminate Mulgrave, and stormed the fortification by carnage: workmen were actually invited that side which was defended by the Span- from all the neighboring departments to deiards. Another attack took place on all the stroy the principal houses-the population posts of Mount Faron, that overlooks Tou- became visibly decreased by the daily butchlon, which they occupied.
ery that took place—the name of Port de As the enemy now commanded the town, la Montaigne was substituted for that of as well as some of the ships, by their shot Toulon—and a grand festival decreed in and shells, it became necessary that a re- honor of the French army. treat should take place as speedily as possi- FRENCH CALENDAR--EXTRAORDINARY ble. Lord Hood accordingly gave orders EFFORTS TO RECRUIT THE ARMIES.for the boats of the fleet to assemble by OPERATIONS ON THE FRONTIERS. eleven o'clock near Fort. Malgue for that The faction in power at this period, bepurpose. He had also settled a plan for de- ing desirous of effecting the abolition of stroying all the French men-of-war and the Christian observances, the convention dearsenal. That service was intrusted to Sir creed a new calendar, by which the year Sidney Smith, who, on entering the dock- was divided into twelve months, of thirty yard, found that the artificers had already days each, with five intercalary days, which substituted the three-colored cockade for the were dedicated to national festivities: each white one, and that about six hundred gal- month was divided into decades, and the day ley-slaves, who had broken their fetters, of rest was appointed for every tenth day, would have made a determined resistance, instead of every seventh. had he not pointed the guns of 'two vessels, All Frenchmen were now declared, by a to keep them in awe. After this he set fire solemn decree of the convention, to be at to ten ships of the line, to the arsenal, to the the service of their country, until its enemies mast-house, to the great store-house, and should be chased from the territories of the other buildings; but the calmness of the republic. To supply the wants of the imevening prevented much of the effect ex- mense armies now about to be collected from pected from the conflagration. In the mean all quarters, measures of a new and extratime, the Spaniards, instead of scuttling and ordinary kind were adopted. Assignats were not only fabricated and expended in im- which had manifested a disposition to take mense quantities, but when this resource part with the French, was overawed by the began to fail, revolutionary taxes were im- English fleet; and the duke of Tuscany posed. The system of requisition was at was induced, by the representations of the length recurred to, and all the necessaries British minister, to declare against France. of life appertaining to citizens in easy cir- MEETING OF PARLIAMENT. cumstances, were seized upon in the name 1794.-PARLIAMENT assembled on the of the republic, and for the support of its twenty-first of January, 1794. The king, in troops; while the great cities were crowded his speech, having mentioned the advanwith manufactures of saltpetre, the towns tages obtained by the arms of the confedwere converted into foundries, and the an- erate powers, added, that the circumstances cient palaces metamorphosed into arsenals. by which their further progress had been At the very moment that the idea of a na- impeded not only proved the necessity of tion's rising en masse was ridiculed through- vigor and perseverance, but confirmed the out Europe, the convention, on the proposi- expectation of ultimate success. Their enetion of the committee of public safety, had mies had derived the means of temporary either augmented or created eleven distinct exertion from a system which had enabled armies, which seemed to form a chain round them to dispose arbitrarily of the lives and the frontiers of France. All the unmarried property of a numerous people ; but these males, from eighteen to forty years of age, efforts, productive as they had been of inwere put in permanent requisition, and a ternal discontent and confusion, tended rap draught of three hundred thousand made at idly to exhaust the national and real strength one time. These immense resources enabled of the country. He regretted the necessity them to strengthen and new-model the army of continuing the war, but he thought he of the north, extending from Dunkrik to should ill consult the essential interests of Maubeuge; that of the Ardennes, reaching his people if he desired peace on any from Mauoeuge to Longwy; that of the grounds exclusive of a due provision for Moselle, from Longwy to Bitche; that of their permanent safety, and for the indethe Rhine, from Bitche to Porentrui; that pendence and security of Europe. An of the Alps, from the Aisne to the borders amendment to the address was moved by of the Var; that of Italy, from the Mari- the earl of Guildford, who wished for a time Alps to the mouth of the Rhone; the speedy negotiation, as we had rushed into army of the Oriental Pyrenees, from the war without necessity; but the duke of mouth of the Rhone to the Garonne; the Portland justified the war as strictly defenarmy of the Western Pyrenees, from the sive, and as necessary for the preservation department of the Upper Pyrenees to the of the Christian religion, political and civil mouth of the Gironde; the army of the coast liberty, law, and order. On a division, the of Rochelle, from the mouth of the Gironde address was carried by ninety-seven against to that of the Loire; the army of the coasts twelve. In the commons the address was of Brest, from the mouth of the Loire to St. moved by lord Clifden, to which Fox proMaloes; and, lastly, that of the coasts of posed an amendment, recommending to his Cherbourg, from St. Maloes to the northern majesty to treat for a peace with France department.
upon safe and honorable terms, without any The allies under the duke of Brunswick reference to its existing form of governand general Wurmser were for some time ment. After a warm debate, which was provictorious on the banks of the Rhine, but in tracted to a late hour, the address was carNovember the French had become so much ried by two hundred and seventy-seven superior in number that they were always against fifty-nine. able to out-flank their opponents. Wurmser, AUGMENTATION OF THE ARMY AND foiled in an attempt to gain possession of NAVY.-DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES.-SUS. Strasburg, retired Haguenau, where the PENSION OF HABEAS CORPUS ACT. French, after repeated attacks, obliged the LORD ARDEN moved for a supply of eightyAustrians to retire across the Rhine. The five thousand seamen, including twelve thouPrussians afterwards relinquished the siege sand one hundred and fifteen marines, for of Landau, and the duke of Brunswick went the service of the present year, and, on the into winter-quarters at Mentz. On the third of the following month, he further Spanish border various actions took place moved that the land forces should consist of between the troops of Spain and France, in sixty thousand two hundred and forty-four which the former were successful; but the men, including three thousand three hunwar in this quarter was of very subordinate dred and eighty-two invalids, both of which importance. In Italy the county of Nice motions were carried. was the scene of some actions between the On the twelfth of May a message was deSardinian and French troops, which were livered from his majesty to the two houses generally favorable to the former ; Genoa, Iof parliament, referring to the seditious