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abandoned to the republicans, who again oc- powerful armament now under his command cupied the cities of Worms, Spire, and left no doubt relative to the result of a conTreves. In Spain and Italy also the armies test. On reaching the Lizard a signal was of the republic were successful. In Novem- made for the East-Indiamen to proceed on ber 1793, they penetrated into the province their voyage, under convoy of six sail of the of Catalonia; and, in the beginning of Feb-line and a frigate, which were not to separuary following a battle was fought near St. rate from them until their arrival off Cape Jean de Luz, in which the French were Finisterre. Having received information on conquerors. In May another victory was the nineteenth of May that the Brest fleet gained near Ceret; and soon afterwards a was at sea, lord Howe deemed it proper to third, of more importance than the former effect a junction with the squadron lately two, over the principal Spanish army, posted detached under rear-admiral Montague to in the vicinity of Collioure. On the west- refit and water; but on hearing, two days ern side the towns of Fontarabia and St. after, that the enemy had been seen a few Sebastian fell into the hands of the French. leagues further to the westward, he immeIn Italy the Piedmontese had, at the com- diately altered his course and steered tomand of the Sardinian monarch, risen in a wards them. mass; but, being destitute of the enthusiasm

LORD HOWE'S VICTORY. of liberty, they constituted a body without JEAN Bon St. ANDRE, who had been ema soul. The French forced the famous pass ployed at Brest to infuse a spirit of democof Mount Cenis, took possession of the city racy into the seamen, acted on this occasion and territory of Oneglia, and made them- as a national commissioner, having embarkselves masters of a great part of the open ed on board the flag-ship, carrying one huncountry of that district.

dred and twenty guns, and designated La CORSICA ANNEXED TO THE BRITISH Montagne, after the ruling party in the ConCROWN.

vention. On the twenty-eighth of May, at In the Mediterranean the progress of the eight o'clock in the morning, in north latiEnglish arms, subsequently to the evacua-tude 47° 33', W. Long. 14° 10', the rival tion of Toulon, was very flattering. Early fleets descried each other exactly at the in February 1794, lord Hood proceeded for same time; the wind blew strong from the Corsica, which was in a state of revolt south-west, accompanied by a very rough against the convention, the insurgents hav- sea, and the French possessed the weathering been excited to this resistance by the gage. After the advanced frigates han English influence, under the conduct of their given intimation of this event, earl Howe ancient and popular chief, Paschal Paoli, who continued his course, while the French adhad been some years since restored to his miral endeavored as much as possible to ascountry with honor by the Constituent As- sume a regular order of battle upon the starsembly. Mortella, Tornelli

, and St. Fioren- board tack, a circumstance which greatly za, being successively surrendered or evacu- facilitated the approach of the English. As ated, the Corsicans who adhered to the the conduct of the enemy, who had now French interest retreated to Bastia, which hauled their wind, indicated an intention to resisted the united efforts of the Anglo-Cor- avoid a close fight, the British commander sicans and English till the twenty-fourth of displayed the signal for a general chase, and, May, when it capitulated on honorable terms; to prevent their escape, he soon after de. and the whole island, excepting Calvi, which tached rear-admiral Pasley, with a flying held out till August, submitted to the Eng- squadron, to make an impression on their lish. Letters of convocation were immedi- rear: that officer accordingly, near the close ately issued for the assembly of the general of the day, attacked the Revolutionnaire, a Consulta, to be held at Corte, the ancient three-decked ship of one hundred and ten capital of Corsica, on Sunday, the eighth of guns, which happened to be the sternmost June: general Paoli was elected president. in the line, but without any decisive sucThe representatives of the Corsican nation cess on either side. The rival fleets, conimmediately voted the union of Corsica with sisting of twenty-six sail of the line on the the British crown; a constitutional act was part of the French, and twenty-five on that framed accordingly;

and Sir Gilbert Elliot, of the British, remained within sight of each representative of his Britannic majesty, form- other during the whole night, on the starally accepted this act on his part, and imme-board tack, and in a parallel direction, with diately assumed the title of viceroy. the French still to windward; but next

The Channel fleet put to sea in the spring morning, the twenty-ninth, admiral Villaretin search of an enemy which had hitherto Joyeuse, flushed with the hopes of a victory, eluded pursuit. Lord Howe was particular- wore from van to rear, and instead of Ainchly solicitous to vindicate the honor of his ing from the action, edged down in a line country, as well as to rescue his own char- ahead to engage the van of the British feet. acter from unmerited reproach ; and the Taking advantage of so favorable an opportunity, lord Howe renewed the signal for ageable, having lost her foretopmast in the passing the enemy's line, and succeeded with action; this was soon after followed by the some difficulty in obtaining the weather- maintopmast, which fell over the side ; gage, while the enemy were repulsed by while the Brunswick, which had lost ber the Barfleur, and two other three-deckers, mizenmast, and the Queen, also disabled, in an attempt to cut off the Queen and drifted to leeward, and were exposed to conRoyal George. At length Villaret tacked siderable danger from the retreating fleet. again by signal; and, after a distant can- Two eighty, and five seventy-four gun ships, nonade, stood away in order of battle on the however, still remained in possession of the larboard tack, followed by the whole of the victors; but one of the latter, La Vengeur, British fleet. The second day's action proved went down soon after she was taken possesequally indecisive as the former, and a thick sion of, and, though many of the French fog, that intervened during this night and were saved on this occasion by the humanity the greater part of the succeeding day, pre- of their adversaries, above three hundred vented the renewal of the engagement. In went to the bottom. The slaughter on board the mean time, rear-admiral Neilly joined the French fleet was so great, that in the the French commander-in-chief with a re- captured ships alone it amounted to one inforcement of three sail of the line and two thousand two hundred and seventy. The frigates: this accession of strength enabled British total loss was nine hundred and four. him to detach his crippled ships; and the Admiral Montague, who had repaired to' dawn of the successive day exhibited the England, was immediately dispatched to join two fleets drawn up in order of battle, and earl Howe, and sailed for Brest, partly with prepared to renew the contest. The British a view to fall in with the commander-inadmiral, perceiving that there was time suf- chief, and partly to pick up any crippled ficient for the various ships' companies to ships, which, in case of an action, might take refreshment, made a signal for break- take shelter in that port: he accordingly enfast, which, by procrastinating the action, countered some of the retreating squadron, induced the enemy to believe that their an- and chased them into the outer road. On tagonists wished to decline the engagement: the succeeding day he descried the main but they were greatly disappointed; for in body under Vìllaret-Joyeuse ; but, notwithabout half an hour lord Howe gave orders standing the late fatal conflict, that comfor steering the Royal Charlotte alongside mander formed an admirable line of battle, the French admiral, which was effected at and gave chase; while the feet from Amernine o'clock in the morning; and, while ica, consisting of one hundred and sixty sail some of the English commanders penetrated of merchantmen, supposed to be worth sevthe line of battle, and engaged to leeward, eral millions sterling, but invaluable on acothers occupied such stations as allowed count of the distressed state of France, arthem to combat with their antagonists to rived in safety on the twelfth of June. windward. So close and severe was the The victory of the first of June confercontest, that the fate of this day depended red great glory on the admiral, and was rebut little on the exertion of nautical skill: ceived at home with uncommon rejoicing. all was hard fighting. In about fifty min- Large sums of money were subscribed for utes after the action had commenced in the the benefit of the widows and children of centre, admiral Villaret-Joyeuse determined those killed in action. Rear-admirals Bowto relinquish the contest: for he now per- yer and Pasley were created baronets, and ceived several of his ships dismasted, and received a pension of one thousand pounds one of seventy-four guns about to sink; he each per annum. Admirals Graves and Sir at the same time found that six were cap- Alexander Hood had the honors of the peertured: a great slaughter had also taken age conferred on them. Earl Howe was preplace on board his own vessel, in which his sented with a diamond-hilted sword of great captain and many of the crew were killed, value, by the king in person, on board the while the national commissioner, with most Queen Charlotte, at Spithead; and also with of his officers, were wounded: he accord- a golden chain, to which was sospended a ingly crowded off with all the canvas he medal, with Victory crowning Britannia on could spread, and was immediately followed the ob se, and on the reverse a wreath of by most of the ships in his van that were oak and laurel, encircling his lordship's not completely crippled: two or three of name, and the date of the action. In De-' these, although dismantled, also got away cember 1796, his majesty was also pleased soon after, under a temporary sail hoisted on to transmit gold chains and medals to the the occasion; for the enemy had, as usual, (flag-officers and captains, who were reported chiefly aimed at the rigging, and the victors by Lord Howe to have signalized themwere by this time disabled from pursuing selves during the battle with the French the vanquished: the Queen Charlotte, in ieet. particular, was at this period nearly unman- On the twenty-third of April, Sir John

Borlase Warren captured two French frig- encies, reverted to its former possessora, ates off Guernsey, after two hours' fighting. Not long after the loss of the island, the In August he pursued five other French brave captain Faulknor, who had so emiships of war off Scilly, and, driving two of nently contributed to the reduction of Marthem under the batteries of the Gamelle tinico, lost his life in an engagement with a rocks, would have proceeded to burn them; frigate near Marie-Galente. More than sevbut, with a generosity worthy of his cour-enty men are said to have been killed in age, abstained from the last rigors of war the French vessel, and above one hundred against an unfortunate enemy, whose wound wounded; while only twenty-nine sufferedi ed must have perished had he set their ves in the victorious ship. sels on fire.

ACQUISITIONS IN ST. DOMINGO. CAPTURE OF MARTINIQUE, &c. St. DOMINGO, in a remarkable degree, had THE British government prepared a for- suffered the mischievous effects of the midable armament to act against the colo- French revolution. When the people in the nies of France in the West Indies. On the mother country asserted their right to freethird of November, 1793, this expedition dom, the claims of the colonial subjects of sailed; the land forces consisted of about France were also recognized;

and a society, six thousand troops, under the command of called Les Amis des Noirs, (Friends of the Sir Charles Grey; and the naval armament, Negroes,) warmly supported the pretensions consisting of four ships of war, nine frigates, of the slaves to emancipation, and of the a bomb-ketch, a few gun-boats, and several mulattoes to all the privileges enjoyed by store-ships, under Sir John Jervis. Having the white inhabitants. The declaration or rendezvoused in Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, rights promulgated by the National Assemthey sailed on the third of February, 1794, bly increased the ferment which the first into the attack of Martinico, which surrender-telligence of the revolution had produced in ed, after a resolute resistance of seven the islands; and violent disturbances and weeks. Fort Royal was carried by escalade, contests were apprehended. Deputies from with extraordinary exertions of valor, par- the different districts of the French part of ticularly on the part of captain Faulknor, of St. Domingo met, by the king's order, to the Zebra, who entered the harbor through prevent tumults and reform abuses; but the fire of all the batteries, and laid his sloop their endeavors were opposed by the partialongside the walls, which he scaled in de- sans of the old régime, and the governor fiance of repeated volleys of grape-shot. As dissolved the Assembly. Many of the represoon as the reduction of Martinico had been sentatives sailed to France to justify their effected, the troops were reimbarked, and conduct; and, during their absence, Ogé, landed on the island of St. Lucia, which ca- an enterprising mulatto, found means to expitulated on the fourth of April; and upon cite an insurrection ; but it was quickly supthe eleventh of the same month the fleet pressed, and his life was sacrificed to public and army arrived off Guadaloupe, which, af-justice. The claims of his brethren, howter a short but brave defence, surrendered, ever, were confirmed by a decree of the with its dependencies, on the twentieth. ruling assembly of the parent state, which After these glorious successes Sir Charles admitted them to all the privileges of French Grey returned to Martinico, leaving general citizens, on the fifteenth of May, 1791. Dundas to command at Guadaloupe. About When a new colonial assembly deliberated this time a French squadron appeared off on the conduct which prudence required at the island, from which a body of troops land- this crisis, the slaves in the neighborhood of ing under the command of a most daring Cape François attacked the whites, murderand skilful leader, Victor Hugues, attacked ed a great number of them, and destroyed Fort Fleur d'Epée, which they carried by the plantations. The insurrection soon storm; and the English retreated with con- spread to other districts; and though many siderable loss to Fort Louis : this was also hundreds of the negroes and their confedsoon evacuated, and the troops, shattered erates were slain in battle or perished by and disheartened, took refuge in Basseterre. famine, they seemed to multiply like the Sir Charles Grey, on the first intelligence heads of the hydra. Commissioners were of this attempt, sailed from St. Kitt's with sent from France to heal the disorders of all the force he could collect, and, landing the colony; but they produced, by their mison the island of Guadaloupe, on the nine- conduct, a civil war among the whites, and teenth of June, made an attempt on the post invited to their aid a body of rebel negroes, of Point-à-Petre on the second of July. who perpetrated a horrible series of massaAfter great efforts of valor, however, he was cres at Cape François, and in June, 1793, repulsed, with the loss of six hundred men. burnt the greater part of the town. Upon this the forces were reimbarked, and The convulsions of the colony induced Basseterre, after a long and vigorous resist- many of the planters to solicit succor from ance, with the whole island and its depend-/ the British government; and major-general

Williamson was ordered to detach an arma- 1794. The fort of Acul was stormed by the ment from Jamaica, to take possession of English ; but at Bombard they were repelled those settlements which the people might with loss. They defended Cape Tiburon be disposed to surrender. Lieutenant-colo- against an army of blacks and mulattoes, nel Whitelocke sailed in consequence to who were routed with considerable slaughJeremie, and received the submission of the ter. The arrival of a reinforcement from inhabitants ; the town and harbor of St. Nic- Great Britain, under brigadier-general olas were also given up to the English; and Whyte, elevated the hopes of the English, to these possessions Leogane, and other and preparations were made for the contowns and districts, were soon added. An quest of Port-au-Prince. Fort Bizotton was expedition was undertaken for the reduction taken at the point of the bayonet. The unof Cape Tiburon ; and a bribe was offered healthiness of the climate now occasioned a to general Lavaux for the surrender of Port great mortality among the troops, and checkde Paix. The enterprise succeeded, and the ed the extension of their conquests : they town was taken on the second of February, soon after lost Leogane and Tiburon.

CHAPTER XXVII.

State of the French Government-Sanguinary ProceedingsProgress of the French

in Holland--Escape of the Stadtholder-Embassy to ChinaSweden and Denmark - Disputes with America-Meeting of Parliament-ProceedingsEarl Fitzwilliam, lord-lieutenant of Ireland, recalled, and consequent discontents of the Catholics

- Marriage of the Prince of WalesArrangement respecting his Debts-Acquittal of Warren HastingsProrogation of Parliament-Naval Affairs- Occurrences in the West IndiesThe French Government concludes Peace with Prussia, Spain, Hanover, Hesse, &-c.- Operations in La Vendée, and unsuccessful result of an Expedition to Quiberon BayInsurrection in Paris-Death of the DauphinNew French Constitution-Return of the English Army from the Continent-Hostile Operations on the Rhine-War between England and Holland-Capture of the Cape of Good Hope, and other Dutch Settlements-Unpopularity of the War-Outrage against the KingAddress in consequenceSpeech from the Throne-Address Bills against Treason and Sedition-Scarcity of Corn-SuppliesBirth of Princess Charlotte-Dissolution of Parliament.

STATE OF FRENCH GOVERNMENT- | fact alleged against her; she was, never

SANGUINARY PROCEEDINGS. theless, condemned to death, with twentyIn France a faction arose denominated four of her reputed accomplices. the Cordeliers, at the head of which were Barrere brought forward the infamous deHebert, Ronsin, Anacharsis Clootz, and cree for allowing no quarter to the English others, who, to conciliate the populace, or Hanoverian troops; but the French offiadopted the wildest theories, decried all re- cers and soldiery refused to execute this ligion, preached equality in the absurdest ex- abominable mandate, and the commander- . tent, and recommended publicly an Agra- in-chief of the British forces declined to rerian law. In the beginning of March, the taliate the threatened cruelty. table of the rights of man, in the hall of Bourdon de L'Oise, a member of the conthe Cordeliers, was covered with black ventional assembly, demanded that the decrape; and Hebert, from the tribune of the cree which affirmed the inviolability of the society, affirmed that tyranny existed in the national representatives should be again esrepublic. This was sufficient to arouse the tablished, and that no member should be jealousy of Robespierre. Virtue and ferocity brought before the revolutionary tribunal were declared in the convention, by Couthon, but in consequence of a decree of accusato be the requisite order of the day. On the tion passed by the assembly itself, instead twenty-fifth of March, Hebert, Danton, and of an order from the committee of safety, nineteen others, were, on a charge of con- where Robespierre, and the vile instruments spiracy against the constitution, brought be of his tyranny, Couthon and St. Just, were fore the revolutionary tribunal, and, of course, absolute. This was accordingly decreed, condemned to the guillotine. These exe- and from this time the party formed against cutions were followed by those of Fabre Robespierre rapidly increased; even his d'Eglantine, and other popular deputies of celebrated colleague, Barrere, took a secret, the Convention, on pretence of their having though efficient part, in plotting his overengaged in counter-revolutionary projects. throw. Robespierre was not suffered to It deserves notice that St. Just, in the re- speak in his own defence; and Tallien moved port presented on this occasion, makes the that Robespierre and his creatures be improfession of atheism a principal charge mediately arrested: they were soon after against Fabre d'Eglantine. The execution of outlawed by the convention. These moDanton and his fellow-sufferers, who fell tions were passed amidst tumults of apunder the fatal ax of the guillotine on the plause; and on the evening of the same day, second of April, was followed by that of July twenty-eighth, the proscribed individgeneral Arthur Dillon, who had formerly uals, to the number of twenty-one, were execommanded that division of the French ar-cuted in the Place de Revolution : Robes. my which, in the campaign of 1792, had so pierre appeared to be petrified with horror. gallantly repulsed the Prussians. The prin- After his fall the Jacobin club was encess Elizabeth, sister to Louis XVI. was tirely demolished; the remains of the Girondcharged with having conspired to restore ist party were restored to their seats in the royalty: not a witness was produced, nor a convention; and Dumas president of the single attempt made to substantiate any one revolutionary tribunal, Fouquier Tinville,

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