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scenes of horror that had so often been ex-government, in all its departments, entered hibited during the revolution: by the first upon the active exercise of its functions, of these decrees, passed on the fifth Fructi- and the palace of the Luxembourg was apdor (August the twenty-second), it was en- pointed for the residence of the executive acted that the elective bodies should, in ap- power. pointing the deputies to the legislative body, RETURN OF THE ENGLISH ARMY FROM choose two-thirds from among the members THE CONTINENT-OPERATIONS ON of the present convention; and, by the sec- THE RHINE. ond, that, in default of such election, the THE English army, under the command convention should fill up the vacancies them- of general Sir Ralph Abercrombie, pursued selves. The forty-eight sections of Paris, by a far superior force, moved towards the while they unanimously accepted the con- German frontier; and on the twelfth of Febstitutional act, firmly rejected the law for the ruary they crossed the Ems at Rheine, much re-election of the two-thirds, and proceeded harassed by the advanced parties of the ento acts of open hostility. On the fourth of emy. At Groningen the division commandOctober, the sections, having drawn out their ed by lord Cathcart was refused admission; forces, marched them to the hall of the con- but, after a long series of disasters, the shatvention, and a sanguinary battle took place tered remains of this fine body of troops, in the streets. The command of the troops supposed, at their departure from England, was confided to Barras by the convention; to amount to thirty-five thousand men, now and on this occasion Napoleon Buonaparte reduced to about a fifth part of that number, first distinguished himself
, as a commander, reached the city of Bremen on the twentyon that stage on which he afterwards became seventh and twenty-eighth of March, and so prominent an actor. The different ave- soon afterwards embarked on board the nues of the Thuilleries being planted with transports lying ready to receive them in the cannon, great slaughter was made among Elbe for England. the insurgents, who were driven from ali The allied powers were not in a situation their posts, with the loss of about eight hun- to take the field till the month of May; and dred men; and the convention, now triumph- it was not till the seventh of June that the ant, declared the majority of votes in the fortress of Luxembourg was attacked by the departments in favor of the law of the fifth French troops. After its surrender, nothing of Fructidor. On the thirtieth of Septem- seemed wanting to complete the glory of ber the convention solemnly decreed the the French arms, and to secure their recent incorporation with the republic of France acquisitions, but the subjection of Mentz, of all the countries which the house of Aus- which had then been fruitlessly besieged for tria, previously to the war, had possessed on several months,—the Austrians, commanded the French side of the Rhine : on the twen- by generals Clairfait and Wurmser, mainty-seventh of October it was decreed that taining an uninterrupted intercourse with the punishment of death should be abolished the garrison from Cassel, on the opposite at the peace, and a general amnesty grant- bank. It being at length perceived that the ed; and the president, then rising, said, city could not be reduced until a perfect in“ The convention is dissolved!” The mem- vestment was formed, a large body of the bers of the new legislature proceeded to the French troops, under Jourdan, passed the choice of the directory, and the election fell Rhine at Dusseldorf, which surrendered upon men not distinguished as favorites of without resistance, the Austrians retiring to the people, but most of whom bore charac- a strong position on the Lahn. Another ters free from reproach. At the head of the body, commanded by Pichegru, effected the list stood Reveillere Lepaux, a lawyer by passage of the river at Manheim, of which profession, and of the Gironde party: the city they took immediate possession, on next was Reubel, a moderate man, also an terms very favorable to the inhabitants. attorney : Letourneur de la Marche, an offi- The investment of Mentz was thus at last cer of engineers, and rather more attached accomplished, and a confident hope was ento the Mountain party, was the third : the tertained of its speedy capitulation; but a fourth was Barras, formerly a viscount, a sol- division of Pichegru's army, being ordered dier by profession, and a man of pleasure in to the attack of a post necessary to prevent habits : Sieyes, the subtle statesman, was at the junction of the forces of Clairfait and first nominated as the fifth, but he declined Wurmser, now marching to the relief of the office; and Carnot, a member of the Mentz, was overpowered, and compelled to coinmittee of safety under Robespierre, but retreat with precipitation to Manheim; and who had attended almost exclusively to the Jourdan, thus deprived of the expected cobusiness of the military department, and operation of Pichegru, found his position no of whom it was said, “ that he organized longer tenable. The Austrians also had Victory, and rendered her permanent,” filled taken part of his heavy artillery: Jourdan up the number. Thus constituted, the new was therefore obliged to raise the siege, and he repassed the Rhine at Dusseldorf, much other Dutch settlements in Ceylon, Malacharassed by Clairfait in his retreat. The ca, situated on the peninsula of that name; Austrians even pursued the enemy across Chinsura, in the Bay of Bengal, and Cochin, the river, and beat up the quarters of the on the coast of Malabar, were taken by the French, spreading terror over the country British forces. as far as Luxembourg. General Wurmser, Early in 1795, lord Amherst retiring from on the other side, proceeded to the attack public life, the duke of York was appointed of Manheim. He immediately began a commander-in-chief and field-marshal genbombardment, which in a short time de- eral of the forces of Great Britain ; the duke stroyed the principal buildings of that beau- of Richmond was removed from his post of tiful city, reducing it to a scene of desola- master of the ordnance, in which he was tion; and the garrison surrendered them- succeeded by earl, recently created marquis selves prisoners of war. The campaign Cornwallis; and Sir William Howe was was at length terminated by an armistice of nominated, in the place of the latter noblethree months.
man, governor and lieutenant of the tower WAR WITH HOLLAND.—CAPTURE OF of London.
THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, &c. UNPOPULARITY OF THE WAR.-OUTRAGE FRANCE having entered into an offensive AGAINST THE KING.–ADDRESS. and defensive alliance with Holland, a proc- A SPIRIT of discontent pervaded the counlamation was issued by the British govern- try at this period, and petitions for peace ment, on the nineteenth of January, con- from London, York, Norwich, Hull, Mantaining peremptory orders to seize whatever chester, &c. were presented; but they were Dutch vessels were found in the ports of not sufficiently general to produce any maGreat Britain; in consequence of which five terial impression, and their influence was ships of war were_secured, lying in Ply-counteracted by other petitions, expressive mouth Sound, nine East-Indiamen, and about of a reliance in the wisdom of government, sixty sail of other vessels. On the ninth of and in their readiness to enter upon negotiaFebruary a third proclamation was publish- tions for peace whenever the proper period ed, authorizing the capture of all Dutch ships should arrive. In the autumn great appreand property;
and letters of marque and re- hensions were excited by large assemblages prisal were also, after an interval of some of the populace, convened by the Corresmonths, granted; so that war against Hol- ponding Secretary, which still continued its land was virtually declared; and before the meetings; and on the twenty-sixth of Octoend of the summer, the famous settlement ber not less than forty thousand persons asof the Cape of Good Hope surrendered with sembled in a field near Copenhagen house, little resistance. The conduct of the expe- in the vicinity of the metropolis
, for the purdition was intrusted to vice-admiral Sir pose of voting a number of resolutions exGeorge Keith Elphinstone and general Sir pressive of their views of the measures of Alured Clarke. On the fourteenth of July government; and a petition, praying that the a landing was effected at Simons-Town, and bill recently introduced into the house for possession obtained of that place, which had the restriction, or rather the utter prevenbeen previously evacuated, with the suppos- tion of popular assemblies, for the purpose ed intention of being burnt. The troops, of political investigation, might be dismissadvancing towards the Cape-Town, carried ed with that marked disapprobation it so the strong post of Muysenberg, where gen- justly deserved. To increase the agitations eral Craig waited for a reinforcement from produced by the conflicts of parties, a scarSt. Salvador. After some weeks of inaction, city, arising almost to famine, prevailed an attempt to surprise the most considerable throughout the kingdom. This scarcity was of the out-posts failed; and, though the Eng- occasioned (in part, at least) by an alarming lish repelled a fierce attack, their efforts did deficiency in the year's crop, which had sufnot deter their adversaries from preparing fered extremely by incessant rains. The for a general engagement. At this crisis, state of the nation from these circumstances the appearance of the expected reinforce appeared so critical, that it was judged exment checked the eagerness of the enemy: pedient to assemble parliament at an earlier the government proposed a cessation of hos period than usual. tilities, and terms of capitulation were ad- On the twenty-ninth of October, the day justed on the sixteenth of September, by fixed for the meeting, an unusual concourse which it was agreed that the troops in gar- of people assembled in the Park; and, as his rison should be prisoners of war, and that majesty passed to the house, violent exclathe property of the Dutch East India com- mations were heard of “ Peace! Bread : No pany should be delivered up to the captors Pitt! No war!” The clamor increasing, of the settlement; but private possessions stones were thrown at the royal carriage as and civil rights were left inviolate. In the it proceeded through the streets of Westcourse of the year, Trincomalé, Columbo, and minster; and from a house near the Abbey
a bullet was supposed to be discharged from taken, without delay, for discovering the an air-gun, as no noise was heard, though authors and abettors of crimes so atrocious. something passed through the glass of the KING'S SPEECH-BILLS AGAINST TREA coach with great force and velocity. On
SON. entering the house of peers his majesty, in In the speech from the throne the king some perturbation, addressing the lord chan- expressed his satisfaction at the improved cellor, said, “ My lord, I have been shot at.” | state of public affairs, arising from the meaThe rage of the misguided populace was sures which had been adopted for preventnot yet exhausted; for, on his return from ing the invasion of Italy and Germany by the house, the king was again assailed in the the French; the crisis brought about by the Park; and to such a pitch did the mob carry prevalence of anarchy at Paris was repretheir resentment, that one party of them at- sented as likely to produce consequences tacked and nearly demolished the state car- highly important to the interests of Europe ; riage as it returned empty from St. James's; and, should that crisis terminate in any order while another attempted to stop the private of things affording a reasonable expectation carriage of the king, in which he had seat- of security and permanence in any treaty ed himself for the purpose of joining his which might be concluded, the appearance family at the queen's house, and even to of a wish to negotiate for a general peace force open the carriage doors. At this crit- on just and suitable terms would not fail to ical moment the arrival of a party of the be met by the king with an earnest desire to life-guards dispersed the populace, and the give it the fullest and speediest effect. The king, with great difficulty, reached the speech notified that treaties of defensive alqueen's house. So gross an outrage as this liance had been concluded with the two imhad never been offered to any other monarch perial courts, and that a commercial treaty of Great Britain since the days of Charles had been ratified with America. The adthe first. A reward of one thousand pounds dress having been proposed by lord Dalkeith, was immediately offered, to be paid on con- Fox moved an amendment asserting the abilviction of any person concerned in this da- ity of the French government to maintain ring and criminal assault; but no one who the accustomed relations of peace and amity had been guilty of any actual violence was with other nations, and praying his majesty ever discovered. The only person brought to give directions to his ministers to ofler to punishment was Kidd Wake, a journey- such terms to the French republic as would man printer, who was found to have been be consistent with the honor of his crown, among the hissers and disturbers of the and with the security and interests of his king's peace, of which crime he was con- people. But the amendment was negatived victed, and sentenced to five years' solitary by a large majority. confinement in the penitentiary-house at Two bills were brought into parliament, Gloucester, and to stand in the pillory. one “ for the safety and preservation of his
The outrage committed upon the sover- majesty's government against treasonable eign excited great consternation in the house and seditious practices and attempts," and of lords; and, as soon as the king withdrew, the other " for the more effectually preventthe ministers had a short consultation as to ing seditious meetings and assemblies." the proper mode of proceeding on so extraor- These bills had for their object the restriedinary an occasion. It was at length determin- tion of the right hitherto possessed by the ed to postpone the consideration of the speech people of assembling for the purposes of pefrom the throne to the following day, and im-titioning the crown and legislature, and of mediately to form the house into a commit- discussing political subjects: they materially tee of privileges. This being done, lord Gren- extended the law of high treason, and agville apprized the peers of the attack which gravated the punishment of sedition; and the king had sustained on his way to the were warmly opposed in each step of their house. Some witnesses were next exam- passage through both houses, as violent and ined, who proved that, after the royal car- unnecessary encroachments on the privileges riage had passed the gate-way at the horse- granted by the constitution; but were carguards, there were frequent exclamations ried by more than the usual majority, such of “ Down with George! No King!” and was the impression made by the intempermany stones were thrown at the coach by ate proceeding which had taken place. the mob. When all the facts had been es- Their duration, however, was limited to tablished, a conference was proposed with three years. the commons, and a joint address was pre- SCARCITY OF CORN.-SUPPLIES.-BIRTH sented to the king, in which the two houses OF PRINCESS CHARLOTTE. avowed their indignation and abhorrence at PARLIAMENT was not unmindful of the the daring outrage offered to his majesty, critical state of the country, owing to the and requested that he would be pleased to scarcity of corn. It appeared, from the indirect the most effectual measures to be formation laid before a committee of the
house appointed to inquire into this subject, then could be the objection to declaring that that the principal failure in the late harvest she would treat with France? To this reahad been the crop of wheat, and a bounty soning ministers observed, that it was highly of twenty shillings per quarter was in con- proper and expedient that the executive sequence ordered to be paid on the importa- government should be left unfettered, and tion of wheat from the Mediterranean; fif- the amendment was negatived without a diteen shillings per quarter on that from vision. America; and five shillings per quarter on 1796.—The only child of the prince and Indian corn. Bills were also passed for pro- princess of Wales, was born on the seventh hibiting the manufacture of starch from of January, and baptized Charlotte, in comwheat; for prohibiting the distillation of pliment to her august grandmother, the spirits from grain; and for facilitating the queen of England. cultivation of waste lands; and a considera- PARLIAMENT DISSOLVED. ble number of inclosure bills passed the On the tenth of May an address to the house in the course of this session of parlia- king was moved, in the upper house, by the ment.
earl of Guildford, and in the lower house by On the fourth of November lord Arden Fox, declaring that the duty incumbent on moved that one hundred and ten thousand parliament no longer permitted them to disseamen, including eighteen thousand ma- semble their deliberate opinion, that the disrines, should be voted for the service of the tress, difficulty, and peril
, to which this year 1796; and Windham, on the same oc- country was then subjected, had arisen from casion, proposed that two hundred and seven the misconduct of the king's ministers, and thousand men should be employed in the was likely to exist and increase as long as land service. These motions being carried, the same principles which had hitherto Pitt brought forward, on the seventh of De- guided these ministers should continue to cember, à proposal to negotiate a loan of prevail in the councils of Great Britain. eighteen million pounds, and stated the sum Fox enlarged much on " that most fatal of of twenty-seven million five hundred thou- all the innumerable errors of ministers," sand pounds to be the estimated expenses their rushing into a ruinous and unnecessary of the approaching year.
war, instead of mediating between France A message was delivered to the house of and the allied powers. Had they, said he, commons by Pitt, on the eighth of Decem-counselled his majesty to accept the grateber, announcing the establishment of such ful office of mediator, it would have added a form of government in France as appeared lustre to the national character, and placed capable of maintaining the relations of peace Britain in the exalted situation of arbitress and amity, and expressive of a readiness on of the world. Pitt insisted that his majesty the part of the British government to meet could not have interposed his mediation any proposal for negotiation, on the part of without incurring the hazard of involving the enemy, with a desire to give it the himself in a war with that power which speediest effect in producing a peace. On should have refused his terms. The mothe following day Pitt moved an address of tions of both Fox and lord Guildford were thanks to his majesty. This address gave lost by immense majorities. The public rise to a debate, in which Sheridan proposed business being now concluded, his majesty an amendment, disclaiming the idea of con- terminated the session of parliament, on the sidering any change of government in nineteenth of May, with a speech from the France as affecting the principle of negotia- throne, expressive of the highest approbaton, and praying that a treaty might imme- tion of the uniform wisdom, temper, and diately be entered upon. This amendment firmness, which had appeared in all their was said to be perfectly consistent with the proceedings since their first meeting in that spirit of the message, which admitted that place; and on the following day the parliaGreat Britain might now safely treat: where ment was dissolved by proclamation.
Hostile Operations in Italy and Germany-Disturbances in La Vendée terminated
Success of the British in the West Indies-Capture of a Dutch Squadron in Saldanha Bay-Evacuation of Corsica by the BritishInvasion of Ireland altempted by the French-Naval Operations Differences between France and America-Spain and Holland declare War against Great Brtiain-State of France-Measures against British Commerce-Opening of the New Parliament-Negotiations for Peace-Unsuccessful result- Increase of the National Force- Financial Measures
-Suspension of Cash Pryments by the Bank-Alarming Mutiny in the Navy, Discontents in Ireland-Naval Operations—Admiral Jervis's Victory off Cape St. Vincent--Admiral Duncan's Victory off Camperdown-Bombardment of Cadiz-Capture of Trinidad— Failure at Porto Rico-Unsuccessful Attempt on TeneriffeFrench Troops land in Wales-Surrender of Mantua, and Expulsion of the Austrians from Italy-The French advance into the hereditary dominions, and compel the Emperor to make Peace - Treaty of Campo Formio-Internal Affairs of France.
OPERATIONS IN ITALY AND GERMANY. | lives of his men. By this victory he gained
The French government determined to possession of the greater part of the Milanmake a powerful diversion in Italy, under ese; and, after having quelled an insurrecthe command of Buonaparte. In the month tion of the new subjects of France at Pavia, of April he entered the territory of the he entered the ecclesiastical states, and took Genoese republic, and quickly evinced, on possession of Bologna, Urbino, and Ferrara. different occasions, those extraordinary tal- Alarmed in the highest degree at the adents for war which afterwards elevated him vance of an enemy, now become formidable to the summit of power and fame. In the to all Italy, both the pope and the king of space of five days, Buonaparte, with the aid Naples sued for an armistice, which was of Berthier and Massena, gained three vic- granted to his Sicilian majesty on the easy tories; Mondovi and other towns were recondition of withdrawing all assistance from duced; and the king of Sardinia was so dis- the allied army; but the pope was obliged couraged, that to procure a cessation of hos- not merely to cede to the French the towns tilities, he delivered up some of his principal already in their possession, but to add to fortresses to the victorious army. A peace their number the city and fortress of Ancona, was soon concluded between him and the on the Adriatic, together with a contribuFrench, to whom he ceded the dutchy of tion of twenty-one million francs by instalSavoy and county of Nice for ever. Ad- ments, and a present of one hundred picvancing to Lodi, on the tenth of May, the tures, statues, busts, and vases, to be selected French encountered general Beaulieu ; but by competent judges of the arts, from the they were opposed by such strenuous efforts, galleries at Rome, to adorn the museums of and so tremendous a fire, that victory seem- France. Similar terms were also exacted ed to promise itself to the Austrian battal- from the dukes of Parma and Modena. On ions. At length, however, after a most san- the twenty-eighth of June a detachment of guinary conflict, the bridge was forced, and French troops took possession of Leghorn, the republican army bore down all before it. though belonging to a neutral power, on preThe success of this action, commenced in text of dislodging the English, the whole of opposition to all the rules of tactics, by no whose property found in that city was conmeans justified the attempt. When the first fiscated to the use of the republic: the faccolumn had advanced half-way across the tory, however, had removed the greater part bridge, a single discharge of the Austrian of their effects to the Isle of Elba. The artillery mowed down seven hundred men; Austrians being pursued by the French into and the darkness in which the smoke en- the Venetian territory, the senate, whose veloped the French, alone enabled them to policy it had always been to pay the greatgain the opposite extremity. It is the un- est deference to power, after manifesting a doubted duty of a commander to expose his partiality to the cause of the allies, found it troops to the least possible danger; and the necessary to bend before the genius of the necessity of crossing the Adda at Lodi, Gallic democracy, and the count de Provwhen it might have been effected at some ence (Louis the XVIII.), who had taken other point, does not appear sufficiently im- refuge in their territory, was desired to withperative to rescue Buonaparte from the im- draw. putation of having wantonly sacrificed the The command of the Austrian army in