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put to sea, on which the English commander|The total loss of the British was one hunsuddenly returned to his station. The com- dred and ninety-one killed, and five hundred mand of the enemy's fleet, which was some- and sixty wounded, while the loss of the what inferior in weight of metal to that of enemy must have been more than double. the British, was confided to admiral de Win- When the battle ended, the English fleet ter, who had distinguished himself in the was within five miles of the shore, from army under general Pichegru; and, on his whence thousands of Dutch spectators witreceiving orders to risk an engagement, the nessed the destruction of their navy, every troops were disembarked. No sooner had maneuvre being distinctly seen. The votes De Winter quitted the Texel than Captain of both houses of parliament greeted the arTrollope, who had been stationed with a rival of the gallant sailors; many of the light squadron of observation at the mouth captains were gratified by medals; the venof that river, gave notice of his approach ; erable admiral was rewarded by the king and, on the eleventh of October, admiral with the dignity, of viscount Duncan, of Duncan gave orders for a general chase, Camperdown, and a pension of three thouand the Dutch ships were soon discovered sand pounds per annum; vice-admiral Ondrawn up in a line of battle on the larboard slow was created a baronet, and captains tack, between Camperdown and Egmont, Trollope and Fairfax knights banneret. the land being about nine miles to leeward. Rear-admiral Nelson bombarded Cadiz on Admiral Duncan, whose fleet consisted of the twenty-third of June, and on the fifth sixteen sail of the line, exclusive of frigates, of July, but without materially advancing finding there was no time to be lost, made the objects of the war. the agnal to bear up, break the enemy's CAPTURE OF TRINIDAD.-FAILURE AT line, and engage them to leeward, each ship PORTO RICO AND SANTA CRUZ. her opponent, by which the British squadron THE Spanish island of Trinidad capituplaced itself between the enemy and the lated to an expedition consisting of six sail land, whither they were fast approaching of the line, and a number of troops fitted The admiral's signal being obeyed with out at Port Royal, in Martinico, under the promptitude, vice-admiral Onslow, in the command of Sir Ralph Abercrombie and adMonarch, bore down on the enemy's rear in miral Harvey. On the approach of the Engthe most gallant manner, his division follow-lish, the Spaniards, who had a squadron of ing his example; and the action commenced four ships of the line and one frigate lying about forty minutes past twelve o'clock.at anchor in the gulf of Paria, set fire to The Venerable, which was admiral Dun- their ships; and one line-of-battle ship only, can's flag-ship, soon got through the enemy's escaping the conflagration, fell into the line, and a close action was begun on their hands of the victors: the governor and the van, which lasted nearly two hours and a garrison were made prisoners of war. The half, when all the masts of the Dutch ad- same commanders made an attempt, in the miral's ship were observed to go by the month of April, on Porto Rico; but this board : she was, however, defended for some island being found too strong to be carried time longer in a most gallant manner; but, by a coup-de-main, the enterprise totally being overpowered by numbers, her colors failed. were at length struck, and admiral de Win- On the fifteenth of July, a British expeter was brought on board the Venerable ; dition arrived before the port of Santa Cruz, soon after the ship bearing the vice-admiral's commanded by rear-admiral Nelson, and flag was also dismasted, and surrendered to having effected a landing, took possession of vice-admiral Onslow; and these, with three the town; but they learned, when too late, of sixty-eight guns, two of sixty-four, two that the force under their command was utof fifty-six, and two frigates, were taken terly unequal either to carry the fort of possession of by the English. In the early Santa Cruz, or to contend with the military part of the action, rear-admiral Storey, who force of the island now assembled to oppose commanded the centre division of the Dutch them. They prepared for a retreat, but had fleet, fled for the Texel, in the States-Gene- the misfortune to find that the violence of ral, of seventy-four guns, with part of his the surge on the beach had staved their division, and afterwards made à merit of boats, and reduced them to a mere wreck. having saved part of the fleet. The British In this situation they were summoned by the squadron suffered much in their masts, yards, Spanish commander to surrender, which was and rigging, and many of the ships lost a disdainfully refused by captain Troubridge, great number of men, but in no proportion who commanded on shore after rear-admiral to that of the enemy: the carnage on board Nelson had been severely wounded; but he the two ships that bore the admirals' flags added, that if he were allowed to reimbark, was beyond all description, and did not the squadron before the town would not inamount to less than two hundred and fifty jure it. To this the captain received a po men killed and wounded on board each ship. I lite answer, stating that, for the purpose of sparing the effusion of blood, facilities would long and brave resistance, on the second of be afforded to himself and his followers to February; and on the fall of this important return to their ships. The loss of lives in fortress, by which the imperial arms were this attempt was equal to that sustained in expelled froin Italy, Buonaparte published a the battle off Cape St. Vincent.

proclamation to his army, in which he stated FRENCH LAND IN WALES. that they had proved victorious in fourteen The French government now menaced pitched battles, and in seventy engagements; the territory of Britain itself, by assembling that they had taken from the enemy more troops on the coasts of the channel, under than one hundred thousand prisoners, five the designation of the army of England; hundred field-pieces, and two thousand large and Buonaparte was appointed to its com- cannon; that the contributions raised in the mand. In the early part of this year, an countries conquered by them had supported, attempt, of a nature quite incomprehensible, maintained, and paid the army, during the was made on the coast of Wales, by an ex- whole campaign; while thirty million or pedition fitted out at the port of Brest. On livres had been sent to the minister of the twenty-second of February, an enemy's finance for the increase of the public trenforce, which entered the small port of Ilfra- sure; and, after glancing at their achieve. combe, in Devonshire, scuttled some mer- ments against the kings and princes of Italy, chant-vessels, and made an unsuccessful ef- he declared it to be his intention to carry fort to destroy all the ships in the harbor. the war into the hereditary states of Austria, This invading squadron, which consisted of and requested them to recollect that it was two frigates and two sloops, next steered its liberty they were about to present to the course for the bay of Cardigan, where, on Hungarians, whose sovereign had disgraced the following day, they disembarked about himself by submitting to be in the pay and fifteen hundred criminals, attired as French at the disposal of England. troops, and provided with a proportionable The pope had imprudently resumed hosquantity of arms and ammunition, but with- tilities against the French, and was now out field-pieces. On receiving information menaced with sudden ruin. Buona parte pubof this event, the Welsh peasantry, animated lished a proclamation, in which, after reby the gentry of the country, seized their proaching the holy father with subterfuge scythes, sickles and pitch-forks, and marched and perfidy, he threatened all who opposed forth to meet the invaders. Lord Cawdor the progress of the republican columns with had assembled, in the course of a single day, the most exemplary vengeance. General a local force, consisting of seven hundred Victor immediately entered Imola, and the militia, fencibles, and yeomanry cavalry; pontifical army, abandoning the fertile plains and the French commander, perceiving his of Romagna, took refuge on the summits of situation to be desperate, after having dis- the Apennines, towards the sources of the patched a letter to his lordship, proposing a Arno and the Tiber; the towns of Cesena, capitulation, surrendered himself and his Forli, Ravenna, and the March of Ancona followers prisoners of war on the twenty- submitted. When the French general arsixth. The two frigates which accompanied rived at Tolentino, and began to establish a the expedition were captured on their return republican form of government, his holiness, to Brest, and the whole proved as unfortu- apprehensive lest he should march to the nate in the execution as it was unaccounta- capital, at length determined to negotiate. ble in its plan.

He was consequently obliged to renounce SURRENDER OF MANTUA.-EXPULSION all claim to Avignon and the Venaissin; to

OF THE AUSTRIANS FROM ITALY. relinquish the three legations of Bologna,

At the commencement of the year, the Ferrara, and Romagna ; to furnish the stat. Austrian general Alvinzi, at the head of ues, pictures, and treasure stipulated in the fifty thousand well-appointed troops, and a former convention; and to pay a large sum formidable train of artillery, formed the de- of money towards the expenses of the war. termination to raise the blockade of Mantua, THE FRENCH COMPEL THE EMPEROR and, having attacked and carried the French TO MAKE PEACE.-TREATY OF CAMPO position, suddenly passed the Brenta, stormed FORMIO. the town of Cortona, and obliged a body of A GREAT and last effort was, however, troops under Joubert to fall back upon Ri- made by the emperor, in collecting a powervoli. Buonaparte, who had been for some ful body of troops between the Tagliamento time at Bologia, was no sooner apprized of and the Paivè; while the French, who octhis irruption, than he repaired to the heights cupied the right bank of the latter river, and of San Marco, and made such judicious dis- the left border of the Arisio, were prepared positions that Alvinzi, who expected an easy to oppose their progress. A variety of moveconquest, soon found himself surprised and ments and minor actions having taken place, defeated. The garrison of Mantua, now general Joubert penetrated to the banks of despairing of succor, capitulated, after al the Arisio, where he engaged the Austrians,

and after a long and bloody action, during of the French armies on the Rhine, where which he took four thousand prisoners, ob- they had also been victorious. After this tained possession of the bridge of Neumark: treaty, Augereau, at the head of twenty-five a second battle, equally unfortunate, was thousand men, marched into Venice, and, fought soon after at Trames, and the French seizing on the arsenal and forts, demanded now rushed into the hereditary dominions the three inquisitors, and ten principal memof the emperor : Massena seized the fort of bers of the senate, who were accused of Chiusa, the bridge of Carasola, and the town having instigated their countrymen to an of Tarvis, while Bernadotte took possession assassination of the French soldiery. In a of Gradisca, the capital of the Frioul, the few days a democratical municipality was capture of which rendered the French mas- installed; and the members of the governters of all the Austrian possessions from the ment, finding neither commiseration nor reAlps to the sea. Goritz submitted without spect from the people, were happy in being resistance; Trieste, the only port in the allowed to retire from their native country. Adriatic appertaining to the emperor, fol- In Genoa, also, the nobles were friendly to lowed its example; and, while scaling the the Austrian cause, but the people were deNorick Alps, still covered with snow, Buoua- sirous of a popular government. Buonaparte, parte endeavored to conciliate the minds of in consequence, soon after the revolution of the inhabitants by proclamations, in which Venice, established a democratical governhe declared that the French armies were ment in Genoa; but as the nobles had never fighting for peace, and that they would not shown an active hostility, and made no mafail to extend protection to the peaceable terial resistance to the change, they escaped Tyroleans. On the twenty-sixth of March exactions. the Austrians were again beaten, and on the By the definitive treaty the emperor rethirtieth the whole of the French army ar-nounced all right and title to the Austrian rived in the capital of the dutchy of Carin- Netherlands; and consented that the French thia. The greatest consternation now pre- republic should possess in full sovereignty vailed in Vienna, which was the avowed ob- the ci-devant Venetian islands, viz. Corfu, ject of the French arms : on the other hand, Zante, Cephalonia, and the other islands dethough Buonaparte had beaten the Austrians pendent thereon, together with their settlein six different engagements, and destroyed ments in Albania. The French republic one-half of their army, during a cainpaign consented that the emperor should possess that had lasted only twenty-one days, his in full sovereignty, Istria, Dalmatia, the situation was highly critical. The natives Venetian islands in the Adriatic, the mouths of the mountainous districts were attached of the Cataro, the city of Venice, the Veneby habit to the dominion of the house of tian canals, and the countries lying between Austria ; and the offer of liberty, which ex- the hereditary estates and the Adriatic seas ; hibited so many charms to the fascinated in- the emperor acknowledging the Cisalpine habitants of the valleys, possessed but few republic, founded on the union of the Cispablandishments for a people whose patriarchal dane and Transpadane common

onwealths, as manners were as yet unchanged. The an independent power, which republic comnumerous defiles of those dreary regions; posed the ci-devant Austrian Lombardy, the the marked enmity of the peasantry; the Bergamesque, the Brescian, the Cremondifficulty of obtaining supplies; the danger esque, the Venetian states to the east and of being surrounded ;-all operated power- south of the Legner, the Modenese, the fully on the mind of the conqueror, and he principalities of Massa and Carara, and the found it necessary to affect the language of three legations of Bologna, Ferrara, and moderation. He accordingly, on the thirty- Romagna. This treaty, which was concluded first of March, addressed a letter to the with the emperor only as king of Hungary archduke, making overtures of peace, to and Bohemia, the pacification of the empire which the Austrian commander replied that with the French republic being referred to he was not furnished with any powers to a congress, to be held at Rastadt, was immenegotiate; he, however, immediately trans- diately promulgated, but fourteen secret armitted Buonaparte's letter to Vienna, and in ticles, highly important in their nature, were a few days received full powers from the for a time concealed. By one of these it emperor; a suspension of arms took place; was agreed, on the part of the emperor, to and on the eighteenth of April a preliminary use his influence that the French republic treaty of peace was signed at the castle of should, by the peace to be concluded with Eckenwald, in Styria, which has since been the German empire, retain as its boundary known by the appellation of the treaty of the bank of the Rhine, from the confines of Leoben, and which served as the foundation Switzerland, below Basle, to the branching of the definitive treaty of Campo Formio. of the Nette, above Andernach, including

The intelligence of the preliminaries of the head of the bridge of Manheim, the peace being signed put a stop to the progress town and fortress of Mentz, and both banks of the Nette, from whence that river falls|tions, of a threatening nature, against the into the Rhine, to its source near Bruch. councils: Moreau and Hoche did the same His imperial majesty also agreed to use his with their armies on the Rhine, and the latgood offices to obtain for France the free ter was pitched upon by the directory to navigation of the Rhine, the Moselle, and command a body of troops, which they had the Meuse : while, on the other hand, the ordered to Paris to destroy their enemies in republic was to endeavor to acquire for the the councils. Another article of the conhouse of Austria the archbishopric of Saltz- stitution prohibited the approach of troops to burg, and part of the circle of Bavaria. On within a certain distance from the place at the injustice of the contracting parties, in which the legislative body held its sittings; combining to appropriate to themselves the but this article was disregarded by the diterritories of independent states, over which rectory. Hoche, alarmed at the state in they possessed no other right or power than which he found the public mind on his ap that which always appertains to the strong- proach to the capital, was induced to decline est, no censure can be too severe.

the commission; and Aagereau, who was

originally a private soldier in the Neapolitan INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF FRANCE.

army, but now a favorite general with BuoSoon after the appointment of the direc- naparte, was employed in his stead. Augetory, the two councils coalesced for a time reau had no sooner taken the command of with the terrorists, in order to crush their the troops, than he moved forward, and passmutual enemies, the men of moderate prin- ed the limit prescribed by the constitution : ciples; but the success of this plan was de- had the councils acted with firmness and defeated by the still greater enmity which sub- cision, they might still have succeeded; but sisted between those terrorists who adhered while they wasted time in ascertaining with to Robespierre to the last, and those who precision, whether the troops had really brought him to the scaffold. After the con- passed the constitutional limit, the hall in spiracy of May 1796, the directors were which they sat was suddenly surrounded, more circumspect in their conduct and lan- and most of the chiefs of the party in oppoguage; and no difference occurred between sition to the directory, together with the them and the councils till the new election, new director, Barthelemi, were arrested which took place in the spring of 1797, without the smallest resistance or difficulty, when, notwithstanding all the intrigues of and, being placed in carriages, resembling the directory, and all the manæuvres of the iron cages, previously prepared for the purJacobins, nearly the whole of the new depu- pose, were sent to Rochefort, where a frigate ties were adverse to the present system. At waited to transport them to the pestilential length the time came for one of the direc- deserts of Guiana. The remains of the two tors also to go out by lot ; and, by dint of councils, who no longer constituted a legitimanagement, it was contrived that the lot mate body of representatives, and who were should fall upon Letourneur, one of the not competent to perform any one act of legisweakest characters amongst them. He ac- lation, now assembled at the Odeon, and cordingly received a large sum of money, conferred on the directory, by a formal deciwas appointed to the post of ambassador, sion, that absolute power which they had and Barthelemi was chosen to succeed him usurped in breach of the constitution. The in the directory. From this time there was immediate consequence of this event was a majority in the two councils opposed to the the triumph of Jacobinism, and the re-estabdirectory, and, during the summer of 1797, lishment of a revolutionary government. a regular warfare was carried on between The princess royal of England, Charlotte them, in messages and in speeches. The Augusta Matilda, eldest daughter of the majority of the nation sided with the coun- sovereign, was married on the eighteenth of cils, and, if their energy had been equal to May, to Frederic William, hereditary prince the goodness of their cause,

there could have of Wirtemburgh, on which occasion à porbeen little doubt that they would have suc- tion of eighty thousand pounds was voted ceeded in their efforts to give a better con- by parliament for the royal bride. On the stitution to France and peace to Europe: eighth of July, Burke, whose talents as a their opponents, however, were better versed political writer and parliamentary orator in the revolutionary tactics, and were mas- were of the first order, died at his seat at ters of the army, and of the executive power Beaconsfield, in the sixty-eighth year of his of the state. An article of the constitution age: and on the tenth of November also expressly prohibited the army from delibe- died, after a reign of eleven years, Frederic rating on any subject whatever; but in con-William the Second, king of Prussia, in his sequence of applications from the directory, fifty-fourth year. He was succeeded by his who had connived at all their plunder and son Frederic William the Third, who, on extortion, they loudly declared themselves his accession, adopted such measures of jus in their favor. Buonaparte made all the di- tice and prudence, as inspired confidence in visions of the army of Italy present peti- his subjects, and augured a happy reign.

CHAPTER XXIX.

Negotiations for Peace renewed and broken off-Meeting of Parliament, Address on

the King's Speech-On the late Negotiation Finance-Triple Assessment-Voluntary ContributionsRedemption of the Land Tax-Plans for National Defence -Duel between Pitt and Tierney-Second Estimate of Supplies-Slave TradeTender of extended Service by the Militia— Volunteer Corps-Origin and Progress of the Rebellion in Ireland-Severe Contests between the Military and InsurgentsSuppression of the Rebellion-Trials and Executions for Treason-Lord Cornwallis appointed Viceroy-Act of AmnestyObjects of the Rebellion-French land at Killala, and surrender— Naval Victory of Sir J. B. Warren-Close of the Insurrection in Ireland.

NEGOTIATIONS FOR PEACE RENEWED Dutch possessions in Ceylon, on the part of AND BROKEN OFF.

Holland ; in return for which it was proposBy the treaty of Campo Formio, Greated that Great Britain should cede all the Britain was left alone in her contest with other settlements taken from France and France; and, on the first of June, an official her allies in the course of the war: our note from lord Grenville to de la Croix, the minister further required the restoration of French minister for foreign affairs, commu- his personal property to the prince of Ornicated the desire of the British govern- ange, or an equivalent in money; and that ment to negotiate preliminaries, which France should engage to procure for him, at might be definitely arranged at a future con- the restoration of peace, an indemnity for gress. The French government replied, the loss of the United Provinces; that Porthat the directory would receive with eager-tugal should be included in the treaty, and ness the overtures and proposals which that no demand should be made upon that should be made to it by the court of Eng-country by France. land, but required, for the purpose of avoid- To these proposals the French answered, ing delay, that the negotiations should be that, previously to entering on the main rather for a definite than for a preliminary business, it was necessary that three contreaty. The British government rejoined, cessions should be made: first, that his Britthat it would depend upon the progress and annic majesty should resign the title of king turn of the negotiations, whether preliinina- of France ; secondly, that the ships taken ry or definitive articles should be signed. and destroyed at Toulon should be restored, The directory, in three days after the date or restitution made for them; and, thirdly, of lord Grenville's last note, transmitted the that any mortgage which England might necessary passports for a minister, furnished have upon the Low Countries, in consewith full powers from his Britannic majesty, quence of the money lent to the emperor of for the purpose of negotiating and conclud- Germany, for the purpose of carrying on the ing a definitive and separate treaty of peace; war against France, should be given up. and fixed upon the city of Lisle as the place on the first of these points lord Malmsbury of meeting for the respective plenipotentia- observed, that on all former occasions a sepries. On the seventeenth of June, lord Gren- arate article had been agreed to, which apville informed de la Croix, by letter, that his peared to answer every purpose they requirmajesty had again made choice of lord ed, and which it was his intention, as the Malmsbury to represent him; to which the treaty advanced, to have proposed as proper French minister assented, intimating, how to make a part of this : on the second, he ever, that another choice would have ap- replied, that the claim of restoring the ships peared to the directory more favorable for was so perfectly unlooked for, that it was the speedy conclusion of peace. On his ar- impossible for him to have been provided for rival at Lisle, his lordship was met by the it in his instructions: and, on the third, that, French plenipotentiaries-Letourneur, late if the French republic had taken the Low member of the directorial council, Pleville Countries as they stood, charged with all le Pelley, and Hugues Maret, when he open- their encumbrances, there could be no doubt ed the business by submitting the plan of what these words meant, and that, if no expacification which he had received from the ception was stated in the first instance, none British ministry. This projet required the could be made with a retro-active effect. cession of the colony of Trinidad, on the These were the observations that occurred part of Spain ; and of the Cape of Good to him on the first mention of the subjects Hope, Cochin, in the East Indies, and the to which they had adverted, but he would

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