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which they found burning and in ruins.scember, and was the herald of his own dio About this period the veteran general Kut- comfiture, intimating that France would usoff was called from retirement to take the now be more in need of him than he of chief command, instead of general Barclay France. His name and presence, however, de Tolli, who had incurred censure for re- were still terrible; and he proceeded, with treating from Smolensko : on the other hand, out fear or mercy, to drain the population Buonaparte omitted to atta the Russians and resources of France, in order to appear on their march from Smolensko to repass again in the field. the Dnieper. On the seventh of September, Russia exerted herself in the cabinet as he fought the bloody battle of Borodino, well as in arms: in the course of the year otherwise of Moskwa, in which two hundred she effected peace with Britain, with Sweand twenty-five thousand men were engaged. den, with Spain, and with Turkey. To BritThe Russians remained master of the field, ain she gave the most substantial proof of but the victory was claimed by both armies. her sincerity, by charging her with the proOn each side the loss in killed and wounded tection of her naval force, which was sent was not less than forty thousand. Notwith- to winter in the English ports. standing this severe check, the French suc- INVASION OF CANADA-ACTIONS AT SEA. ceeded, after a little skirmishing, in enter- AMERICA, as already stated, declared war ing Moscow, where they hoped to have against England on the eighteenth of June, found quarters for the winter; but the gov- but the British government did not resort to ernor, count Rostopchin, had determined on the same measure till the thirteenth of Ocone of the greatest sacrifices recorded in tober, in the hope that the repeal of the orhistory; and, after the painful operation of ders in council would have induced the withdrawing from their homes two hundred Americans to revoke their hostile declarathousand human beings, the only measure tion; their conduct, however, betrayed so which could disappoint the enemy was re- much partiality for the French, and so much sorted to, and the destruction of the ancient dislike of the British and of their naval precapital of Russia by fire was so completely eminence, that, although the latter governeffected, that scarcely a tenth part of that ment displayed as much conciliation as the extensive city escaped. The French troops extraordinary measures of Buonaparte would entered Moscow on the fourteenth of Sep- allow, the different spirit in which the most tember, before the flames had reached their equivocal concessions of the French were height, and continued to occupy the ruins received, betrayed such a decided feeling of until the assemblage of fresh bodies of Rus- hostility towards England, that war could no sian troops, and the approach of winter, be- longer be averted. By land the first efforts gan to prove the danger of prolonging their of the Americans were directed against stay-during which Buonaparte endeavored Canada, which was invaded by general Hull, to impose on Europe by lying bulletins. with so little skill, that on the sixteenth of
Buonaparte, after having in vain offered August he surrendered his entire army, conpeace to the emperor of Russia, commenced sisting of two thousand five hundred men, à retrograde movement on the nineteenth with thirty-three pieces of ordnance, to an of October; from which period the retreat inferior force of British and Indians, under of his army towards the frontiers of Poland general Brock; and on the thirteenth of Ocwas only an unbroken series of defeats and tober, a second army, repeating the attempt disasters, miseries and deaths, without a par- on Canada, was completely defeated, nine allel in the annals of the world. From the hundred prisoners being taken, and the retime of his crossing the Niemen to that of mainder either killed or wounded. The loss the arrival of the wretched remnant of his of the English was very slight, with the exarmy at Molodetschino, three hundred thou- ception of general Brock, who was killed sand human beings, French and Russians to- while cheering his troops, before the engagegether, not including sick and wounded, ment actually commenced. At sea the Amerwere sacrificed to the guilty ambition of one icans wege more successful; a circumstance man! Of the immense French force which to be ascribed chiefly to the great superioriinvaded Russia, not one hundred thousand ty of their frigates, in size, weight of metal, could be mustered at the close of the cam- and number of men. Their advantage, in paign!-in reality, at Moscow, where Buo- the capture of the Guerriere by the Constinaparte declared the campaign to be termi- tution, consisted only in an accession of nated, it was only beginning on the part of fame,-for the Guerriere was burnt: but, in Russia. Buonaparte did not remain to wit- their subsequent capture of the Macedonian, ness the last scenes of the tragedy; but the prize was carried, in a sound state, into leaving his men to perish by the sword of an American port. Their privateers als the enemy, by famine, or by frost, he liter- made numerous captures in the West Indies ally fled in disguise from Smorgony to Paris, Ministers were much censured by the oppowhere he arrived on the eighteenth of De- sition for a want of foresight in not being
prepared with a more efficient naval force perhaps impossible to trace ; but that they to contend with the Americans; and several originated at a period so early as the first ships of the line were afterwards ordered out. year of the residence of the princess of
The naval force of France was in so re- Wales in this country, and that they were duced a state, that scarcely anything re- of such a nature as almost to dissolve the mained to be done. In February, however, marriage contract, is clear from a correthe Victorious, of seventy-four guns, captain spondence which took place between those Talbot, took the Rivoli, of seventy-four guns, illustrious personages in the year 1796. The in the Adriatic. In March, the Rosario marriage was solemnized on the eighth of sloop, captain Harvey, in company with the April, 1795; the birth of their only child Griffon, defeated a French flotilla of thirteen was on the seventh of January following ; sail, six of which were destroyed or taken and in April, in the same year, the princess off Boulogne; and in May, the Northum- was informed, by a message from the prince, berland, captain Hotham, destroyed two conveyed through the medium of lord Chol. French frigates and a brig, under the bat- mondeley, that the intercourse between teries of the Isle of Groa.
them was, in future, to be of the most reIn the East Indies, the strong fortress of strictive nature-in fact, that a reparation Bundelcund capitulated to a British force, as to all conjugal relations was, from that under colonel Martindell; an expedition, time and for ever, to take place. In this arfitted out at Batavia, against Palambang, rangement the princess expressed her acwas completely successful ; the military quiescence, but she considered the subject force employed in it afterwards subdued the of too important a nature to rest merely on sultan of Djojocarta ; and a treaty of alli- verbal communication ; and, in compliance ance was concluded between Great Britain with her request, the pleasure of bis royal and Persia
highness was communicated in writing. "In MEETING OF PARLIAMENT.-CHARGES 1805, when the royal pair had been for some
AGAINST PRINCESS OF WALES. years living in a state of separation, the The new parliament assembled on the duke of Sussex informed the prince, that Sir twenty-fourth of November, when the house John Donglas had made known to him some of commons unanimously re-elected Abbot circumstances respecting the behavior of for their speaker; and on the irtieth the princess, which might, if true, not only prince-regent, for the first time, delivered a affect the honor and peace of mind of his speech from the throne, the topics of which royal highness, but also the succession to were principally the political and military the throne. Sir John and lady Douglas occurrences of the year. Alluding to the having made a formal declaration of the peninsular war, his royal highness expressed charges they thought proper to advance his firm reliance on the determination of against the princess of Wales, this declaraparliament to continue every aid in support tion was submitted by the prince to lord of a contest, which had first given to the Thurlow, who gave it as his opinion that the continent of Europe the example of perse matter must be referred to the king. In convering and successful resistance to the pow- sequence of this opinion, and some further er of France. On the usual motion for an examinations, a warrant was issued by his address, in the house of lords, the marquis majesty, dated the twenty-ninth of May, Wellesley took a review of the past Spanish 1806, directing and authorizing lord Erskine, campaign, and argued that the system adopt- as lord chancellor,-lord Grenville, as first ed by ministers was timid without prudence, lord of the treasury-earl Spencer, as one and narrow without economy; profuse with of his majesty's principal secretaries of state out the fruits of expenditure, and slow with- --and lord Ellenborough, as chief-justice of out the benefits of caution. Lord Liverpool, the court of king's bench, to inquire into in reply, dwelt on the great exertions which the truth of the said allegations, and to rehad been made, and the addresses were port to him thereon. These commissioners voted in both houses without a division. first examined on oath the principal inform
One of the first measures of the new par- ants, Sir John Douglas, and Charlotte, his liament was the grant of two hundred thou- wife; who both positively swore, the former sand pounds to the sufferers in Russia by to his having observed the fact of the pregthe invasion of that country. The sum of nancy of her royal highness; and the latter, one hundred thousand pounds was also not only that she had observed it, but that granted to lord Wellington.
her royal highness had not made the least For a long period no subject of a domestic scruple of talking about it with her, and denature had fixed upon the public mind with scribing the stratagems she meant to resort so much force as the discord and alienation to in order to avoid detection. Lady Douglas which had, for years, subsisted between the further deposed that, in the year 1802, the prince-regent and his illustrious consort. princess was secretly delivered of a male The cause of these dissensions it would be child, which had been brought up in her own house, and under her own inspection. opinion that it was no longer necessary for On this part of the inquiry the commission- his majesty to decline receiving the priners reported, that there was no foundation cess into his royal presence; but at the whatever for believing that the child living same time he hoped that such a conduct with the princess was the child of her royal would be in future observed by her, as highness; nor had anything appeared to might fully justify those marks of paternal them that could warrant the belief that she regard and affection which the king always was pregnant at any period within the com- wished to show to every part of his royal pass of their inquiries. That child was, family. The princess no sooner received beyond all doubt, born in the Brownlow- this communication than she named a day, street hospital, on the eleventh of July, on which, if agreeable to his majesty, she 1802, of the body of Sophia Austin, and was would have the happiness to throw herself
, first brought to the princess's house in the in filial duty and affection, at his feet. The month of November following. As the de- day, however, was at first postponed by his clarations on which the commissioners had majesty, who afterwards informed the prinbeen ordered to inquire and report contain- cess that, at the request of the prince of ed other particulars respecting the conduct Wales, he declined to see her until her vinof her royal highness, which must necessa- dication had been examined by the lawyers rily give occasion to very unfavorable im- of the prince, and until his royal highness pressions, they proceeded to state that seve- had been enabled to submit the statement ral strong circumstances of this description which he proposed to make thereon. The had been positively sworn to, by witnesses princess remonstrated in strong terms who could not, in their judgment, be sus- against this interposition, and trusted that pected of any unfavorable bias, and whose his majesty would recall his determination veracity, in this respect, they had no ground not to see her till the prince's answer reto question. “It appears, therefore," con- specting her vindication was received. tinued the commissioners, “that as, on the After a lapse of three weeks the prinone hand, the fact of pregnancy and delive-cess informed his majesty that, having rery are, to our minds, satisfactorily disproved, ceived no intimation of his pleasure, she so, on the other, we think that the circum- was reduced to the necessity, in vindication stances to which we now refer, particularly of her character, to resort to the publicathose stated to have passed between her tion of the proceedings upon the inquiry royal highness and captain Manby, must be into her conduct: and that the publication credited until they shall receive some de- alluded to would not be withheld beyond cisive contradiction; and, if true, are justly the following Monday. To avoid this painentitled to the most serious consideration." ful extremity she had taken every step in
Immediately on the receipt of a copy of her power, except that which would be this report, the princess of Wales addressed abandoning her character to utter infamy, a letter to his majesty, in which, in the face and her station in life to no uncertain danof the Almighty, she asserted not only her ger, and possibly to no very distant destrucinnocence as to the weightier parts of the tion. This letter was dated the fifth of charge preferred against her, but her free- March, soon after which Perceval and his dom from all the indecorums and improprie- friends were intrusted with the seals of ofties which had been imputed to her by the fice; and when the ministerial arrangelords commissioners, upon the evidence of ments were completed, a minute of council persons who spoke as falsely as Sir John was made, dated the twenty-second of April, and lady Douglas themselves. On the sev- 1807, wherein it was humbly submitted to enteenth of August she again wrote to the his majesty, that it was essentially necessaking, requesting that she might have au- ry, in justice to her royal highness, and for thenticated copies of the report, and of the the honor and interest of his majesty's ildeclarations and depositions on which it lustrious family, that the princess of Wales proceeded. Having received these papers, should be admitted into his presence, and be the princess submitted them to her legal ad- received in a manner due to her rank and visers, lord Eldon, Perceval, and Sir Thom- station. Notwithstanding this advice, it as Plomer; and on the second of October does not appear that she was ever restored she transmitted to his majesty an elaborate to complete favor, and her intercourse with letter on the subject. Nine weeks having her daughter also became subject to great elapsed without any reply, the princess restraint. Nothing, however, occurred, that again wrote, expressing her anxiety to is publicly or officially known, till January, learn whether she might be admitted to the 1813, at which time the princess was so royal presence; in reply to which her royal much debarred from the society of her highness was informed, that her vindication daughter, that she determined to write to had been referred to his majesty's confiden- the prince-regent on the subject. In this tial seryants, who had given it as their letter, which was transmitted to ministers
on the fourteenth, she dwelt with great from a wish to avoid bringing such subjects force upon the injustice of widening the before the public. It may suffice to add, separation between mother and daughter, that the document called for was not prowhich she considered as not only cutting duced; the princess was declared free from her off from one of the few domestic en- imputation; and addresses of congratulation joyments which she still retained, but as poured in upon her from all quarters of the countenancing those, calumnious reports kingdom. which had been proved to be unfounded. VICE-CHANCELLOR APPOINTED._DECLA. In consequence of this letter, which shortly RATION ON AMERICAN WAR. appeared in a daily journal, the prince-re- In consequence of the great accumulagent directed that the whole of the docu- tion of business in the court of chancery, a ments relating to the investigation of 1806, bill, proposed by lord Redesdale, was passed (inappropriately called the delicate inves- this session for the appointment of a vicetigation,") should be referred to the privy-chancellor of England, with full power to council, to report whether the intercourse determine all cases of law and equity in the between the princess and her daughter court of chancery, to the same extent as the should continue under restriction. In virtue chancellors had been accustomed to deterof this appointment, the members of the mine; and his decrees were to be of equal council assembled on the twenty-third of validity, but subject to the revision of the February, when they reported that, in their lord-chancellor, and not to be enrolled until opinion, it was highly fit and proper that signed by him. the intercourse between the princess of On the ninth of January, a declaration Wales and the princess Charlotte should was issued, in which the prince-regent stacontinue to be subject to regulation and re-ted that he could never acknowledge any straint.
blockade which had been duly notified, and 1813.-On the first of March the princess which was supported by an adequate force, of Wales addressed a letter to the speaker to be illegal, merely upon the ground of its of the house of commons, in which she extent, or because the ports or coasts were complained that the tendency of this report, not at the same time invested by land ; neia copy of which had been transmitted to ther could he admit that neutral trade with her by lord Sidmouth, was to cast aspersions Great Britain could be constituted a public upon her honor and character. Thus as- crime, subjecting the ships of any power to sailed by a secret tribunal, before which she be denationalized; that Great Britain could could not be heard in her own defence, she be debarred of her just and necessary retaliawas compelled to throw herself upon the tion through the fear of eventually affecting house, and to require that the fullest inves- the interests of a neutral; or that the right tigation might be instituted into the whole of searching neutral merchant-vessels in of her conduct during her residence in this time of war, and the impressment of Britcountry. On the fifth of March C. Jobn-ish seamen found therein, could be deemed stone, after avowing that he had no concert any violation of a neutral flag. with, or authority from, the princess, sub- PROCEEDINGS OF PARLIAMENT. mitted to the house of commons a motion On the twenty-fifth of February, a mofor an address to the prince-regent, request- tion for referring the Catholic claims to a ing him to order that a copy of the report committee of the whole house, was carried made to his majesty on the fourteenth of in the commons by two hundred and sixtyJuly, 1806, touching the conduct of her four votes against two hundred and twentyroyal highness, the princess of Wales, be four; and, on the thirtieth of April, Grattan laid before the house, with a view to an in- presented a bill for the removal of the civil quiry now, while the witnesses on both sides and military disqualifications under which were still living, into all the allegations, his majesty's Roman Catholic subjects laborfacts, and circumstances, appertaining to ed. On its passage through a committee, that investigation; a proceeding, which, in Abbot, the speaker, divided the house on the his opinion, was due to the honor of her clause by which Roman Catholic members royal highness, the safety of the throne, and were to be admitted to a seat in parliament; the tranquillity of the country. Lord Cas- and, on its being rejected by a majority of tlereagh, in opposing the motion, said that two hundred and fifty-one against two hunthe house could not consider the papers dred and forty-seven, the bill was abandoned called for at all necessary to remove any by its friends. The extensive principles of apprehension as to the successor to the religious toleration professed in the discusthrone. The innocence of the princess of sions on this question, rendered the time faWales had been established on the report vorable for relieving persons impugning the of the members of two successive adminis- doctrine of the Trinity from the pains and trations; and, if a prosecution had not been penalties to which they were by law subject, instituted against her accusers, it arose only and William Smith moved for leave to bring in a bill for this purpose. As the law stood, solidation had not taken place, and if those he said, any one denying the existence of sums had been accompanied by the usual any of the Persons of the Trinity was dis- redeeming fund of one per cent. If this abled from holding any office, civil, ecclesi- plan were adopted, no fresh taxes would be astical, or military; and, if a second time required for four years, except about one convicted, he was disabled to sue or prose- million pounds for 1813. In submitting the cute in any action or information, or to be the proposed ways and means for the year, in guardian of any child, and was liable to im- case his plan with respect to the sinking prisonment for three years. The bill under- fund should not be adopted, the chancellor went no opposition in either house. It may of the exchequer stated that the sum to be also be here mentioned that an act was pass-raised was one million one hundred and ed, during this session, for establishing some thirty-six thousand pounds, for which be proportion between the stipends of curates meant to provide by an additional duty on and the value of the livings which they tobacco, in lieu of the proposed auction duty served; the necessitous condition of many of last year; additional duties on the consoliwho performed the duty of non-resident dated customs, with some exceptions; an clergymen having too long been a reproach addition of one shilling one penny per bottle to the church of England.
on French wines; an increase of two-thirds The heavy expenses of the war rendered on goods imported from France and her dea new plan of finance necessary; and, in pendencies; an increase generally of onesubmitting his propositions to a committee half the present amount of the war duties of the whole house, Vansittart said, that on exports; and an additional duty of a further measures might be taken for pro- penny per pound on the export of foreign moting and facilitating the redemption of hides. The various resolutions were agreed the land-tax, the produce of which should be to without material opposition. applied to the reduction of the national debt. The renewal of the charter of the East In the second place, he proposed that, on all India company, concerning which innumeraloans hereafter to be contracted, there should ble petitions had been presented, came be be a provision made for discharging the debt; fore the house of commons on the twentyand his third proposition was a measure for second of March, lord Castlereagh having the repeal of part of the act of 1802, regard-stated, that the term of the existing charter ing the sinking fund, probably in conse- would expire in May, 1814, and that his quence of its having been demonstrated majesty's ministers had to consider thrce about this time, that the sinking fund had propositions—Whether the existing governadded as much to the public debt as it had ment in India should be allowed to continue redeemed, besides heavy expenses. This in its present state—whether an entire fund, he said, should be sacredly supported change should take place in the system—or to a certain amount; but he believed it whether a middle course should be adopted. might be shown that its enormous increase, On a question of so much importance it was by throwing into the market immense sums deemed necessary to hear evidence at the of money at one time, would produce injuri- bar; and the witnesses, chiefly persons who ous effects. When the establishment of a had occupied high stations in India, were sinking fund was proposed by Pitt, in 1786, generally against opening the trade, or althe national debt amounted to nearly two lowing missionaries to repair to the east for hundred and forty million pounds—a sum of the purpose of converting the natives. On which few then living ever hoped to see the this subject, however, so much zeal had been redemption, but which, he said, had already displayed in many of the petitions, that, after been effected; while, within the same period much discussion, it was at length resolved two hundred million pounds of war taxes that such measures ought to be adopted as had been paid by the unexampled exertions might tend to the introduction of useful of the country. By the original constitution knowledge, and of religious and moral imof the fund, the stock purchased by the provement, among the natives; and that facommissioners was not cancelled, but was cilities should be afforded to persons desistill considered to be their property; and the rous of going to, and remaining in, India for interest was regularly applied by them to these purposes. After the subject had occuthe further discharge of the national debt. pied the attention of parliament for some This arrangement, securing an accumula-months, a bill, founded on certain resolution by compound interest, was now abolish- tions proposed by lord Castlereagh, was ined. Till the complete redemption of the troduced, and read a third time on the thirdebt, Vansittart proposed to make good to teenth of July. It secured to the company, the sinking fund the annual sum of eight for a further term of twenty years, or until hundred and seventy thousand pounds, which April, 1834, all their possessions in India, would have been appropriated to the differ- including the later acquisitions, continental ent sums provided for in 1802, if that con- and insular, to the north of the equator.