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Their exclusive right to commercial inter- | parliament on the eleventh of June, and course with China, and to the trade in tea, excited strong animadversions. The king was confirmed. British subjects in general of Sweden having engaged to employ a were permitted to trade to and from all ports force of not less than thirty thousand men within the limits of the charter, under cer- in concert with the Russians, Great Britain tain provisions: all ships engaging in this so far acceded to a compact between the private trade to be of the burden of three courts of Stockholm and Petersburgh, as hundred and fifty tons or upwards, and those not only to oppose no obstacle to the annexfor the settlements of Fort William, Fort ation of Norway to Sweden, but to assist, if St. George, Bornbay, and Prince of Wales's necessary, in obtaining that object, by a Island, to be provided with a license, which naval co-operation; his Britannic majesty the court of directors were bound to grant : also engaging, independently of other sucto all other places a special license was re- cors, to furnish to Sweden, for the service quired, which the directors might grant or of the current campaign, the sum of one milrefuse, subject to an appeal to the board of lion pounds, and to cede to her the island of control. The church establishment in the Guadaloupe. The king of Sweden reciproBritish territories in India was placed under cally granted to the subjects of his Britannic the direction of a bishop and three archdea- majesty, for twenty years, the right of en
The application of the company's trepôt in the ports of Gottenburg, Carlsham, territorial revenues was directed to the and Stralsund, for all commodities of Great maintenance of the military force and to the Britain and her colonies, upon a duty of one establishments at their settlements, the pay-per cent. ad valorem. Lord Holland deprement of the interest of their debts in Eng- cated the transfer of Norway, denounced land, the liquidation of their territorial debt, the cession of Guadaloupe, and opposed the their bond debt at home, and such other pur- subsidy as inconsistent with the financial poses as the directors, with the approbation difficulties under which the country was of the board of control, might appoint. The laboring. His proposal, however, to suspend dividend on India stock was limited to ten the execution of the treaty, was rejected. per cent until the fund, called the separate The session closed on the twenty-second fund, should be exhausted, when it was to be of July with a speech from the throne, exten and a half per cent.; and the number of pressing satisfaction at the favorable state of king's troops, for which payment was to be affairs on the continent, and regret at the made by the company, was limited to twenty continuance of war with the United States; thousand, unless a greater number should declaring, however, that the prince-regent be sent to India at the request of the direc- could not consent to purchase peace
by a tors. Thus the new charter secured to the sacrifice of the maritime rights of Great East India company all the political power Britain. He approved of the arrangements they could reasonably desire, whilst the con- for the government of British India, and extinuance of their exclusive right of trading pressed his resolution to employ the means between China and Great Britain left the placed in his hands by parliament, in such a most valuable portion of their mercantile manner as might be best calculated to rebusiness without competition.
duce the extravagant pretensions of the TREATY WITH SWEDEN.
enemy, and facilitate the attainment of a The treaty with Sweden was laid before safe and honorable peace.
Prussia declares against France Battle of Lutzen-Armistice—Renewal of Hos
tilities-Austria joins the Grand Alliance-Battle before Dresden-Battle of Dennevitz—Bavaria joins the Allies—Rout of Buonaparte at Leipzic-Revolution in Holland and Successes in Spain, Battle of Vittoria—Capture of St. SebastianLord Wellington enters France— Failure of Sir John Murray before Tarragona-. Campaign in America—Naval Engagements—Meeting of Parliament, Proceedings-Peace with Denmark— Transfer of Norway to Sweden— Murat joins the Allies—Lord Wellington crosses the Adour-Batile of Orthes-Soult retreats to Toulouse-The Allies cross the Rhine, and enter France— Treaty of ChaumontBattle of Craone-Occupation of Paris by Capitulation-Abdication of Buonaparte-Battle of Toulouse-Convention of Paris—Entrance of Louis XVIII. Treaty of Peace—Royal Visitors to England-Restoration of the Pope-Return of Ferdinand to Spain - South American Affairs-Parliamentary Proceedings Honors conferred on the Duke of Wellington—Princess of Wales—State of Ireland— Treaty with Holland— Congress of Vienna.
PRUSSIA DECLARES AGAINST FRANCE. (against France, unless Buonaparte should -BATTLE OF LUTZEN.
listen to his offer of mediation; and the In the year 1813, the first event of im- crown-prince of Sweden, over whose intenportance which occurred was the defection tions some clouds of doubt yet hung, had of the Prussian general, D'Yorck, who en- resolved to place himself at the head of the tered into a convention with the Russian Swedish armies. general, Wittgenstein, now appointed to the About this time a Danish mission arcoinmand in chief on the death of the rived in England, and for a while the hope veteran Kutusoff, but shortly afterwards suc- was indulged that peace between Britain ceeded by Barclay de Tolli
. That conven- and Denmark would be restored; but the tion the king of Prussia, then within the demands of the latter being inadmissible, grasp of Buonaparte, refused to ratify; but or, according to other accounts, the cession no sooner had he freed himself from the ap- of Norway to Sweden being demanded by prehension of peril—no sooner did he per- this country, occasioned the failure of the ceive that there was a chance for emancipa- negotiation. tion for himself and his country—than he On the second of May was fought the conferred the most distinguished approbation great battle of Lutzen, in which the village upon D'Yorck.
of Gros-Gorschen was six times taken and As the year advanced a Russian envoy retaken by the bayonet; but the allies at was dispatched to Vienna; an Austrian am- length drove the French from their positions, bassador arrived in London; and Sweden, and remained masters of the field; though by landing a considerable force in Swedish they subsequently found it necessary to fall Pomerania, struck the first decisive blow back beyond the Elbe, which they effected against the French. During the three first in perfect order. Here they received con. months Buonaparte strained every nerve to siderable reinforcements, and another dreadrecruit his armies, or more properly speak- ful battle, or rather a succession of battles, ing, to create new ones. By the third of took place from the nineteenth to the twenApril, decrees had been passed for levies to ty-second, at and near Bautzen, of the saine . the amount of five hundred and thirty-five character as the action at Lutzen; the rethousand men; and it was then estimated sult of which, according to the French acthat he would have four hundred thousand counts, was, that they lost between eleven on the Elbe, two hundred thousand in Spain, and twelve thousand men in killed and and two hundred thousand partly on the wounded, and the allies ten thousand; and Rhine, and partly in Italy. On the fifteenth that they advanced about thirty miles, the of April he left Paris, the empress Maria allies retiring before them, unbroken and Louisa having first been declared regent of formidable, into the Prussian territory. the French empire “ till the moment when These engagements were fatally ominous victory should return the emperor.” Previ- to Buonaparte: in the action of the twenty. ously to this the king of Prussia had issued first he was deserted by a part of the Saxon an edict, abolishing the continental system; and of the Wirtemburg troops; and on the the emperor of Austria was understood to twenty-second the celebrated marshal Duroc have formed the resolution of taking part was mortally wounded. In an engagement
previous to the battle of Lutzen the French considered of high importance, and his loss also lost marshal Bessieres, who was killed was much regretted by the allies. On the by a cannon-ball.
twenty-ninth general Blucher again defeated AUSTRIA JOINS THE ALLIANCE. the enemy, taking general Putton prisoner, BUONAPARTE now listened, or affected to with twenty eagles, and twenty-two pieces listen, to the proposition for a congress to be of cannon. holden at Prague, for negotiating a general The crown-prince achieved a signal vicpeace; and, in pursuance of that object, a tory on the sixteenth of September, at Densuspension of hostilities was agreed upon on nevitz, over marshal Ney, on which occasion the first of June; and on the fourth an ar- the loss of the French was stated at sixteen mistice, to continue on all points till the thousand men. From the recommencement twentieth of July, was finally concluded and of hostilities, down to this period, the entire ratified-hostilities not to recommence with loss of the enemy was estimated at upwards out six days' notice. At the request of Aus- of a hundred thousand men, and two huntria, who appears to have been the prime dred and fifty pieces of cannon. mover in this affair, the armistice was pro- Feeling the severity of their losses, an exlonged till the tenth of August: every at- traordinary sitting of the French senate was tempt, however, at negotiation failed ; and holden on the fourth of October, the empress on the seventeenth, agreeably to notice, hos- Maria Louisa attending in person. The obtilities again commenced. Austria, having ject of this sitting was to pass a decree for signed a treaty by which she became a another levy of two hundred and eighty member of the grand alliance, having for thousand men. But France had yet greater, its object the recovery of the independence severer losses to sustain. The defection of of Europe, had issued a declaration of war the king of Bavaria, and his junction with against France; and at the different inter- the allied powers; the defeat, the total rout views which, during the armistice, had taken of Buonaparte at Leipzic on the sixteenth, place between the respective sovereigns eighteenth, and nineteenth of October, with and their ministers, it had been determined the loss of one hundred and twenty thousand that the crown-prince of Sweden should be men, and one hundred and twenty pieces of invested with the chief command of the cannon, were yet to be proclaimed to the combined forces.
world. Previously to this last and decisive BATTLES OF DRESDEN, DENNEVITZ, conflict, (during which seventeen battalions AND LEIPZIC.
of German infantry, with all their staff, and Various movements and affairs of posts two regiments of Westphalian huzzars, with took place immediately on the renewal of twenty-two pieces of artillery, came over to hostilities; but it was not until the twenty- the allies,) Buonaparte had been concentrateighth of August that a general battle wasing his forces at Leipzic, while the allies fought before Dresden, in which general exiended themselves on every side, and preVandamme and six other French generals, pared for battle. In the grand contest for with many officers of rank, six standards, this city, a greater force had assembled than sixty pieces of artillery, and ten thousand had almost ever acted on so confined a theaprisoners, were taken. On the twenty-sixth tre; and the attack of the allies on the sixgeneral Blucher, whose active and intrepid teenth, after much slaughter, left both arexertions obtained him that distinction which mies in nearly the positions they held at its has attached so much glory to his name, had commencement. The seventeenth passed taken fifty pieces of artillery, thirty tum- chiefly in preparation for the great action brils and ammunition-wagons, and ten thou- of the next day, which was directed upon the sand prisoners; and, renewing the contest town itself, and at the conclusion of which on the following day, he took thirty more Buonaparte had lost forty thousand men, and pieces of cannon, and five thousand prisoners. sixty-five pieces of cannon. His army began The loss of the French was also increased, to defile towards Weissenfels during the and the allies proportionably strengthened, night, and in the morning of the nineteenth by the desertion of two Westphalian regi- the magistrates of Leipzic requested a susments during the principal battle. In the pension of arms, for the purpose of arranging action of the twenty-eighth, the brave, but a capitulation; but, as it was easily seen unfortunate, general Moreau received a that this was an artifice to facilitate the escape mortal wound while in earnest conversation of the French, the emperor Alexander would with the emperor of Russia. He had ar- allow no respite, and the allied forces were rived at Gottenburgh from America in May, led to the attack. After a short resistance and proceeding to join his countryman and they carried the city, which was entered by early companion in arms, Bernadotte, was the emperor of Russia, the king of Prussia, appointed to the high station of major-general and the crown-prince of Sweden, about two of the allied army. His judicious advice hours after Buonaparte had quitted it. The respecting the plan of the campaign was French were flying in utter confusion over VOL. IV.
the Elster; the bridge was blocked up; prison-order. Similar measures were adopted at ers were taken by thousands; and many the Hague, Rotterdam, and other places. who plunged into the stream perished. The The intelligence of these events was brought whole of the rear-guard fell into the hands over on the twenty-first to London, by a of the allies; among the prisoners were Reg. deputation, for the purpose of inviting the nier, Brune, Valfery, Bertrand, and Lauris- prince of Orange to place himself at the ton, together with the king of Saxony and head of his countrymen—a call which he his whole court; Macdonald with difficulty readily obeyed. On the twenty-fifth of No gained the opposite bank, and prince Ponia- vember, he embarked at Deal, accompanied towski was drowned in the attempt. by the earl of Clancarty, and on the third of
Buonaparte retreated through Erfurt with December made his solemn entry into Amabout seventy or eighty thousand men, and sterdam, where he was proclaimed by the at Hanau was opposed by thirty thousand title of William the First, sovereign prince Bavarians, under general Wrede, who did of the united Netherlands. not retire until they had sustained a consid- SUCCESSES IN SPAIN.--BATTLE OF VIT. erable loss. On the second of November he
TORIA reached Mentz, and, continuing his retreat In Spain lord Wellington had, on the through Frankfort, crossed the Rhine on the twenty-sixth of May, entered Salamanca, seventh of November, when he again de- the French precipitately evacuating the city serted the shattered remains of his army, on his approach; and on the following day, and fled to Paris.
apparently fearful of being cut off by the The immediate consequences of this grand rapid advance of the allied army, they comoverthrow were great and glorious beyond menced a hasty evacuation of Madrid, and expectation. The house of Orange was re- of all the posts in its vicinity. Lord Welinstated in Holland; Hanover and Bruns- lington continued to advance, the French wick were restored to their rightful sove-flying before him in every direction; and, reigns; the confederation of the Rhine was on the thirteenth of June, they blew up the dissolved; the Rhine itself was passed by inner walls of Burgos, fled from that forthe allies; and the “sacred territory” of tress, and abandoned the whole of the coun France, covered, as it had been, by so many try to the Ebro, which general Grabam imvassal states, was now laid open to its very mediately passed, Lord Wellington's next frontier.
laurels were gathered on the plains of VitThe first steps of Buonaparte, after historia, where, on the twenty-first of June, he arrival at Paris
, were to throw an oppres-obtained a complete victory over marshal sive weight of taxation upon the people, and Jourdan. The French lost one hundred and to decree a new levy of three hundred fifty-one pieces of cannon, four hundred and thousand conscripts, to be sacrificed at the fifteen wagons of ammunition, all their shrine of unprincipled ambition. Shortly after baggage, provisions, and treasure, with their the issuing of this decree, the allied powers commander's baton of a marshal of France. promulgated a declaration, offering peace to Lord Wellington continued the pursuit, and Buonaparte on the liberal basis of guaranty- on the twenty-fifth took their only remaining to the French empire “an extent of ter- ing gun. The battle of Vittoria was celeritory which France, under her kings, never brated in England by general illuminations knew;" On this basis, Buonaparte professed and splendid fêtes; in Spain medals were himself willing to treat; and a congress struck on the occasion; and the cortes, by an was therefore expected to assemble at Man- unanimous vote, decreed a territorial prop heim to negotiate a general peace. It was erty to lord Wellington, in testimony of the desire of Buonaparte that, during the the gratitude of the Spanish nation. negotiating, an armistice should be pro- Buona parte immediately superseded Jourclaimed; but to this the allies very pru- dan, and appointed Soult to succeed him, with dently refused to assent.
the title, or rank, of lieutenant-general of the REVOLUTION IN HOLLAND. emperor, an honor never before conferred The revolution in Holland appeared as upon any of Buonaparte's generals. Previthe sudden burst of public feeling, though it ously to his joining the army, he issued a prodid not take place without previous concert. clamation, stating that his imperial majesty's The people of Amsterdam rose in a body, instructions, and his own intentions, were, to and, with the old cry of Oranje Boven, drive the allies across the Ebro, and to cele put up the Orange colors, and proclaimed brate the emperor's birth-day in the town of the sovereignty of that house. On the six- Vittoria ! Soult, however was destined, in teenth of November, an administration was his turn, to acknowledge the superiority of organized under the direction of the armed British prowess. From the twenty-fifth of burghers, and many of the leading citizens July to the second of August, a series of entook upon themselves the care of preserving'gagements took place, the result of which
was the retreat of the enemy into France, FAILURE BEFORE TARRAGONA. with the loss of fifteen to twenty thousand From this brilliant career of success in the men, four thousand of whom were prisoners. north of Spain, we must now turn to the CAPTURE OF ST. SEBASTIAN.-WELLING. eastern coast of the Peninsula, where geneTON ENTERS FRANCE.
ral Sir John Murray disembarked his forces The siege of St. Sebastian, which had on the thirty-first of May, and, on the third been invested shortly after the battle of day of June, invested Tarragona; but, after Vittoria, was conducted by Sir Thomas Gra- advancing his batteries against it, he received ham; and, on the twenty-fifth of July, an reports that Suchet was marching from Vaattempt to storm the fortress proved unsuc- lencia, for its relief, with a superior force, cessful. As the port was necessary for the and he immediately reimbarked his army, supply of provisions and other necessaries leaving cannon in the batteries, although adby sea, not a day was lost in prosecuting the miral Hallowell was of opinion that they siege; but it was not till the thirty-first of might have been brought off if he had reAugust that another assault was undertaken. mained till night. Sir John Murray's conThe breach, which, at a distance, appeared duct afterwards underwent an investigation very ample, proved to be of such a nature before a military tribunal, but it was attribthat it would admit the men only in single uted to an error in judgment Lord Wilfiles; and, if any succeeded in gaining the liam Bentinck, who succeeded him in the narrow ridge of the curtain, his station command, resumed the siege of Tarragona proved instantly fatal. Two hours of severe in August, and Suchet, who had retired into but fruitless exertion ensued, and the attack Catalonia, advanced to Villa Franca; and, was almost in a desperate state, when Sir the British general having withdrawn, le Thomas Graham adopted the expedient of entered Tarragona, destroyed the works, directing the guns against the curtain over withdrew the garrison, and again retired tothe heads of his own troops. The firing was wards Barcelona. As the grand effort against executed with such admirable precision and France was making on the side of the westeffect, that in an hour the defenders were ern Pyrenees, the third Spanish army was driven from their works, and retired to the detached in order to co-operate with lord castle, leaving the town in full possession of Wellington, and the remainder of the troops the allies, who sustained the severe loss in this quarter acted on the defensive. of two thousand three hundred men in Suchet, however, although able to maintain killed and wounded. The importance of the his footing in Spain, could not hope to gain place induced Soult to cross the Bidassoa any material advantage; and such was now in great force for its relief; but he was gal- the commanding situation of lord Wellinglantly repulsed by the Spanish troops alone. ton, that the liberation of the Peninsula
The castle surrendered on the eighth of Sep might be considered as accomplished. tember, and the garrison, now reduced to CAMPAIGN IN AMERICA.–NAVAL ENabout eighteen hundred men, were made
The events of the war with the United On the seventh of October the allied ar- States were at this period, when continental my crossed the Bidassoa, and planted the affairs were so highly important, viewed with British standard in France. Pampeluna, the comparatively little interest. The Amerisiege of which had been left to the care of cans collected a large force in the back setthe Spanish general Don Carlos D'Espagna, tlements, and again approached Detroit, surrendered on the thirty-first day of Octo- when colonel Proctor, on the twenty-second ber; a circumstance which relieved lord of January, routed their advanced guard, and Wellington from every apprehension respect- captured five hundred men, including their ing his rear, and enabled him to concentrate commander, general Winchester. In the end and dispose of his forces at pleasure. His of April the American general Dearborn, march was impeded by heavy rains; but, on with five thousand men, took possession of the tenth of November, the French were York, at the head of Lake Ontario, from driven from an intrenched position along the whence general Sheaffe, who had not one Nivelle, and pursued to Bayonne. On the thousand men, was compelled to retire. ninth of December, and four following days, About the same time general Vincent was Soult, who intended to drive the allies across obliged, by superiority of numbers, to evacuthe Ebro, and to celebrate Bounaparte's birth- ate Fort George, on the Niagara frontier, and, day in Vittoria, sustained another series of on the fifth of June, he compelled the enemy defeats on the banks of the Adour. Imme- again to fall back on Niagara; but soon afdiately after the action three German regi- terwards colonel Proctor was attacked by the muens, apprized of the important changes American general Harrison, with ten thouwhich had taken place in the northern parts sand men, who captured nearly the whole of the continent, went over in a body to the of his force; he himself escaping with a few allies.
lof his attendants. On the tenth of Septem