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MANILLA AND THE PHILIPPINES TAKEN. turning with the treasures of Mexico to the
GENERAL DRAPER therefore took the most Philippines, she proved to be that from Maeffectual means for carrying the place by nilla, bound to Acapulco. She had proceeded assault. The governor retired into the cita- a considerable way on her voyage, but meetdel; but as that place was not tenable, he ing with a hard gale of wind in the great soon surrendered at discretion. The hu- South Sea, she was disinasted, and obliged manity and generosity of the British com- to put back to refit. Though the captors manders saved the town from a general and were disappointed in their hopes of a ship
justly-merited pillage. A ransom of four full of silver, their prize was of immense millions of dollars was promised for this re- value, her cargo in rich merchandise being laxation of the laws of war. It was stipu- worth more than half a million. lated, at the same time, that all the other FAILURE OF AN EXPEDITION AGAINST fortified places in the island, and in all the
BUENOS AYRES. islands dependent on its government, should NOTHING could reflect greater honor on also be surrendered to his Britannic majesty. the wisdom and vigor of the administration, The whole range of the Philippines fell with under whose auspices so many important the city of Manilla.
enterprises were carried into effect in difA valuable addition was made to this con- ferent quarters of the globe, than the signal quest, and a fresh wound was given to the success which almost everywhere attended enemy by a small part of the victorious fleet. them. Only one expedition, of inferior moDuring the siege, admiral Cornish received ment, failed during the whole campaign; intelligence by the capture of an advice- and that failure was not owing to the teship, that the galleon from Acapulco was merity of the attempt, but to an unfortunate arrived at the straits which form the en- accident which could not have been guarded trance into the archipelago of the Philip- against by any stretch of human foresight. pines. Two ships of the squadron, the Pan- The circumstances attending it were equally ther man-of-war and the Argo frigate, were melancholy and unexpected. immediately dispatched in quest of her. It was deemed expedient to encourage They were out six and twenty days, when some private adventurers to add to the other the Argo, in the evening of the thirtieth of operations against so extensive a sphere of October, discovered a sail, which they did commerce, an attack upon the colony of not doubt to be the same they looked for. Buenos Ayres in South America. The conJust as the two ships in company were ap-quest of this place was doubly desirable, as proaching their object, the Panther was it would afford great security to the Portudriven by the rapidity of a counter-current guese settlements, and prove, at the same among shallows, and obliged to cast anchor. time, an excellent station for farther enterThe Argo escaped the danger, overtook the prises against the dominions of Spain upon galleon, and began a hot engagement with the South Seas. The Portuguese, therefore, her, which continued for two hours. But being no less interested than the English in the frigate was so unequally matched, and the issue of this undertaking, readily con80 roughly received by the Spaniard, that curred to promote its success. The emshe was obliged to desist, and to bring-to in barkation was made from the Tagus, on the order to repair her damage. In this pause thirtieth of August, and the force consisted of action, the current slackened; and the of three stout frigates, and some small armPanther, by strenuous exertion, and judi- ed vessels and store-ships, with five hundred cious management, got under sail with the troops on board. They had for their comgalleon in sight, and about nine the next mander captain Macnamara, an officer of morning got up to her. It was not until she courage and experience. Their voyage to was battered for two hours, within half-mus- the mouth of the Plata was expeditious and ket-shot, that she struck. So obstinate a re- favorable. They arrived there on the secsistance, with very little activity of opposi- ond of November; but no sooner had they tion, surprised the English. In her first en- entered that vast river, than they were atgagement with the Argo, this galleon tacked by a violent storm attended with mounted only six guns, though she was thunder and lightning. The river itself is pierced for sixty. She had but thi een in shoaly, and its navigation dangerous. The her engagement with the Panther. But she Spaniards were also found better armed and was a huge vessel lying like a mountain in better prepared for resistance than was exthe water, and the Spaniards trusted en-pected, having even acted on the offensive tirely to the excessive thickness of her sides, with success, and taken, some time before, not altogether without reason, for the shot the Portuguese settlement of Nova Colonia, made no impression upon any part, except in which they found a very great booty, and her upper works. Another subject of sur- a large quantity of military stores. On this prise occurred after she struck. Instead of view of things, the adventurers consulted the American galleon, as was expected, re- together, and, after deliberation, judged it necessary to begin with the recovery of single frigates and transports for the conNova Colonia, before they made any attack veyance of reinforcements to St. Domingo upon Buenos Ayres. An English pilot, who and Louisiana. These seldom escaped the knew the place and river, undertook to carry vigilance of the British cruisers. Her merthe commodore's vessel into the harbor, and chant-ships were, for the same reason, left within pistol-shot of the enemy's principal equally exposed. A detail of all the single battery. They advanced to the attack with captures made upon her trade would be endthe fullest confidence of victory, and began less. She lost, at one time, a fleet of twentya fierce fire, which was quickly returned, and five sail, richly laden with sugar, coffee, and supported, on both sides, for four hours with indigo, which had taken their departure from uncommon resolution. The Spanish batte- Cape François for Europe, under convoy of ries were almost silenced, when, just as their four frigates. Five of the merchant-men success seemed certain, the ship by some were surprised and taken in the night by unknown accident took fire. The same mo- some privateers of New York and Jamaica. ment discovered the flames, and the impos- Next day commodore Keppel fell in with sibility of extinguishing them. The scene the remainder, and having captured them of horror and confusion that followed is un- and their convoy, sent the whole into Portdescribable. The commodore was drowned ; Royal harbor. and of three hundred and forty souls, only ATTEMPT TO BURN A BRITISH seventy-eight in all escaped. The other
SQUADRON. vessels of the squadron, far from being able IF France was thus incapable of defendto yield any assistance to the sufferers were ing herself at sea, it was not likely that her obliged to get off as expeditiously as they offensive operations on the same element could, lest they should have been involved could be very vigorous or formidable. She in the same fate. As they had also received made some attempts, however, which proved some damage in the action, it was with great ultimately fruitless.. Two of them dedifficulty that they made good their retreat serve notice. The object of the first was to to the Portuguese settlement at Rio de Ja- burn the British ships of war at anchor in neiro.
Basque-road, where they were stationed to DISASTERS SUSTAINED BY SPAIN AND watch the coast of Brittany, and Brest harFRANCE.
bor in particular. The enemy prepared three As this was the only check which Great fire vessels, which, being chained together, Britain met with in the career of conquest, were towed out of the port, and set on fire, so it was the only little triumph that Spain with a strong breeze that wafted them dienjoyed after a continual series of defeats rectly towards the English squadron. Through and disasters. In the course of one year, hurry, mistake, or accident, two of them she saw herself stripped of the most valua- blew up with a terrible explosion; and every ble of her distant possessions: her ships of person on board perished. The wind, also, war, her merchant-men, her treasures, had suddenly shifting, drove them clear of the everywhere become the prey of a watchful, ships which they were intended to destroy. active, and irresistible enemy: the inter- Had they been managed with the coolness course between the mother country and her and intrepidity so requisite upon such occaremaining colonies was almost totally cut sions, they might have done some execuoff. Such were the fruits of her treachery tion. to Great Britain,-such the consequences of NEWFOUNDLAND TAKEN BY THE her yielding to the artful and self-interested FRENCH, BUT RETAKEN. suggestions of France.
The next offensive effort of any moment, France had as little reason to exult in the which France made upon the ocean, was success of her intrigues at the court of Mad- directed against Newfoundland. Monsieur rid. The Bourbon confederacy served only de Ternay, with a squadron of four men-ofto involve both powers in the same distresses. war, and a proportionable number of land The attempts in Germany and Portugal, forces under the command of Monsieur de where their fondest hopes lay, ended in the Hausonville, having at first eluded observamost mortifying disappointment. The loss tion in their departure from Brest, and afof Martinico and its dependencies was a se- terwards baffled pursuit in their voyage across vere blow to France. So far from being the Atlantic, entered the Bay of Bulls on able to make any attempts to regain those the 24th of June, and landed some troops islands, she had it not in her power to send without opposition. Having taken possesout a sufficient force to secure the only set- sion of an inconsiderable settlement in that tlements that still remained to her from bay, they advanced to the town of St. John's, sharing the same fate. Her navy was so which being in no condition of defence, much reduced, that she could only spare readily capitulated. One company of solvery small squadrons for any undertaking; diers, of which the garrison of the fort conand she was frequently obliged to trust to sisted, were made prisoners of war. This exercise of their power was of very short and military, of the year 1762 remarkably duration. As soon as the news reached concur to humble the pride, and to dash the England, a force was immediately fitted out hopes of the Bourbon confederacy. France to retake those places. But the vigilance was convinced by woful experience, that the and activity of general Amherst, who had present at least was not the favorable time the chief command in North America, su- for drawing from the family compact all the perseded the necessity of this armament. advantages with which she had vainly flatHe detached colonel Amherst with a body tered herself
. Disconcerted in her views of forces, and lord Colville with a small, but of giving the law to Great Britain, she now sufficient squadron, to recover the island. felt in good earnest those moderate and paThe land forces attacked some detachments cific sentiments, which she had formerly of the French advantageously posted in the professed, but the sincerity of which was at neighborhood of St. John's; and prepared to that time rather questionable. Spain, in attack St. John's itself with so much vigor like manner, having suffered beyond examand activity, that Monsieur de Hausonville, ple, during her short engagement in the who had remained there as governor, thought contest, and laboring under the most dreadproper to deliver up that place on the eigh- ful apprehensions of future misfortunes, teenth of September, and to surrender him-keenly repented of the steps she had taken, self and garrison prisoners of war, before and wished to recede. As every day brought Jord Colville could arrive from the place intelligence to both of some mortifying where the troops had been landed, to co-stroke, they did not wait for the issue of ali operate with them. Monsieur de Ternay the enterprises before related, but endeavorescaped with the fleet, partly by having gain-ed, in the beginning of September, to put a ed a considerable distance, by means of a stop by early negotiation to calamities, which thick fog; and partly because lord Colville, they foresaw the improbability of averting after their having been discovered, did not by war. Happily for them, as well as for apprehend that they really were the ships of the general tranquillity, they found the court the enemy.
of London favorably disposed to listen to their OVERTURES FOR PEACE. peaceful overtures Thrs did all the operations, both naval
Causes and Effects of the sincere Dispositions of all Parties towards Peace-Motives
of national Policy for encouraging Pacific Proposals– Want of Perfect Harmony in the Cabinet—Changes in Administration-Dukes of Bedford and Nivernois employed in the Negotiation-Difference between this and the Treaty in 1761--Conduct of the Courts with Respect to their German Allies-Change in the Behavior of the British Ministry towards the King of Prussia justified France guided by the same Alteration of Circumstances; and the Peace of Germany restored— The Article relating to Portugal very easily settled— Circumstance which facilitated the Adjustment of Great Britain's direct Concerns—Extent of her Acquisitions in North America by this Treaty– Terms annexed to the Surrender of St. Pierre and Miquelon-Spain's Renunciation of her Pretensions to the Fishery-Arrangement respecting the French West India Islands—The Havannah restored, on very moderate Terms—Cession and Exchange of the other Conquests in Africa, the East Indies, and Europe—Sacrifice made by France to the Honor of Great Britain, in suppressing the old Claim on Account of Prizes before the Declaration of War-Preliminaries signed by the British and French Ministers al Fontainbleau-Disputes concerning the Articles of the Peace-Coalition between the Duke of Newcastle's and Mr. Pitt's Adherents—Meeting of Parliament-Conflict in the House of Com
- The Security of our Colonies—Majority in Favor of the Address-Arrival of three Cherokee Chiefs in England.
SITUATION OF THE BELLIGERENTS. in the midst of all her successes, had the
The delays that frequently took place in most urgent occasion for peace. Though her the course of the former negotiation, and trade had been greatly augmented, a circumthe pretexts finally made use of to break it stance without example favorable; and off, form a striking contrast when opposed though many of her conquests were not lese to the dispatch with which concerns of still valuable than glorious; yet her supplies of greater importance were afterwards adjust- money, great as they were, did not keep ed, as soon as the intentions of all parties pace with her expenses. The supply of towards peace became cordial and sincere. men too, which was necessary to furnish France and Spain had, indeed, no other re- the waste of so extensive a war, became source; and Great Britain herself was not sensibly diminished; and the troops were 10 intoxicated with success, as to prefer the not recruited but with some difficulty, and continuance of expensive and hazardous at a heavy charge. Besides, every end that efforts to a satisfactory termination of hos- could be rationally proposed in carrying on tilities. The sentiments of the sovereign, the war, was answered: the designs of the the temper of the people at the time, the enemy were frustrated in all parts of the state of the nation as well as of parties, and globe: their daring encroachments had been many other motives of humanity, policy, and repressed, and such conquests made upon patriotism, concurred to render the ministry them, as put it out of their power to insist very earnest in their advances to the accom- upon any terms but those which might be plishment of so desirable an object. dictated by the moderation and generosity
In all the king's speeches to parliament, of Great Britain. These strong motives of he had constantly expressed an anxious wish public polity, for encouraging pacific pro to see the tranquillity of his kingdoms re- posals
, were farther enforced by other constored; and had declared, as before taken siderations. A change in the system of the notice of, that the only use he proposed to British ministry had begun this war: anmake of the advantages gained over the other change made it expedient to put an enemy in war, was to procure for his sub- end to it. jects the blessings of peace, on safe and It has been already observed, that the honorable conditions. The happy moment whole council, except lord Temple, were was now arrived, when the offers made by unanimous in their opposition to Pitt's the humbled house of Bourbon enabled his scheme for precipitating the rupture with majesty to demonstrate to the world, that Spain. But their unanimity upon that octhose were not studied or delusive profes-casion did not imply a perfect coincidence sions, but that he had really spoken the lan- of opinion, or harmony of sentiment in other guage of his heart.
respects. He was not long removed from There is no doubt but that the country, office, before it appeared that the remaining
part of the system was framed upon princi-raised by the duke's hirelings against the ples so very discordant, that it was by no tory favorite. But their malignant efforts means likely to stand. The liberal ideas of served only to rivet the king's attachment to the new king's friends, and the exclusive the object of their unmerited obliquity; and spirit of the old king's ministers, when the duke found his own weight in adminisbrought up as it were into immediate colli- tration daily decline. He accordingly thought sion, kindled a flame, the violence of which himself obliged to resign in the latter end was not to be easily to be subdued by any of May; and the earl of Bute was immediefforts of human sagacity.
ately placed at the head of the treasury. Pitt had originally associated himself Mr. George Grenville, brother to earl Ten. with the tory patriots, and first acquired ple, became secretary of state in the room of distinction by opposing the corrupt mea- his lordship; and the place of first commissures of Sir Robert Walpole, the declared sioner of the admiralty being vacated by the head of the whigs. After the latter was death of lord Anson, that office was bestowdriven from the seat of power, Pitt occa-ed on the earl of Halifax, now returned sionally temporized, being sometimes reput- from Ireland. ed a whig, sometimes a tory, till he got the CHANGES IN ADMINISTRATION. chief direction of public affairs, when he The two last appointments were well calindiscriminately employed persons of all culated to lessen the unpopularity of the earl parties, with equal honor to himself and ad- of Bute's promotion. Grenville's character vantage to the state. Struck with such an for integrity and patriotism stood as high in example, that justified in practice the wis public estimation as that of his brother, lord dom, as well as the liberality of the king's Temple; and, in point of application and views, his majesty would have gladly avail- abilities, he was certainly his superior. Any ed himself of Pitt's assistance to complete unfavorable impression, therefore, which so noble a design; to do away all local and might be made by the resignation of the one, party distinctions; and to establish a plan ought naturally to have been effaced or coun. of administration, which would afford the teracted by the other's acceptance of an ofmost impartial encouragement to every man fice under the new minister. The earl of of virtue and abilities throughout the whole Halifax had acquitted himself in a variety empire.
of public employments with great applause. But his majesty's hopes of Pitt's concur- Such were the men, whom the earl of Bute rence were unhappily disappointed. This was desirous of having associated with him minister was, indeed, of no party; but it in office; and it is not, perhaps, the least of was rather owing to a defect, than to any his praise, that all the vacancies which hapexcellence in his character. An imperious pened in the higher departments of the state, and unaccommodating disposition rendered during his administration, were uniformly nim incapable of acting any otherwise than filled by men of reputation and abilities. alone. Placing too great a confidence in the The earl of Bute also thought it sound superiority of his own genius, he treated the policy, in conformity with the system of libeopinions of others with too little delicacy. ral comprehension already explained, to atThe want of more conciliating manners was tempt a coalition with the great body of the a bar to any permanent union between him tories, or country gentlemen of ancient famiand his colleagues in office. Thus the state lies, who were able to yield him effectual was prevented from enjoying the joint fruit support
. They readily came into his meaof the wisdom of many able men, who sures; and as they had long been excluded might mutually have tempered, and mutually from any share in the management of the forwarded each other : and Pitt's extraor-state, they were now doubly zealous to show dinary talents became not merely useless, themselves worthy of the confidence of their but, upon some occasions, injurious to his king and country. Their efforts, however, country.
were as vigorously opposed by the disconSoon after the resignation of Pitt, the duke tented party. of Newcastle, first commissioner of the trea- Whilst the nation was thus distracted by sury, grew extremely jealous of the earl of violent cabals, the conduct of a war became Bute's influence in the cabinet. This noble- difficult; its continuance unsafe ; and its man enjoyed a very distinguished share of supplies uncertain. If the administration his sovereign's esteem and confidence. His failed, their failure would be imputed to inconduct was irreproachable; but he was said capacity: if they succeeded, their success to be a tory. On this ground, therefore, the would be converted into an argument for duke, who had long been considered as the such terms of peace, as it would be impossihead of the whigs, hoped he could ruin the ble for them to procure. Above all, the ancredit of his rival, by reviving those factious cient and known connexion between the distinctions, on which his own merit princi- chiefs of the moneyed interest and the prinpally rested. A loud clamor was therefore cipal persons in the opposition, must have