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ber nine American vessels encountered six immediately with her prize for Halifax, British on Lake Erie, in which unequal con- where captain Lawrence died of his wounds. test the American commander's vessel at one The loss, on both sides, was very severe for time struck; but at length the whole British so short a contest; that of the English being squadron, reduced to a complete wreck, fell twenty-three killed and fifty-six wounded, into the hands of the enemy. In the end of and the Americans about seventy killed and October three American armies, each one hundred wounded. In St. George's chanamounting to ten thousand men, marched nel the American sloop of war Argus was from ditterent points upon Lower Canada; also captured by the British sloop Pelican. but this great effort was completely frus
PARLIAMENT. trated, and, on the whole, the campaign was PARLIAMENT was opened so early as the honorable to the British arms.
fourth of November, by the prince-regent, Great Britain did not fully maintain that with a speech from the throne, of which the decided superiority in naval combats which new alliances against France, and the war had so long distinguished her, although in with America, formed the principal topics. none did she suffer disgrace. The preceding The prince declared that no disposition to year closed with the loss of the English frig- require from France sacrifices inconsistent ate Java, captain Lambert, with lieutenant- with her honor, or just pretensions as a nageneral Hislop and his staff on board, bound tion, would ever be an obstacle to peace; to Bombay. She was met off the coast of and that he was ready to enter into discusBrazil by the American frigate Constitution, sions with the United States on principles captain Bainbridge, of much superior force; not inconsistent with the established maxims and after a furious action, in which she was of public law, and with the maritime rights dismasted and completely disabled, she sur- of the British empire. The addresses on rendered to her antagonist in a state which the speech were carried without opposition. obliged him to set her on fire as soon as the After the treaties with Russia and Prussia wounded were removed. Captain Lambert had been laid before the house, lord Casand many of his crew were killed. The tlereagh introduced a bill to enable his maPeacock British sloop, of eighteen guns, was jesty to accept the services of a proportion also sunk in an engagement with the Amer- of the militia out of the United Kingdom, ican sloop Horne Th time, however, for the vigorous prosecution of the war. arrived, in which the British flag was to re- The bill passed through both houses without cover its glory. Captain Broke, of the Shan- opposition, every possible exertion to bring non frigate, had been cruising for some time the great contest on the continent to a speedy near the port of Boston, where the Chesa- issue being considered desirable. The sancpeake frigate then lay; and that the enemy tion of parliament was also obtained, without might not be prevented from coming out, by a dissentient voice, for the loan of twenty. the apprehension of having more than one two million pounds, as well as for the aids opponent to deal with, captain Broke, on the granted to Sweden, Russia, Prussia, and Ausfirst of June, drew up before the harbor in a tria, either in direct subsidies or in bills of posture of defiance. Captain Lawrence, of credit. Two millions had been advanced to the Chesapeake, accepted the challenge, and Portugal, two to Spain, and one to Sweden put to sea; while crowds of the inhabitants, The sum to be allowed to Russia and Prussia in the greatest confidence as to the issue, was estimated at five million pounds; and lined the beach to witness the approaching the advance to be made to Austria consisted conflict. After the exchange of two or three of one million pounds, together with one hunbroadsides, the Chesapeake fell on board the dred thousand stand of arms, and military Shannon, and they were locked together. At stores in proportion. Men of all parties this critical moment captain Broke, observing concurred in supporting the foreign policy that the enemy flinched from their guns, of ministers, and the advocates of peace gave orders to board. In less than ten min- admitted that there were no means of utes, the whole of the British crew were on securing that blessing but by perseverance the decks of the Chesapeake; and in two in the mighty contest which had been minutes more the enemy were driven, sword so gloriously begun. On the twentieth of in hand, from every point; the American December parliament was adjourned until flag was hauled down; and the British Union the first of March, 1814. floated over it in triumph. In another min- PEACE WITH DENMARK-TRANSFER OF ute they ceased firing from below, and NORWAY.--MURAT JOINS THE ALLIES. called for quarter; and the whole service PEACE between Great Britain and Denwas performed in fifteen minutes from its mark was re-established on the fourteenth commencement. Both ships came out of ac- of January. Britain engaged to restore all tion in the most beautiful order, their rigging her conquests except Heligoland ; prisoners appearing as perfect as if they had only been of war, on both sides, were to be released; exchanging a salute. The Shannon sailed Denmark was to join the allies with ten
thousand men, on receiving a subsidy of the enemy was again put to flight, leaving four hundred thousand pounds from Eng- the road to Bordeaux completely open. The land; and Pomerania to be ceded, by Swe- retreat of Soult's army was towards Tou. den, to Denmark, in lieu of Norway. It louse, whither the main body of the British was not, however, without great reluctance pursued him; whilst Bayonne was invested that the king of Denmark parted with one by Sir John Hope. In this state of affairs, of his crowns, and the people of Norway Buonaparte released Ferdinand the seventh could not be reconciled to a transfer which and his brother Don Carlos. militated against their national and political ALLIES ENTER FRANCE.-TREATY OF prejudices. Violent commotions consequent- CHAUMONT-BATTLE OF CRAONE. ly took place; a declaration of Norwegian The allied armies operating on the Rhine independence was made; and prince Chris- probably exceeded half a million. Prussia tian, hereditary prince of Denmark, was and Austria had, between them, an effecproclaimed regent. Hostilities commenced tive force of two hundred and fifty thoubetween Sweden and Norway about the sand; Russia alone had nearly two hundred middle of July; by the latter end of August thousand; and to these may be added thirty prince Christian was compelled to relinquish thousand Swedes, ten thousand Danes, and his claims; and the sceptre of Norway, after a large number of troops contributed by the having been so long annexed to the Danish princes of the confederation of the Rhine.dominions, passed into the hands of the king On crossing that important river, the allies of Sweden.
issued a proclamation, in which they deThe mortifications of Buonaparte were clared that, though victory had conducted increased by the defection of Murat, his them into France, they had not come to brother-in-law, who had been created king make war upon her; their wish and object of Naples by his interest, and who, by a were simply, to repel far from them the treaty dated the eleventh of January, en- yoke that the French government endeavor. gaged to assist Austria with an army of ed to impose on their respective countries thirty thousand men, and opened his ports countries which possessed the same rights to the English. In Holland, a body of Eng. to independence and happiness as France. lish and Dutch, under Sir Thomas Graham, As conquest and splendor were not their obcreated a diversion in favor of the allies. jects, they therefore called upon the magisWELLINGTON CROSSES THE ADOUR.- trates, land-owners, and cultivators, to reBATTLE OF ORTHES.
main at their homes, as the progress and In the south of France, at the commence- stay of the allied armies would be characment of the year, the progress of lord Wel- terized by the maintenance of public order, lington was retarded by the state of the respect to private property, and the most weather; but as soon as it became tolerably severe discipline. Notwithstanding all they favorable, he resolved to pass the Adour, in had suffered, they were not animated by a which he was greatly assisted by admiral spirit of vengeance; they knew how to disPenrose, with the vessels and boats collect- tinguish and separate the ruler of France ed for the service. The army now received from France berself: to him they attributed its supplies from the little harbor of St. Jean all their calamities; and not even were they de Luz, which was crowded with English disposed to retaliate on the French nation shipping. The Gave d'Oleron was also pass- any of those miseries which the revolution ed, and Soult withdrew to a commanding had brought on Europe.-While Buonaparte position in front of Orthes, where, being re- never made war but for the purpose of ooninforced by general Clausel, he determined quest, and to gratify his ambition, other to wait the issue of an action. On the counsels guided the allied monarchs. They, twenty-seventh of February lord Welling- indeed, were ambitious-they, indeed, sought ton issued his orders for a general attack, glory; but their ambition and glory were of when the French were driven from one po- a very opposite character from those of Buosition to another, till the rapid advance of naparte. The only conquest which they deSir Rowland Hill, who had forced a passage sired was that of peace; not such a peace over the Gave de Pau, above the town, and as Buonaparte had often mocked Europe marched a strong body of cavalry upon the with, but a peace which should secure to road to St. Sevre, threw them into inextri- their own people, to France, and to Europe, cable confusion. On the twenty-eighth, the a state of real repose. “We hoped to find pursuit was continued to St. Sevre, where it before touching the soil of France; we general Beresford crossed the upper part of come hither in quest of it!" the Adour. On the first of March the ad. Marshal Blucher's army, amounting to vance of the main army was impeded by eighty thousand men, crossed the Rhine in heavy rains; Sir Rowland Hill, however, three columns; general St. Priest at Cobproceeded to Aire, which he attacked on the lentz, generals Langeron and D'Yorck at second, and, after an obstinate resistance, Caub, and general Sacken at Manheim;
while, at the same time, Brabant was enter-, treating from different quarters. The allied ed by fifty thousand men, to co-operate with armies were also concentrating and pressing the forces from England. But it was not on the same point: Blucher by the way of only with her troops and money that this Nancy and Toule; and Schwartzenberg, country was determined to assist the allies who had the chief command of the Ausin their glorious purpose of restoring the trian and Russian armies, by Langres and tranquillity of Europe : as it was natural to Chaumont. Anxious to prevent the junction suppose that the downfall of Buonaparte, or, of his opponents, Buonaparte moved forward if he displayed a sincere desire for peace, a to St. Dizier, and on the twenty-ninth attreaty with him, would take place, it was tacked Blucher at Brienne, where, after a proper, in either case, that Britain, who had sanguinary conflict, he remained master of done so much, and who was so much inte- the field. On the first of February he again rested in the result, should have her repre-attacked the Prussian general at La Rosentative present with the allied armies; thiere, where he was beaten with the loss and lord Castlereagh was selected for this of seventy-three pieces of cannon and of purpose.
four thousand prisoners, and driven over the Buonaparte found the French nation very Aube to Troyes, from whence the advance reluctant in coming forward against the in- of Schwartzenberg compelled him to retreat vaders; and the regular armies, which still to Nogent, and abandon the ancient capital remained to him, were by no means equal of Champagne. This rapid career, which to cope with them: they therefore advanced threatened speedy ruin to Buona parte, stimuinto France with little opposition. By the lated him to fresh exertions, and he determiddle of January part of the allied forces mined on the plan of concentrating his occupied Langres, an ancient and conside- force at particular points. His first efforts rable town, one hundred miles within were directed against Blucher, whom he the French frontier. The principal armies compelled, after a variety of actions, to rewhich Buonaparte had been able to collect treat. In the mean time, however, prince were under the command of Marshals Vic- Schwartzenberg, with the Austrians, was tor and Marmont. The former advanced advancing upon Paris, and a corps had gaininto Alsace, where he met the Bavarians, ed possession of Fontainbleau on the sevenunder general Wrede; the French, how. teenth of February, which obliged Buona. ever, were compelled to evacuate this prov- parte to turn his arms on that side; and, ince, and, being brought to action in Lor- after much fighting, Schwartzenberg was raine, were defeated with great loss, and re-compelled to withdraw his positions on the treated on Luneville. The Cossacks, ac-Seine, and establish his head-quarters at cording to their usual custom, were greatly Troyes. This city was evacuated by the in advance, having pushed on between Epi- allies on the twenty-third; it was, however, nal and Nancy. The second French army, recovered on the fourth of March by general under Marmont, was ordered to oppose the Wrede, at which time Buonaparte was advance of Blucher; but neither in relative marching against Blucher. force nor equipment was it equal to this ob- During these operations the plenipotenject. Marmont, therefore, retreated before tiaries from the several belligerent powers the Prussian general to the Saare, behind assembled at Chatillon, where Caulincourt which river, and within the frontiers of Old appeared on the part of France. The treaty, France, he took up a position. His retreat which proceeded upon the ground of placing was much harassed on one flank by count France in the same territorial situation as Sacken, who occupied Worms, Spires, and she stood under her kings, with some adDeux Ponts; while, on the other, he was dition to her ancient limits, contained a approached by general D'Yorck, who occu- proposition that her capital should be occupied Treves and Saar-Louis. From this pied by the allied armies till the conclusion sketch it is evident that, even within a of a definitive treaty. Buonaparte, elated month after the allies had crossed the by the temporary successes which he had Rhine, they were gaining fast upon Paris, recently gained, seized with fury the paper while the French armies which had hitherto containing the proposal, exclaiming, while been collected were quite incompetent to he tore it, “ Occupy the French capital! I resist them with effect.
am at this moment nearer to Vienna than On the twenty-fifth of January, Buona- they are to Paris!" The advantages, howparte left Paris, preceded by Berthier, hav- ever, of the allies were immense : every ing previously confided the regency, during fortress which fell on either side of the his absence, to Maria Louisa. The French Rhine augmented their means of invasion; armies about this time were assembling with the Oder, the Elbe, and the Rhine, had bein the line of the Meuse; Chalons-sur-Marne come a triple line of reserves, from which being the point towards which Macdonald, they continually drew reinforcements; and Marmont, Victor, and Mortier, were re-l the obstacles that had hitherto retarded their
progress were daily diminishing. Anxious, ble order upon Laon, where he was joined however, to ascertain Buonaparte's views by the Russians who had evacuated Soisand intentions, the allied sovereigns allowed sons. Here he was attacked by Buonaparte, Caulincourt to present a counter-proposition, with his whole force, on the ninth; and, stipulating only that it should correspond after a severe action on that and the followwith the spirit and substance of the condi- ing day, he retained his position, the French tions already submitted ; and the tenth of retreating towards Soissons, with the loss Darch was fixed upon, by mutual consent, of forty-eight pieces of cannon and five thouas the period at which the final determina- sand prisoners. In Blucher Buona parte found tion should be made.
an antagonist, who, in every vicissitude, preIn the mean time a treaty was signed at sented an example of constancy and heroChaumont, by which Austria, Russia, Eng- ism; and to whose prowess he is said to land, and Prussia, undertook each to bring have paid an involuntary tribute, on one ocone hundred and fifty thousand men into the casion, by exclaiming that he would rather field, and engaged, should Buonaparte re- fight ten regular generals than that old ject the propositions submitted to him, to drunken hussar; for the day after he had employ all their means in a vigorous prose- totally defeated him, he was sure to find him cution of the war. Britain also engaged to as ready as ever to renew the combat. furnish a subsidy of five million pounds to be In the course of his route, Buonaparte equally divided among the other three pow- seized Rheims, and continued his march toers; reserving to herself
, however, the right wards prince Schwartzenberg, who, on the of furnishing her contingent in foreign troops, twenty-first, took a position before Arcis-surat the rate of twenty pounds per annum for Aube. After an obstinate engagement, Buo infantry, and thirty pounds for cavalry. The na parte, apprehensive of a surprise from treaty finally stipulated that the league Blucher, avoided a general action, and reshould continue for twenty years, and should treated upon Vitry and St. Dizier. His efextend also to such other powers as might de- forts were now directed to prevent the junctermine to join the confederation. At length, tion of Schwartzenberg and Blucher; but on the fifteenth of March, the French pleni- in furthering his object, by passing the Aube potentiary presented a counter-proposition, with his whole army near Vitry, he left himdemanding that the Rhine should form the self open to the bold decision which was imboundary of the French empire; that Ant- mediately adopted by the allies, who lost no werp, Flushing, Nimeguen, and part of Waal, time in placing themselves between the should be ceded to France; and that Italy, French army and Paris, and proceeding including Venice, should form a kingdom thither, with a united force of at least two for the viceroy, Eugene Beauharnois. In hundred thousand men. addition to these claims, he demanded in- On the twenty-fourth of March, prince demnities for Joseph, Jerome, and Louis Schwartzenberg established his head-quarBuona parte; and for the viceroy, as duke ters at Vitry; and on the same day fieldof Frankfort. As these demands would con- marshal Blucher arrived, with a large profer power on France out of all proportion to portion of his army, at Chalons. General the other great political bodies of Europe, Winzingerode and Czernicheff were now the ministers of the allied sovereigns de- dispatched, with ten thousand horse and fifty clared that, to continue the negotiations, un- pieces of cannon, to observe the march of der the present auspices, would be to re- Napoleon on St. Dizier, and to menace his nounce the objects they had in view, and to rear. The arrangements being complete, betray the confidence reposed in them. Aus- the king of Prussia issued orders to marshal tria herself abandoned' Buonaparte to his Blucher to direct his force on Paris; and on fate, and the congress was dissolved. the twenty-fifth the Austro-Russian army
Operations were not relaxed in conse- faced about from Vitry, and took the same quence of these negotiations. On the fifth direction, by the route of Fête Champenoise, of March, Buonaparte was repulsed at Sois- where a junction between the two armies sons, which town, after having twice changed was formed. On their march the allies had masters, had been most opportunely reduced the good fortune to intercept a column of by Winzingerode and Bulow, at the head of five thousand men, escorting from Paris an thirty thousand men. He then made a flank immense convoy of ammunition and provismovement on Craone, which covered the ions for Buonaparte. The grand army esleft wing of Blucher's army, and an obsti- tablished its head-quarters at Coulommiers nate engagement ensued, during which the on the twenty-seventh, having marched Prussian general detached ten thousand twenty-seven leagues in three days, and becavalry, with instructions to throw them- ing now only thirteen leagues from Paris. selves on the flank and rear of the French: The plan of the allied sovereigns was to but this manauvre was unsuccessful, and concentrate the whole of their force on the on the seventh Blucher retreated in admira-Iright banks of the Marne and the Seine, and to attack Paris on the north, by taking beyond the barriers, and to sign a capitulaa position on the heights of Montmartre. tion for the surrender of the city in two On the twenty-eighth they continued their hours. The Russian general instantly subprogress to Meaux, and in the evening ar- mitted this proposition to his imperial masrived in the neighborhood of the French ter, and to the king of Prussia, who were metropolis, without having encountered any both on the field, and the truce was agreed formidable obstacle.
to without hesitation. At four o'clock in OCCUPATION OF PARIS.-ABDICATION OF the afternoon, count de Nesselrode entered BUONAPARTE.
the city, furnished with full powers to ratify HITHERTO Buona parte had displayed to the capitulation, which was concluded at his army the most invincible contidence in two o'clock in the morning of the thirty-first the final result of the campaign, considering of March. the armies to which he was opposed as cut Buonaparte arrived at Troyes at eleven of' in their retreat, and inclosed in the heart o'clock at night on the twenty-ninth, having of France. Roused at length from this de- exhausted his troops by a march of twenty lusion by intelligence, received on the leagues that day, and, early on the followtwenty-seventh, that the allies were march- ing morning, took the direction of Sens; ing directly on Paris, he advanced to the but so great was his impatience, that with Aube. On the twenty-ninth at daybreak, an escort of one thousand five hundred carwhilst preparing to pass that river at the alry, he proceeded with the utmost rapidity bridge of Doulancourt, à courier arrived to Fontainbleau, and in the night of the with intelligence that marshals Marmont same day arrived at Cour de France, about and Mortier, after having fallen back before four leagues from Paris. Early in the mornthe enemy, were making dispositions to de- ing of the thirty-first he received intellifend the capital; and, aware of the insuffi- gence that his capital had capitulated, and ciency of their means, he foresaw the catas- that no efforts could now prevent the entrophe which was about to destroy the great trance of the allied armies into Paris. In edifice of his power. The troops left for its this emergency he held a council with his defence consisted of the remains of the officers, at which it was determined that corps which had fallen back before the allied Buonaparte should repair to Fontainbleau, armies; five or six thousand regulars in gar- and there rally his army, while Caulincourt rison, commanded by generals Compans and proceeded to the head-quarters of the allied Ornans; and thirty thousand national guards, monarchs, furnished with full powers to coof whom eight or ten thousand at the most incide in such conditions as the conquerors were fit for active service. This small army, might be disposed to dictate. under the immediate command of Joseph The military government of Paris was Buonaparte, assisted by Mortier and Mar- confided to general Baron Sacken; and the mont, and the governor-general, Hulin, had propriety of this choice was manifested by taken a position in front of the heights of the good order and tranquillity which prevail
. Montmartre, under cover of some intrench- ed in all quarters. The senate was the only ments hastily thrown up, and lined with one body which possessed any authority; but hundred and fifty pieces of artillery; their this assembly thought itself crushed beneath line extended to the villages of Pantin, Ro- the ruins of Buonaparte's throne, till a demainville, and Belleville. The canal, and claration on the part of the emperor Alexthe nature of the ground altogether, ren- ander called it into action. This proclamadered this position a strong one, particularly tion was no sooner promulgated than the as the allied cavalry had no extent of ground senators were suddenly convoked by prince to make a charge. In the interim, Buona- Talleyrand de Perigord, in his quality of parte had issued orders to defend the capital vice-grand elector. Sixty-five senators as. to the last extremity, being himself, as he sembled, by this authority, on the first of announced, on his march to relieve it. At April, threw off the imperial sway, and credawn on the thirtieth, the allies, wishing if ated a provisional government, charged with possible to spare the effusion of blood, sent the office of re-establishing the functions à flag of truce into Paris; but admittance and administration of the state. The instalbeing refused, they resolved to attack the lation of the provisional government was enemy on the heights, the result of which signalized by an address to the French arwas a brilliant victory, and the possession of mies, in which it was said, “ You are no Paris. In every direction the French troops longer the soldiers of Napoleon: the senate had been driven to the barriers, and the cap- and all France release you from your oath." ital was about to be forced, when marshal On the following day, the second of April, Marmont, on whom the command had de- the senate decreed that Buonaparte had forvolved, dispatched an officer to general Bar- feited the throne of France, and that the ciay de Tolli to solicit a truce ; engaging people, as well as the army, were released to abandon all the ground which he occupied from the oath of fidelity. At the close of