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duce and of manufactures were gradually forward to bright and golden times, bearreceding towards the point from which they ing in mind that the progress of knowstarted at the French revolution, the large ledge, which cannot now be impeded, must sum annually payable for interest on the favor the pursuits of peace, and infuse a national debt not only afforded slender hatred of war; and that, after the career scope for reduction, but became the more of glory has been so honorably run by difficult to be raised as the value of pro- Great Britain, her rulers are more than duce declined. From the difficulties, how- ever bound, now that her swords are turnever, which have been overcome, from the ed into plowshares, and her spears into triumphs which have been enjoyed, the pruning-hooks, to cultivate peace on earth, genuine patriot must feel warranted, amidst and good-will towards men. a season of temporary gloom, in looking|

CHAPTER I.

GEORGE IV.

Accession of King George IV.—The King's Declaration to his Council-Proclamation

of his MajestyKing's Illness and Recovery-Detailed Ceremonial of the late King's lying in State and Royal Funeral-Parliament Dissolved by Commission-Discorery of Cato-Street ConspiracyDetection, Trial, and Execution of Thistlewood and othersTumultuous Proceedings in the North-Attack on the Soldiery at Bonny, muir-Defeat of those concerned thereinTrial of disaffected personsConduct of Ministry-General ElectionNew Parliament-King's First Speech-Proceedings in Parliament-Lord John Russel's Motion on Elective Franchise-Allusion to the Queen's Arrival-Revision and Amendment of Criminal Code-Education of the Poor-State of Agriculture, Afflicting position of Public Affairs-Petition of London Merchants— Ways and Means for 1820—Delicate situation of their MajestiesCommission of Inquiry-Mr. Brougham's Proposition to Government-Proposed Compromise with the Queen— Offer of fifty thousand pounds a-year to the QueenQueen's Narrative— Her Majesty's Progress-Mission of Lord Hutchinson-Sudden departure of her Majesty from Št. OmersLanding of Queen Caroline in England

- The King's Message to ParliamentThe Queen's Communication to House of Commons- Proceedings in the Commons-Statement of MinistersProceedings in the House of Lords— Bill of Pains and PenaltiesAccount of Trial-Speeches therein-Bill abandoned by MinistersParliament prorogued-State of Continental Affairs

ACCESSION OF KING GEORGE IV.–1820. brilliantly attended by all ranks and parties,

CALLED to the throne of his ancestors, by who eagerly offered their homage to the the death of his venerated father, George reigning monarch, the reappointment of the the Fourth took upon himself the actual lord chancellor, and several ministers, was sovereignty of these realms, which he had the first exercise of sovereign power, the already presided over many years as regent, oaths of allegiance being administered to during the distressing malady of his august those present. A council was, in complipredecessor. The peculiarly felicitous fea- ance with the royal ordinance, immediately tures attending his personal assumption of holden; and all his late majesty's privyregality, were such as to promise to the na- counsellors then in attendance were sworn tion something proudly pre-eminent in the as members of his present majesty's council, history of reigns. Differing essentially in and took their seats at the board accordingeach particular from the situation of his pa- ly. Thus regularly convened, the new sovrent, 'at a similar epoch, who came to the ereign made the following declaration. throne in the midst of a protracted war, at KING'S DECLARATION TO COUNCIL an early period of life, with a character lit- “I HAVE directed that you should be astle known to the nation, less to the world, sembled here, in order that I may discharge and wholly unused to govern, or any of the the painful duty of announcing to you the arts of polity—the present monarch, from death of the king, my beloved father. age, habits of general intercourse, universal “It is impossible for me adequately to exknowledge, much experience as a ruler, and press the state of my feelings upon this mel. at the blissful period of profound peace, had ancholy occasion; but I have the consolato contend with no jarring opinions on the tion of knowing, that the severe calamity probable exercise of that sway, the results with which his majesty has been afflicted of which the people had often witnessed; for so many years, has never effaced from and being generally successful through a the minds of his subjects the impressions varied series of political difficulties and crit- created by his many virtues; and his examical emergencies, and graced as it had been ple will

, I am persuaded, live for ever in the by a long career of surpassingly splendid grateful remembrance of his country. and brilliant victories, flattering to the na- “Called upon, in consequence of his mational pride, they had as long admired. jesty's indisposition, to exercise the prerog.

In pursuance of established usage, the atives of the crown on his behalf, it was the cabinet ministers assembled on the morning first wish of my heart to be allowed to resubsequent to the demise of the late king store into his hands the powers with which When his majesty held his first court at I was intrusted. It has pleased Almighty Carlton house, which was numerously and God to determine otherwise, and I have not been insensible to the advantages which I nounced the king's illness to proceed from have derived from administering in my dear inflammation of the lungs that being the father's name the government of this realm. identical disease which had so unexpectedly

“ The support which I have received from proved fatal to the duke of Kent only a week parliament and the country, in times the previous. The melancholy ideas which this most eventful, and under the most arduous seeming fatality originated were fortunately circumstances, could alone inspire me with not confirmed. The king was declared out that contidence which my present station of danger after nine days; but a long time demands.

passed ere he gained his pristine health. To “ The experience of the past will, I trust, add to this sombre view of affairs, the nation satisfy all classes of my people, that it will was occupied in preparing for the mournful ever be my most anxious endeavor to pro- rites due to departed worth and majesty, mote their prosperity and happiness, and to and never was grief more strongly indicated, maintain unimpaired the religion, laws, and or sorrow more generally manifested, not liberties of the kingdom.”

more by the universal sable habits of the As a subsequent act, the king, with the people, than by the saddened deportment of usual solemnities, and in conformity to the all ranks concerned in, or viewing the oblaw, took the customary oaths, including sequies of the late king, which took place that in the Scotch ritual, for the security of on Wednesday evening, February 16th. the national church of Scotland. These CEREMONIAL OF LATE KING'S LYING IN gracious declarations, with the form for the STATE AND ROYAL FUNERAL. proclamation of the new monarch, were then As the minutiæ of these funeral transacagreed upon, and signed by the distinguished tions may hereafter be deemed interesting, personages present.

without further apology it is observed, that PROCLAMATION OF HIS MAJESTY. soon after ten o'clock on Tuesday morning, The proclamation of his majesty took the preparations were completed for the place publicly in the metropolis on Monday, mournful ceremonial of his majesty's reJanuary thirty-first. To account for this mains lying in state; and the gates of Windapparent delay, it is only necessary to call sor castle were then thrown open for the to attention, that the late king expired on admission of the public, many hundreds of the Saturday evening, the following morn- whom had been anxiously waiting for some ing being Sunday, January thirtieth, the an-hours. The public were, in the first place, niversary of the martyrdom of Charles I., a admitted by the grand entrance to the upper solemn fast is appointed by our church, and ward, or square of the Black Horse. The consequently this pageant would have been entrance was parted by a strong railing, inadniissible. On the saine day, Monday, diverging within the ward to the right and the members of parliament were sworn in, left

, so that the stream of company, which and immediately adjourned till the seven- incessantly poured in, was by that means teenth of February

directed at once to the north-eastern tower KING'S ILLNESS AND RECOVERY. of the quadrangle, commonly called EgerDuring this recess, and treading as it ton's tower. At the door four marshal's were upon the heels of the ceremony of men were stationed, with their silver-tipped proclamation, the public attention was most staves, and wearing, in addition to their powerfully excited, and the sympathies of state uniforms, ample scarfs of black silk, the nation aroused, by distressing reports of with crape hatbands, and sword-knots. Asthe state of his majesty's health ; an illness cending the winding stairs of the tower, the supposed to have originated from agitation visitor, after passing through an ante-chamof spirits, arising from the domestic aftlic- ber, filled with marshal's men and yeomen tion he had sustained in the rapidly succeed- of the guard, entered at once into St. ing loss of two such near relatives as a George's hall, where the departed soverbrother and a father: added to this, his ma- eign had been accustomed to hold the chapjesty, who was scarcely recovered from an ter of the knights of the garter. The throne attack of gout, had incautiously exposed and its canopy were covered with black himself to the inclemency of the season, by cloth, and at the foot of the steps was a slight standing a length of time under the portico railing, also covered with black. Over the of his palace, that his admiring people might hall, diagonally to the door of the guardbehold their monarch, while, amidst their chamber, matting was laid down, with a enthusiastic plaudits, and loudly lengthened black cord on each side, to confine the comdemonstrations of grateful and joyful huzzas, pany to the space it occupied; and on the they hailed, and the heralds, for the first other sides were stationed privates of the time, proclaimed him by his royal style and life-guards, with their arms reversed. This titles as George the Fourth. The appre- apartment had a very impressive effect. hensions respecting his majesty were not It led at once to the king's guard-chamber lessened, when the official bulletin an- and state apartments, where the knights of VOL. IV.

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the garter, in the absence of the sovereign, closing the public ceremony of the day, the dine at an installation. The lofty walls of gates were shut. this apartment were entirely covered with At break of day on Wednesday, the solthe armor of past ages; bills and partizans, emn toll of the great bell in the belfry of coats of mail, helmets, cuirasses, and glaives; the castle was heard, and the royal standard bucklers and shields; matchlocks, broad- was seen hanging half-staff down, on the swords, pistols, daggers, muskets, and the round tower of the keep. At sun-rise the armor of Edward the Black Prince. The thunder of cannon was heard in the park. visitors were, in this chamber also, separa- From that period till sun-set, the artillery, ted from the great body of the apartment by without intermission, continued firing fivea cord covered with black; and in the open minute guns throughout the day; and from space, yeomen of the guard were assembled sun-set they fired minute-guns till the conin groups, who, not being immediately upon clusion of the funeral ceremony. A little duty, waited here to relieve their comrades. before ten o'clock, the wax-lights in the silTheir costume was the same, in form, as ver sconces having been replenished, and their ordinary one, save that it was entirely the lords and grooms in waiting, the pages of black cloth, with crape round the cap, of the bed-chamber, the heralds, the purand the arms of England embroidered in suivants, the gentlemen pensioners, and the gold, silver, and colors. Their partizans other state attendants, having taken their had also a covering of black cloth. From station around the royal coffin, the grand this apartment the spectator passed through entrance to the upper court of the castle an ante-chamber; the floor, ceiling, and was thrown open to the impatient public, walls, entirely covered with sable drapery, who rushed forward in all directions; and, and lighted at intervals by silver sconces, in despite of the utmost exertions of the each bearing two small wax-lights; just police and military, the pressure continued sufficient to show a long line of yeomen of more or less throughout the morning. At the guard, leaning on their crape-clothed four o'clock the ceremony of the royal repartizans as motionless as statues. He then mains lying in state was at an end, and the entered the presence chamber, in which re- gates were closed against thousands of perposed the remains of the beloved monarch. sons, who, up to that moment, had been The whole of this noble apartment was en-pressing forward for admission. Throughtirely covered with fine purple cloth, and out the whole of the preceding night, preilluminated by a profusion of silver sconces. parations had been making in St. George's On a raised platform, at the opposite ex- chapel. Three additional chandeliers were tremity, appeared the coffin supported upon suspended from the roof along the centre tressels, and covered with a pall of rich pur- of the choir, and a double sconce affixed to ple velvet, lined with white satin, and orna- each of the stalls. Superb communion sermented at each side by three escutcheons, vices of plate, from the different chapels and on the top were deposited the kingly royal, were arranged upon the communion crown of England, and the electoral one of table, the steps of which were covered with Hanover, on two purple velvet cushions, fine purple cloth. A raised platform coversuperbly fringed and tasseled with gold. Oned with black cloth was erected down the each side of the coffin were three stupen-south aisle, and up the nave of the choir, dous wax-lights, in massive silver candle- with a railing on each side to prevent intersticks, and over it a radiated canopy of pur- ruption to the procession from the spectaple cloth; the cornice was also adorned with tors. In the north aisle seats were erected, escutcheons. At the head of the coffin was tier above tier, for the accommodation of seated the earl of Delawarr and lord Graves, those persons who might be able to obtain the lords in waiting; and colonel Whatley, tickets from the lord high steward; and the colonel King, Sir George Campbell, and Sir organ loft, which was not capable of affordCavendish Bradshaw, the grooms in waiting. ing accommodation to more than ninety At the feet stood the pursuivants, in official persons, was fitted up for the nobility. Becostume, but uncovered, and about the apart- fore the communion table, and over the ment were a number of the band of gentle-opening of the subterraneous passages leadmen pensioners, in their state dresses, with ing to the mausoleum of the royal family, a crape scarfs. Thence the company passed superb canopy of royal blue velvet was through the king's drawing-room and its placed, supported by four slight pillars, ante-chambers, and descended by the stair- wreathed with velvet and gold. The cancase in the western tower, where king John opy was in the shape of a parallelogram, resided during the time of his contest with with the roof of the sweeping Chinese conhis barons; and thence out through the tour, and surrounded with a Gothic fretwork quadrangle, by the grand southern entrance. cornice in dead gold. From this cornice At four o'clock. the hour announced for descended a festooned drapery of royal blue

velvet, richly fringed and tasseled, of the till the royal dukes, their supporters, and same color, and each festoon was further the other members of the procession, had adorned with a royal escutcheon. To the reached their respective seats. The chief right and left of the altar, diagonally, seats mourner sat on a chair at the head of the were placed in tiers for the foreign ambas- corpse, and the other princes of the bloodsadors, and the whole floor of the choir was royal were seated near him. The lord covered with black cloth. As the evening chamberlain of his majesty's household (the advanced, the Eton scholars, assembled un- marquis of Hertford) took his seat at the der their respective masters, to the number foot of the corpse, and the supporters of the of more than five hundred, clothed in deep pall and canopy arranged themselves on moarning, walked two and two to the gate each side. The part of the service before of the hundred steps, where they were ad- the interment was then read by the dean; mitted through the cloisters to the interior the choir chaunted the psalms. Kent's anof the royal chapel, and took up their sta-them, “Hear my prayer, O Lord,” was tion in the north aisle.

then performed, followed by “I heard a After the public ceremony of lying in voice from heaven.” The service then prostate, and when the visitors were all ex- ceeded to the collect, immediately preceding cluded from the castle, the lords in waiting which, the celebrated anthem, composed by and the other state attendants still remained Handel for the funeral of queen Caroline, with the royal corpse till seven o'clock, was performed by the whole choir. The when his royal highness the duke of York, royal corpse was lowered into the grave as chief mourner, took his seat at the head exactly at ten minutes after ten; and as of the coffin, under the canopy, in lieu of the consecrated earth was sprinkled upon the lords in waiting, and he continued sit-its cover, the guards, who during the cereting there during the lapse of two hours. mony had stood with their arms reversed, In the interim, the persons who were to instantly recovered and grounded them on take part in the procession were assembled the pavement of the north and south aisle. in St. George's hall, and there marshalled At this solemn moment, Sir Isaac Heard, by Sir George Nayler, the Windsor herald. garter king-at-arms, came forward in his At nine o'clock the duke of York left the superb and embroidered mantle, and propresence-chamber, and the yeomen of the nounced the style and titles of his late maguard, under the superintendence of the jesty. At the conclusion of the mournful Exon, proceeded to remove the coffin of ceremony, the royal dukes slowly quitted their royal master down the grand staircase the choir at the side-door, followed by a to the vestibule, where it was placed upon long train of the great officers of state, the the car; and, in a few minutes afterwards, nobility, and others, and proceeded to the the procession set forward.

chapter-house, whence they immediately The covered way was flanked on each went to their apartments in the castle, and side by a double rank of the foot-guards, the nobility repaired to their carriages; with their arms reversed, and a single rank but it was long after midnight before the of mounted life-guards, every fourth man different courts of the castle were entirely having a lighted flambeau. As the proces- cleared of the sorrowing multitude who atsion issued from the palace, the silver trum- tended to see their late royal master's repets of the household commenced the per- mains deposited in a mausoleum, the conformance of the “Dead march in Saul,” struction of which was originally designed in which they were joined by the bands of under his own superintendence, and comthe several regiments on duty as they ad- pleted by the kind orders and attention of vanced. The progress of the procession his son, our present beloved monarch. was extremely slow; the discharge of the PARLIAMENT DISSOLVED. minute-guns adding greatly to the effect of The illness of the sovereign was a twothe grand impressive scene. The proces- fold source of regret and inconvenience, as sion having reached the porch of the chapel, it precluded his majesty from receiving the the knight-marshal's men, with trumpets addresses of the house of lords and comand drums, filed off without the doors. * At mons on the throne, and also from going to the entrance, the royal corpse was received dissolve the parliament in person. Our by the very reverend the dean, attended by constitutional laws requiring the dissoluthe choirs, who fell in immediately before tiou to take place within the next six months Blanc Coursier, king-at-arms, bearing the following the demise of the king, it was crown of Hanover. The whole then pro- decided that the parliament should be closed ceeded down the south aisle, and up the by commission on the twenty-eighth of nave to the choir. As they advanced, the February-when the lord chancellor delivorgan performed Dr. Croft's funeral ser-ered the subsequent speech: vice, “ I am the resurrection and the life, “ My Lords and Gentlemen, saith the Lord.” This occupied the time “We are commanded by his majesty to

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