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to the government of New Castile, without REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS IN PORcausing the appointment to be duly counter

TUGAL signed, as was requisite, by the proper min- The neighboring state of Portugal could isters. The permanent deputation of the not remain long unaffected by the eruption cortes, in conjunction with the municipal which had shaken the Spanish kingdom. body of the capital, immediately met; and, Similar causes produce similarity of effects. whilst the whole population of the city was The removal of the monarch and his court in a state of the utmost exasperation, they to the Brazils had tended to make the nodrew up and presented to his majesty a most bles less loyal in their inclinings; and the energetic and decisive remonstrance, in community, seeing themselves as it were which, among various other matters, they abandoned by the royal family, now that the pointed out the absolute necessity of the necessity for their exile no longer existed, king's residing at Madrid. In one part of were more easily swayed by the resident this timely address they observed—“Your nobility; whilst the army, in addition to majesty's absence has occasioned apprehen- many other causes of discontent, were sorely sions that are aggravated by nominations to mortified by the circumstance of marshal important employments, of persons noto- Beresford being continued in the supreme viously opposed to the constitutional system, command, and about a hundred British offiwhich your majesty has sworn to preserve, cers still retaining their commissions, now and which we are all ready to defend to that the war was concluded, and during a the last drop of our blood. We are com- period which promised a long continuance pelled, sire, to say, that without some pub- of peace. Marshal Beresford had sailed for sic manifestation to the new institutions, of Rio Janeiro in the month of April, and a nature to destroy every hope in their most during his absence the spirit of revolution determined enemies, confidence cannot be first manifested itself at Oporto; which was re-established. This manifestation, in our ripened into open revolt against the authoropinion, can be none other than your ma- ities, under the auspices of Don Bernardo jesty's return to the midst of your children, Correa de Castro Sepulveda, a young nobleand the immediate extraordinary convoca- man, and commander of the eighteenth regition of the cortes."

ment. On the twenty-fourth of August an FERDINAND RETURNS TO MADRID. address was read to the regiments stationed

The king, in apparent compliance with there, inviting them to assist in the estabthis address, returned unwillingly on the lishment of a constitutional government. lwenty-first of November to the capital ; This invitation was hailed by the assembled and shortly after, the commands in the dif- troops with loud acclamations; and subseferent provinces were, with an increased quently, in the presence of the governor, spirit of reluctance on his part, bestowed the bishop, and the city magistrates, a proon the most violent partisans of the revolu- visional junta was appointed, consisting of tion.-Among those so distinguished, the sixteen members, charged with the governambitious Riego was appointed captain-gen- ment of the country until the cortes should eral of Arragon: whilst Morales, the leader meet. This junta, as a preliminary meaof the Estremaduran disturbances, with a sure, made a declaration of their reverence few of his adherents, fled for safety into for the rights and immunities of the church, Portugal; but being taken by the Portu- and of all the constituted authorities, joined guese, he was delivered over by them to the to a most devoted attachment to the monSpanish authorities. The army was now archy established in the house of Braganza. completely organized, and received the The English officers were informed that king's sanction : it was arranged as a peace they were to enjoy a continuance of their establishment, to consist of sixty-six thou- respective ranks and emoluments until the sand, eight hundred and twenty-eight men, meeting of the cortes should take place: which was to be doubled in the event of but they were strictly enjoined not to take

The three regiments of Swiss sol- any part whatever in the events then passdiers were suppressed; and throughout the ing. On the other hand, the regency different provinces large enrolments of mi- at Lisbon sent forth a proclamation, on litia took place.-Such, at this eventful pe- the twenty-ninth of August, deprecating riod, was the political state of Spain, towards the whole of the transactions which had which all Europe turned its eyes with an taken place at Oporto-condemning it as an extreme anxiety of expectation, viewing the illegal conspiracy, and declaring that it was extraordinary spectacle of a country in which vested in the sovereign alone, the right of the spirit of firm resistance to a faithless, convoking the cortes. Ultimately discovercruel, and bigoted monarch had displayed ing that the defection of the soldiery was itself in such an unparalleled manner, and general in all the provinces, they yielded hitherto with such successful and triumph-to necessity, and published a proclamation ant results.

for the speedy assemblage of the cortes.

war.

Don Sepulveda had in the interim marched i sum of money to the junta, from the Vento attack count Amarante, the commander geur, which he had conveyed from Rio of Trosos Montes, who, finding himself Janeiro, for the purpose of paying the army. abandoned by his troops, sought refuge in Strong and serious differences of opinion Gallicia; by which Sepulveda reached Co- were now elicited between the two juntas imbra unopposed, and proceeded forthwith of Lisbon and Oporto; the former one beto the capital, followed by the provisional ing desirous of adhering without deviation junta. September fifteenth-a day always to the ancient forms and principles of the celebrated with military pomp by the gar- constitution, while the latter, far more tendrison of Lisbon, as the anniversary of the ing to democracy, was anxious to adopt the deliverance of Portugal from the oppres- constitution of Spain in its most ample form. sion of a foreign yoke, in defiance of the The leader of the violent party was Silattempts of the regency to prevent it—the veira, who succeeded in obtaining a decree, sixteenth regiment mustered in the Rocio, that the cortes should be elected as in Spain, the principal square of the metropolis, at according to the population, and that one three o'clock in the afternoon, and were deputy should be returned for every thirty speedily joined by the tenth regiment from thousand inhabitants. Not content with the castle, the fourth from Campo D'Ou- this success, they prevailed with the troops rique, the artillery from the Caes dos Sal- to assemble on the eleventh of November, vados, and the cavalry from Alcantara- round the palace, where the junta were until both the Rocio and the Praca were then engaged in deliberation, and in obefilled with troops, headed by their officers, dience to their tumultuous clamors, the and in full order of march. Aided by this junta also decreed, that the constitution of army, the constitution was proclaimed; the Spain should be adopted in its fullest exregency-halls were opened; and a new set tent. The command of the army was then of governors appointed. During these pro- conferred upon one of their most active ceedings the troops remained quietly on the and zealous partisans, whilst Silveira himground till near eleven at night, when they self assumed the department of foreign afmarched back, according to orders, to their fairs. In consequence of these measures, several quarters, in the highest regularity: the more moderate party of the junta now -and thus was this great change brought withdrew from the council, and one hunabout, without the most trifling disturbance, dred and fifty officers of the army threw up or slightest indication of riot. The Oporto their commissions. These events filled the junta entered Lisbon on the first of Octo- kingdom with consternation, and Texeira, ber, and the northern and southern armies commander-in-chief at Lisbon, by whose arrived shortly after. This was followed by influence they had been consummated, soon the union of the two juntas, who were then saw cause to repent the part he had achieve divided into two sections, one of them be- ed. Sepulveda now strenuously exerted ing charged with the ordinary cares of ad- himself to make the army sensible of their ministration, and the other with such duties erroneous proceeding on the eleventh, and as were necessary for assembling the cortes. was so far successful, that on the sevenMARSHAL BERESFORD ARRIVES BE.

teenth November a military council was FORE LISBON.

convened, consisting of general officers, and Nine days from this, lord Beresford re- others, commanders of divisions, who came turned from Rio Janeiro, in his Britannic to a series of resolutions, which enumerated, majesty's ship the Vengeur, and cast an- " that the public welfare required that those chor in the Tagus. His lordship expressed members who lately desired their discharge, an extreme desire to land, and requested should resume their functions; that the permission to be allowed so to do, in the election of deputies to the cortes be made capacity of a simple British subject, having according to the Spanish system, but that various affairs of a private nature to settle no other part of the Spanish constitution in Portugal. The public alarm excited by be enacted, except when the cortes shall his arrival was so great, that it was deemed meet and adopt it, with such alterations as necessary from motives combining the mar- they shall judge proper.” The effect of shal's personal safety, as well as to pre- these declaratory resolutions, was the imserve the public tranquillity, to refuse a mediate reascendancy of the moderate party, compliance with this request, as well as to by whom Silveira was stript of all power, use every possible means to hasten his de- ordered to quit the city within two hours, parture, without suffering him to have any and to retire to his estates at Canales, from private communication with the shore.— whence he was not to depart, upon any Finding matters thus imperatively conduct- pretext, without first having obtained pered, marshal Beresford at length sailed for mission of the executive. These changes England in the Arabella packet; and after were hailed with unbounded applause by his departure, captain Maitland delivered a the people at large, who now began to look forward with confidence and hope to the gal triumvirate, by letters dated the twenmeeting of the cortes; which expectation tieth November, invited the Neapolitan was not then to be realized, as they did not monarch to give them the meeting at Layassemble till nearly a year afterwards. In bach; and on the thirteenth of December, several other parts of Europe, the minds of he accordingly embarked on board the Eng. the people were also much agitated by the lish ship Vengeur, from whence he landed spirit of free and bold inquiry; and conse- at Leghorn, and arrived at Laybach on Dequently the system of governments em-cember the twenty-eighth. The parliament bracing general representation, obtained of Naples, although they did not at all apnumerous proselytes wherever such opin- prove of the sovereigu's removal, ventured ions were suffered to be promulgated. no measures in opposition thereto. POLITICAL MOVEMENTS AT NAPLES, &c.

REVOLUTION IN SICILY. NAPLES made an effort at obtaining a

Whilst these occurrences were taking constitution, founded on the representative place in Naples, scenes of greater anarchy system, and the king was compelled to cede and more sanguinary disorder, were transto the remonstrances of the people, backed acting in Sicily. The news of the acceptas they were by the military. On the sixth ance and adoption of the Spanish constituof July, he issued a proclamation, promis- tion, reached Palermo on the fourteenth, ing to publish the basis of a constitutional and the intelligence gave rise to the most code within a week. A deputation from enthusiastic demonstrations of exulting joy. the army was immediately sent to Naples, On the following morning, which happened to insist that his majesty should adopt the to be the grand national festival of the Sibroad principle of the Spanish constitution, cilians, some trivial circumstance roused within the space of twenty-four hours. the popular indignation against general Upon receiving this demand," he instantly Church, an Englishman, employed in the resolved to lay aside the exercise of his Neapolitan army, which ended in his being royal functions; and on the same evening, assaulted, and the plundering of his house. he declared his eldest son, the duke of Ca- The multitude having by these acts com labria, vicar-general of the kingdom. menced a career of misguided, lawless per

On the following day, the vicar-general secution and outrage, proceeded to the mos: announced his acceptance of the Spanish desperate excesses ; eight hundred galley constitution, and at the same time, the king slaves were immediately liberated and arm confirmed this act of his son, and for the ed; and this insurrection being led on bu due observance of it, pledged his royal a Franciscan monk, called Vaglica, suc. faith. On the ninth, the revolutionary army cessfully attacked the garrison. The regu. made its triumphal entry into Naples; the lar troops being overpowered by this brutal vicar-general named the provisional junta ; force, every species of atrocity was with and on the thirteenth, both himself and his out hesitation committed; many persone royal father swore fidelity to the new con- were killed in the heat of the contlict, be stitution, in the presence of the assembled sides a considerable number, among whoni junta. The leaders of the revolution im- were the princes Aci and Cattolica, who mediately dispatched ambassadors to the were deliberately butchered after it was principal European courts, but their envoys concluded. On the seventeenth July, ar were received and acknowledged only at attempt was made to form some sort of pro. Madrid; Austria did not even attempt to visional government; a junta was appointdisguise her feelings, or dissemble her hos-ed, a civic guard established, and the gal tile intent, but sent forth the most violent ley-slaves were commanded to surrender proclamations against the new government, their arms and depart from the city. These anathematizing the Carbonari, the supposed arrangements were but of short duration, instigators of the revolutionary proceed- being subsequently overthrown, and a new ings, forbidding the exportation of any junta formed, of which prince Pateno was military stores to Naples, and ultimately nominated the president; till, on the twen sealed this frank avowal of her sentiments, ty-fifth September, a Neapolitan army, com by preparations for assembling a large army manded by Floristan Pepe, arrived before in Italy in the most prompt and effective Palermo, which capitulated on the fifth of manner.

October; on the next day Pepe took post MEETING OF SOVEREIGNS. session of the town, and immediately proIn the latter end of October, a meeting claimed the Spanish constitution. It was of the emperors of Russia and Austria, with expressly stipulated by the capitulation, that the king of Prussia, took place at Troppau, the Sicilian states-general were to decide, to deliberate on the necessary measures whether the parliament of Sicily should be which the existing state of Naples called declared independent, or be united to that upon them imperiously to adopt. The re- of Naples. The Neapolitan legislature, sult of which conference was, that the re- however, wholly annulled this article; and a new general, with large reinforcements | posed as formerly of two separate chamfor the army, was speedily sent to succeed bers. In conformity with this arrangement, Pepe, who was thus removed.

or act of sovereign grace, the emperor AlThe junta being first dissolved, the Nea-exander himself opened the session with an politans gave the earliest proof of the prac- address, highly adapted to beget full confitical application of their ardent love of free- dence in the various measures he therein dom, and their devotion to liberal principles, propounded to their legislatorial consideraby levying the most unjustifiable contribu- tion. The measures he recommended were tions, and treating Palermo, not as an in- of an extremely popular aspect, consisting tegral part of their states, but in all re-in “a modification of the constitution of the spects as a foreign town subjugated by the senate,” a “ plan of a criminal as well as a success of their arms, and entitled thereby civil code.” None of these measures, though to endure every severity from the hands of strenuously debated, met with final adopa triumphant and savage conqueror. tion; and on the closing of the sessions on

ASSEMBLY OF THE POLISH DIET. the first of October, his imperial majesty, in Whilst the more genial shores of France, his speech, expressed his extreme disapSpain, Portugal, and Italy, were subjected pointment at the rejection of these ministo divers political explosions, whilst liberty terial projets. Notwithstanding the resistwas attempting some amelioration of men ance of the diet to his will, this powerful and manners in those realms, the north of monarch continued the same line of politEurope remained in a comparatively qui-ical forbearance, and far from visiting Poescent state, unvisited by any occurrence land with any further indications of his anof material interest, unless indeed the trans- ger, pursued that laudably wise path towards actions of the diet of Poland be deemed it, which, by upholding and patronizing worthy of consideration.

every scheme, likely to extend the comThe Autocrat of all the Russias, with a mercial intercourse of that nominal kingpolicy replete with worldly wisdom, had dom, with the other parts of his vast docontinued as a boon to this annexation to minions, is rapidly tending to consolidate his widely-extended dominions, the title of his colossal power, as supreme ruler of that an independent kingdom ; flattering this empire, of almost unnumbered millions of ancient (though dismembered) nation, with civilized and barbaric subjects committed to the right of having its own military force, his sway. and its diet or legislative assembly, com

CHAPTER II.

Opening of Parliament-His Majesty's SpeechDebates on the Conduct of Ministers relative to the Queen-Country Petitions to restore Queen's Name to LiturgyQueen's Message to the House of CommonsProvision for her MajestyDiscussion on the Question of Emancipating the Catholics-Bill for Relief of Catholics iniroduced and passed through the House of Commons-Rejected in the House of Lords— Borough of Grampound disfranchisedThe Franchise transferred to the County of York-Committee to inquire into Cause of Agricultural Distress-Report of Committee-Bank of England resumption of Cash Payments— Ways and Means for the current Year Parliament prorogued— Death of Napoleon, ex-Emperor of France, in Captivity at St. HelenaSituation of the Queen- Her Conduct, and Correspondence with Officers of State-Coronation of George IV.

OPENING OF PARLIAMENT. ent. This suggestion was not attended to; 1821.-The first public occurrence which Mr. Wetherell persisted in his motion; on took place this year was the assembly of which lord Castlereagh moved the previous parliament; on which occasion the king question, and thus pressed to a division. Mr. went in state to the house of lords, and Wetherell's motion was negatived by a maopened the session by delivering a most jority of ninety-one: the numbers being two gracious speech from the throne.

hundred and sixty votes against one hunDEBATES ON THE CONDUCT OF MINIS- dred and sixty-nine. The marquis of Ta

TERS RELATIVE TO QUEEN. vistock, on the following day, gave notice, The debates in both houses, consequent that on the fifth of February it was his inon the usual motions for addresses of thanks tention to move a resolution expressive of to the sovereign in grateful return for the the opinion of the house on the conduct of royal speech, were long, and warmly con- ministers, in the late proceedings which tested; and strongly indicated the feelings they had instituted against the queen. and opinions of the ministerial partisans, as

COUNTRY PETITIONS. well as of those adhering to the opposition, DURING this period the attention of the on the various important topics touched upon house was daily occupied, for a considerable therein ; and chiefly upon the line of con- portion of its time, with listening to the duct which government had displayed to multifarious petitions which were presented wards the queen :-a conduct which was from every part of the kingdom, complainmore scrutinizingly developed, and severely ing of the late proceedings against her commented on, by the members in opposi- majesty. Most of these numerous petitiontion to ministers in the house of commons, ers expressed in the strongest terms of than in the lords. Immediately after the reprobation their dislike of the governmentassembled house had heard the speech read al measures; and prayed for the restoration by the speaker, on their return, lord Ar- of her majesty's name to the Liturgy, and chibald Hamilton gave notice of a motion that the house would exert its utmost intouching the omission of her majesty's name fluence in advising the king to dismiss from in the liturgy; and he was followed by Mr. his councils his present ministers—whose Wetherella gentleman eminent in the misconduct, as they alleged, had very selaw, and who to this period had invariably riously endangered the dignity of the crown, supported the ministry—who immediately and greatly disturbed the peace, harmony, moved for the production of certain papers and welfare of the nation, by their pernicious and documents relating to the mode of in- advice. Several of the members to whom sertion of the names of the king, queen, and the presentation of these petitions had been other branches of the royal family, in the intrusted, embraced the opportunity of decollects and litanies of the Liturgy, inclu- livering their own sentiments upon the ding the period from the reign of James the subjects thereof; and many speeches were first to the present day; and for the several embued with all the warmth of feeling, orders of council for the insertion, omission, flow of language, and force of eloquence, or change of such names, from the com- which such an occasion might be expected mencement of the reign of Henry the eighth. to produce. Lord Archibald Hamilton's An objection was made by lord Castlereagh motion, of which he had given due notice, to such a motion being brought forward came before the house on the twenty-sixth without previous notice-suggesting the of January; and was couched in the followpropriety of his withdrawing it for the pres- ling form :-—"That the order in council of

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