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derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is | rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, all necessary that the body be in a natural and up- the short ribs, from the lower end of the breastright position. The following engraving repre- bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward the spine, so that sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no orthe liver, stomach, gans should be in the least infringed upon, either and other digestive by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position. organs in that viciThe Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which nity, are pressed we make sounds, by condensation. All are famiinto such a small liar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking compass, that their analogy between it and the body, in the act of functions are greatspeaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is ly interrupted, and like its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the aball the vessels, dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of course, to blow with ease and power, one must take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anything.
18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells | viscera and diaphragm upwards: the lungs cooperate with the diaphragm and abdominal muscles; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and muscles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are below the diaphragm, and are dependent on it, in a measure, for their actions.
round balls: a representation of
which is here presented as seen through a microscope, magnified
ninutes, as a general rule, the blood flows thro'out the whole body; and, of course, through the lungs, where
it undergoes a purification: hence may be seen the importance of an upright position, and perfect inflation of the lungs; no one can live out his days without them.
19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and standing, passive and active. Beware of too much
21. Here is a view of the Heart, nearly surrounded by the Lungs, with the different bloodvessels going to, and from them: these organs are shown partially separated; tho' when in their natural positions, they are quite compact together,
stiffness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or forwards, to the right or left: and especially, of resting your head on your hand, with, the elbow on something else: by which practice, many have caused a projection of one shoulder, induced spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing that is improper: such as trying how much you can lift with one hand, &c.
20. Here follows a representation of the position of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left engraving, represents the diaphragm in its greatest descent, when we draw in our breath: 2, muscles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, the muscles of the abdomen in action, forcing the
and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest: every
air-cells, 7, 7, 8, like leaves on the trees. The bronchi
al tubes are the three
24. Here is a front view of the Vocal Organs: e is the top of the wind-pipe, and within and a little above d is the larynx, or vocal box, where
23. Here is a horizontal view of the Glottis : N, F, are the arytenoid cartilages, connected with the chordæ vocales, (vocal cords, or ligaments,) T, V, stretching across from the top of the arytenoid to the point of the thyroid cartilage: these cords can be elongated, and enlarged to produce lower sounds, and contracted and diminished for higher ones: and, at the same time, separated from each other, and allowing more condensed air to pass for the former purposes; or brought nearer together, to favor the latter: there are a great many muscles attached to the larynx, to give variety to the modifications of voice in speech and song