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The like may be affirmed even of that unnatural rebellion against King Charles I. The usurpers maintained great armies in constant pay, had almost continual war with Spain and Holland; but, managing it by their fleets, they increased very much the riches of the kingdom, instead of exhausting them.

Our foreign wars were generally against Scotland or France; the first being in this island, carried no money out of the kingdom, and were feldom of long continuance. During our first wars with France, we poffefsed great dominions in that country, where we preserved some footing till the teign of Queen Mary; and although some of our later princes made very chargeable expeditions thither, a subsidy, and two or three fifteenths, cleared all the debt. Besides, our victories were then of some use, as well as glory ; for we were so prudent to fight, and so happy to conquer, only for ourselves.

The Dutch wars, in the reign of K. Charles II. although begun and carried on under a very corrupt administration, and much to the dishonour of the crown, did indeed keep the King needy and poor, by discontinuing or discontenting his parliament, when he most needed their assistance ; but neither left any debt upon the nation, nor carried any money out of it.

At the revolution, a general war broke out in Europe, wherein many princes joined in alliance against France, to check the ambitious designs of that monarch; and here, the Emperor, the Dutch,

and

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and England, were principals. About this time, the custom first began among us, of borrowing millions upon funds of interest. It was pretended, that the war could not possibly last above one or two campaigns; and that the debts contracted, might be easily paid in a few years, by a gentle tax, without burthening the subject. But the true reafon for embracing this expedient, was, the security of a new prince not firmly settled on the throne. People were tempted to lend, by great premiums and large interest; and it concerned them nearly to preserve that government, which they had trusted with their money. The person * faid to have been author of so deteftable a project, lived to see some of its fatal consequences, whereof his grand-children will not see an end. And his pernicious council closed very well with the posture of affairs at that time : for a set of upItarts, who had little or no part in the revolution, but valued themselves upon their noise and pretended zeal, when the work was over, were got into credit at court, by the merit of becoming undertakers and projectors of loans and funds : these, finding that the gentlemen of estates were not willing to come into their measures, fell upon those new schemes, of raising money, in order to create a moneyed interest, that might in time vie with the landed, and of which they hoped to be at the head.

The ground of the first war, for ten years after the revolution, as to the part we had in it, was, to make France acknowlege the late king, and recover Hudson's bay. But during that whole war, the fea was almost entirely neglected, and the greatest part of six millions annually employed to enlarge the frontier of the Dutch. For the king was a general, but not an admiral; and, although King of England, was a native of Holland.

make * Dr. Burnet, bishop of Sarum,

After ten years fighting to little purpose, after the loss of above an hundred thousand men, and a debt remaining of twenty millions, we at length hearkened to the terms of peace, which was concluded with great advantages to the Empire and Holland, but none at all to us; and clogged foon after with the famous treaty of partition, by which Naples, Sicily, and Lorrain, were to be added to the French dominions ; or, if that crown should think fit to set aside the treaty, up-. on the Spaniards refusing to accept it, as they declared they would, to the several parties at the very time of tranfa&ing it, then the French would have pretensions to the whole monarchy. And so it proved in the event; for the late king of Spain, reckoning it an indignity to have his territories cantoned out into parcels by other princes during his own life, and without his confent, ra-. ther chose to bequeath the monarchy entire to a youngerson of France; and this Prince was acknowlegded for king of Spain, both by us and Holland.

It must be granted, that the counsels of entering into this war, were violently opposed by the church-party, who first advised the late king to acknowledge the Duke of Anjou; and particularly,

it is affirmed, that a certain great perfon, * who was then in the church-interest, told the King, in November 1701, that since his Majesty was determined to engage in a war fo contrary to his private opinion, he could serve him no longer, and accordingly gave up his employment; although he happened afterwards to change his mind, when he was to be at the head of the treasury, and have the fole management of affairs at home, while thofe abroad were to be in the bands of one, + whose advantage, by all forts of ties, he was engaged to promote.

The declarations of war against France and Spain, made by us and Holland, are dated within a few days of each other. In that published by the States, they say very truly, that “they are " nearest and most exposed to the fire; that they " are blocked up on all fides, and actually attacked

by the kings of France and Spain ; that their " declaration is the effect of an urging and pref

sing necessity;" with other expressions to the fame purpose. They desire the afAance of all kings and princes, &c. The grounds of their quarrel with France, are such as only affect themfelves, or at least more immediately than any on ther prince or state; such as, “ the French refu“ fing to grant the tariff promised by the treaty “ of Ryswick; the loading the Dutch inhabitants « fettled in France with excessive duties, contra

ry to the said treaty; the violation of the par" tition treaty, by the French accepting the king

of

* Earl of Godolphin.

# Duke of Marlborough.

“ of Spain's will, and threatening the States if “ they would not comply; the seizing the Spa“nish Netherlands by the French troops, and “ turning out the Dutch, who, by permission of “ the late king of Spain, were in garrison there ;

by which means, that republic was deprived of “ her barrier, contrary to the treaty of partition, " where it was particularly ftipulated, that the “ Spanish Netherlands should be left to the « Archduke.” They alledged, that “ the French

king governed Flanders as his own, although “under the name of his grandson, and fent

great numbers of troops thither to fright “them; * that he had seized the city and citadel of Liege; had poffefled himself of several pla“ces in the archbishopric of Cologne, and main“ tained troops in the county of Wolfenbuttel, “ in order to block up the Dutch on all sides; « and caused his resident to give in a memorial, “ wherein he threatened the States, to act against " them, if they refused complying with the con« tents of that memorial.”

The Queen's declaration of war, is grounded upon the grand alliance, as this was upon the unjust usurpations and encroachments of the French king; whereof the instances produced, are, “bis keeping in poffeffion a great part of the “ Spanish dominions, feizing Milan and the Spa“nish Low-Countries, making him felf master of " Cadiz, &c. and, instead of giving fatisfac

" tion

This, the author of John Bull calls, frighting the children out of their bread and butter, Hawkes.

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