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in what condition must they have been, if that issue of wealth had been stopped ?
But great events often turn upon very small circumstances. It was the kingdom's misfortune, that the sea was not the Duke of Marlborough's element; otherwise, the whole force of the war would infallibly have been bestowed there, infinitely to the advantage of his country, which would then have gone hand in hand with his own. But, it is very truly objected, that if we alone had made such an attempt as this, Holland would have been jealous; or, if we had done it in conjunction with Holland, the house of Auftria would have been discontented. This hath been the style of late years; which, whoever introduced among us, they have taught our allies to speak after them. Otherwise, it could hardly enter into any imagination, that, while we were confederates in a war with those who are to have the whole profit, and who leave a double share of the burthen upon us, we dare not think of any design (although against the common enemy) where there is the least prospect of doing good to our own country, for fear of giving umbrage and offence to our allies; while we are ruining ourselves, to conquer provinces and kingdoms for them. I therefore confess, with shame, that this objection is true: for, it is very well known, that, while the design of Mr. Hill's expedition *
remained * The expedition in 1711, wherein Sir Hovenden Walker commanded the fleet, and Mr. Hill the land forces, for the reduction of Quebec and Canada, and regaining the Newfoundland fishery, which the French had taken from us. Huwkes:
remained a secret, it was suspected, in Holland and Germany, to be intended against Peru; whereupon, the Dutch made every-where their public complaints; and the ministers at Vienna talked of it as an infolence in the Queen, to attempt such an undertaking; which, although it has failed, partly by the accidents of a storm, and partly by the stubbornness or treachery of some in that colony, for whose relief, and at whose entreaty, it was, in some measure, designed, is no objection at all to an enterprise fò well concerted, and with such fair probability of success.
It was something singular, that the States should express their uneasiness, when they thought we intended to make some attempt in the Spanish West Indies; because it is agreed between us, that whatever is conquered there by us or them, shall belong to the conqueror; which is the only article that I can call to mind; in all our treaties or stipulations, with any view of interest to this kingdom; and, for that very reason, I fuppose, among others, hath been altogether neglect. ed. Let those, who think this too severe a reflection, examine the whole management of the present war by sea and land, with all our allian. ces, treaties, stipulations, and conventions, and consider whether the whole doth not look, as if some particular care and industry had been used to prevent any benefit or advantage that might possibly accrue to Britain.
This kind of treatment from our two principal allies, hath taught the same dialect to all the rest;
so that there is not a petty prince, whom we half maintain by subsidies and pensions, who is not ready, upon every occasion, to threaten us, that he will recal his troops (although they must rob or starve at home) if we refuse to comply with him in any demand, however unreasonable.
Upon the third head, I shall produce some instances, to shew, how tamely we have suffered each of our allies to infringe every article in those treaties and ftipulations, by which they were bound; and to lay the load upon us.
But before I enter upon this, which is a large subject, I shall take leave to offer a few remarks on certain articles in three of our treaties; which may let us perceive, how much those ministers · valued or understood the true interest, safety, or honour of their country.
We have made two alliances with Portugal, an offensive and a defensive: the first is to remain in force, only during the present war; the second to be perpetual. In the offensive alliance, the Emperor, England, and Holland, are parties with Portugal; in the defeniive, only we and the States.
Upon the first article of the offensive alliance, it is to be observed, that although the grand alliance, as I have already said, allows England and Holland to pofless, for their own, whatever each of them shall conquer in the Spanish West Indies; yet there we are quite cut out, by consenting, that the Archduke shall possess the dominions of Spain, in as full a manner as their VOL. II.
late K. Charles. And, what is more remarkable, we broke this very article in favour of Portugal, br fubiecuent itipulations; where we agree, that Ki Charles thall deliver up Eftramadura, Vigo, and some other places to the Portuguese, as soon as we can conquer them from the enemy. They, who are guilty of so much folly and contradiction, know bc.l, whether ic proceeded from corruption or stupidity.
By two other articles (besides the honour of being conrors and guards in ordinary to the Portuguese thips and coaits) we are to guess the enemy's thoughis, and to take the king of Portugal's word, whenever he hath a fancy that he shall be invaded. We are also to furnish him with a firength superior to what the enemy intends to invade any of his dominions with, let that be what it will. And until we know what the eneiny's forces are, his Portuguese Majesty is sole judge what strength is superior, and what will be able to prerent an invasion; and may send our fleets, whenever he pleases, upon his errands, to some of the farther parts of the world, or keep them attending upon his own coasts, till he thinks fit to dismiss them. These fleets must likewife be subject in all things, not only to the king, but to his viceroys, admirals, and governors, in any of bis foreign dominions, when he is in an humour to apprehend an invasion ; which, I believe, is an indignity that was never offered before, except to a conquered nation. In the defenave alliance with that crown, which is to remain perpetual, and where only England and Holland are parties with them, the same care, in almost the same words, is taken for our fleet to attend their coasts and foreign dominions, and to be under the same obedience. · We and the States are likewise to furnish them with twelve thousand men at our own charge, which we are constantly to recruit; and these are to be subject to the Portuguese generals.
In the offensive alliance, we took no care of having the assistance of Portugal, whenever we should be invaded: but in this, it seems, we are wiser ; for that King is obliged to make war on Fiance or Spain, whenever we or Holland are invaded by either ; but before this, we are to supply him with the same forces both by sea and land, as if he were invaded himself. And this must needs be a very prudent and safe course for a maritime power to take upon a sudden invasion ; by which, instead of making use of our fleets and arms for our own defence, we must send them abroad, for the defence of Portugal.
By the thirteenth article, we are told, what this assistance is, which the Portuguese are to give us, and upon what conditions. They are to furnish ten men of war: and when England and Holland shall be invaded by France and Spain together, or by Spain alone, in either of these cases, these ten Portuguese men of war are to serve only upon their own coasts; where, no doubt, they will be of mighty use to their allies, and terror to the enemy.