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such scenes represent the punishment or destruction of to have been profusely employed in the chariots of the Briareus, an opinion sufficiently refuted by the fact that a Homeric period. Hence, from this burnished splendour, woman is included in one of the groups of this description : the epithets 'splendid' and bright' are continually applied and it is admitted by Wilkinson that they are foreign cap- to them. The extent to which metal was employed in the tives, the names of whose districts and towns can be read superior sort of chariots will appear by the description off; but he nevertheless thinks they do not represent human which the same poet gives of the chariot in which Juno sacrifices, but form a religious allegory, purporting to be and Minerva sped to assist the Greeks :an acknowledgment of the victory obtained by the assist

Hebe to the chariot rollid ance of the deity to whom the offering seems to be made. If so, this would be a curious method of expressing such

The brazen wheels, and join'd them to the smooth

Steel axle; twice four spokes divided each, acknowledgment; and one, too, which would express at least the former existence, in a less civilized state, of the

Shot from the centre to the verge. The verge actual custom thus figuratively indicated.

Was gold, by fellies of eternal brass See the subject more largely considered in the author's

Guarded, a dazzling show! The shining naves Pictorial History of Palestine, ii. 386-391, from which this

Were silver; silver cords, and cords of gold, note is abridged.

The seat upbore; two crescents blazed in front. 18. Judah took Gaza ... Askelon ... Ekron.'—These

The pole was argent all, to which she bound towns, however, must soon have been recovered by the

The golden yoke with its appendant charge,

Inserted braces, straps and bands of gold.' Philistines. This is the only place from which we could gather that Judah ever did possess these cities; and when Supposing the Canaanites to have had the principal parts they are next mentioned, we again find them in the hands of iron, which are here described as of steel, silver, and of their former owners; who probably availed themselves gold, we may easily obtain a notion of the iron chariots of of the earliest 'servitudes,' with which the Israelites were the text. punished for their apostacy, to retake their lost towns. The general form of the ancient unarmed chariots will

19. Chariots of iron.' — See the note on Exod. xiv. 7. be seen from our two wood-cuts, together with that which Most commentators and Biblical antiquaries agree in think- has already been given under Exod. xiv. The first of the ing that it is not necessary to suppose that these chariots present cuts, like the former one, is from Egyptian sculpwere made of iron, but only that they were armed with it. ture, and the vehicle seems, also like that, so small and As, however, such chariots do not occur in Egyptian sculp- light, as to be obviously intended merely for the conveyance tures, and are not mentioned by Homer in his Iliad, in of the warrior, without being, in itself, from its weight and which chariots of war are so often brought under our power, an offensive engine. We observed, in the note to notice, it admits of a question whether armed chariots of Exod. xiv. 7, that the Égyptian chariots have generally but war were at this time known in the west of Asia. If not, one rider. The present has three ; one holding the reins, we may conclude-not, certainly, that the iron chariots : another bearing a spear, and the third a shield. Yet it is of the Canaanites were wholly composed of iron, but that still so small as scarcely to afford room for one person, they were so braced and strengthened with that metal, that and, with the three, is so crowded, that the warriors appear their onset in war was more terrible than if they had been to be placed in unusual circumstances. In fact, as the tramore entirely composed of some lighter material. In that vellers who have examined the battle-scene at Thebes, from case, 'iron chariots' was probably a term by which such which it was taken, describe it, this is a chariot of the dewere distinguished from other and lighter chariots, also feated party, who, in their flight, crowd in twos and threes employed in war. There is no difficulty in the epithet, if into the cars intended only for one person. (See Richardthe Canaanites only used iron to emboss or sheath their son's Travels, ii. 23.) In ordinary circumstances, a single chariots, in the same way that the Greeks of Homer used person would have the shield in one hand, the spear in the brass, tin, silver, and gold; for it is usual to describe an other, and the reins lashed around the body. The chariots article as made of that substance with which it is only described by Homer always carried two persons--the warexteriorly covered or ornamented. Indeed metal appears rior himself and his charioteer. The Office of the latter

ANCIENT WAR-CHARIOT.–From an Egyptian Bas-relief,

[graphic]

AXCIENT PERSIAN CHARIOT.-From a Persepolitan Bas-relief in the British Museum. was one of very considerable importance ; and all the Sidon was not included in the lot of Asher, and have given heroes were competent to perform its duties on occasion. his answers to the objections which might be made to that Patroclus, who was the dear and intimate friend of opinion. On arriving at the present text, he confesses that Achilles, and from whose death such important conse- in its literal meaning it bears strongly against his theory; quences resulted, was at the same time the charioteer of and says that it is the only text by which it is not favoured. that imperious hero.

Hopeless of getting over the difficulty which it offers, he The second cut is, in our opinion, of much more conse- says:-: To declare my opinion honestly, I conceive the quence than the other, as affording a more probable re- words 1i7's ', inhabitants of Sidon, to be of doubtful presentation of the chariots (not Egyptian), mentioned in authority and a mere interpolation. It is not however Scripture, which can now be obtained. It also agrees better just for a critic, without being able to adduce ancient manu. with the description of Homer. Indeed it seems to us the scripts or versions in support of his opinion, to propose to most perfect representation of an ancient chariot that now omit a particular clause, merely because it happens to stand exists. It formed the termination of a line of procession in the way of a favourite hypothesis. For ourselves, we among the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, and is now in the

are disposed to adopt the local hypothesis of Michaelis, in British Museum. It is to be regretted that it is represented such a modified form as does, in our opinion, obviate all as forming part of a walking procession rather than in the difficulties of this perplexing subject, and has the adproper action. We need not give a verbal description of vantage not only of being not adverse to, but of obtaining the details which the cnt so clearly exhibits; but the support from, the present text. It will be observed, that reader will not fail to observe its evident superiority for Tyre is not mentioned here, as in Josh. xix., but that the purposes of a war-chariot to the slight cars of the Sidon is; and, further, that Achzib and Accho, towns on Egyptians.

the coast to the south of Tyre, are mentioned among those We have described unarmed chariots as illustrating the whose inhabitants the Asherites could not drive out. Our present text; but we do not wish to be understood as reject- impression is that Sidon, and its proper and ancient tering the notion that the iron chariots' of the Canaanites

ritory, were not included in the lot of Asher; but that Tyre were armed with offensive projections. It is possible that was. We conceive that the Sidonians, having found an they were, and we shall perhaps find a future opportunity advantageous situation for a commercial port, southward of noticing such chariots. Meanwhile, the above statement of their own territory, had extended their frontier so as to will shew that this supposition is not absolutely necessary include this spot, and had there recently founded Tyre. to the elucidation of the text. The high antiquity of such So now, under this view, the present text would mean that chariots as those which have engaged our attention, com- the Asherites had neglected to drive the inhabitants of pared with the less certain, though also probably very high, Sidon, that is, those who were formerly inhabitants of antiquity of armed chariots, gives the former an unques- Sidon, from Tyre and the usurped district, and had not tionable claim to priority of attention.

obliged them to retire within their old boundaries. Other31. Accho.'—This place was, in times long

subsequent, wise, under the same view, the expression "inhabitants of enlarged and improved by the first Ptolemy, after whom it Sidon’ may well be understood to denote the Sidonians was then called Ptolemais. It has now recovered its generally ; Sidon’ being understood as the name of the ancient name, being called by the Arabs Akka, and by the country as well as of the town. In the Old Testament Turks Acra or Acre. The apostle Paul touched at and there is no particular name for this district except that of spent a day in this place on his return to Jerusalem, from the principal town— just as we find in Ps. Ixxxiii. 7, where his travels in Greece and Asia Minor. (See the note on the words, the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre,' Acts xxi. 7.)

are obviously used generally for the Philistines and Phoe-Nor the inhabitants of Zidon.? —See the notes on nicians. Tyre was then the principal town, as Sidon was Nnm. xxxiv. 6; and Josh. xix. 24. In the latter of these at the present date, and as such gave name to the whole notes we have explained the opinion of Michaelis, that Phænician territory. Therefore, the text would express, that the Sidonians had not been expelled-but it does not omission of Tyre here, affords a strong ground for the view say from what place, that being well understood : for the we have taken. We regret that we cannot here shew in boundary of Asher having, in Josh. xix., being defined as detail the applicability of this view to the solution of all the extending to Sidon, and as including Tyre, the

daughter of difficulties which attend the subject. But the reader who Sidon,'--the present expression would obviously mean that feels an interest in the matter, and refers to the previous the Sidonians ought to have been expelled from Tyre. If notes, will readily perceive these applications; and he will, the text had said the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon,' this we trust, find his considerations better assisted by this view, explanation would not be admissible, but the singular than by any which has yet been proposed. [App. No. 22.]

with you.

CHAPTER II.

11 And the children of Israel did evil in

the sight of the Lord, and served Baalim : 1 An angel rebuketh the people at Bochim. 10 The

12 And they forsook the LORD God of their wickedness of the new generation after Joshua. 14 God's anger and pity toward them. 20 The ca- fathers, which brought them out of the land naanites are left to prove Israel.

of Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods

of the people that were round about them, and AND an 'angel of the LORD came up from bowed themselves unto them, and provoked Gilgal to Bochim, and said, I made you to go the LORD to anger. up out of Egypt, and have brought you unto 13 And they forsook the LORD, and served the land which I sware unto your fathers; Baal and Ashtaroth. and I said, I will never break my covenant 14 | And the anger of the LORD was hot

against Israel, and he delivered them into the 2 And 'ye shall make no league with the hands of spoilers that spoiled them, and he inhabitants of this land ; 'ye shall throw down sold them into the hands of their enemies their altars: but ye have not obeyed my round about, so that they could not any longer voice : why have ye done this?

stand before their enemies. 3 Wherefore I also said, I will not drive 15 Whithersoever they went out, the hand them out from before you; but they shall be of the LORD was against them for evil, as the *as thorns in your sides, and their gods shall | LORD had said, and 'as the LORD had sworn be a 'snare unto you.

unto them: and they were greatly distressed. 4_And it came to pass, when the angel of 16 | Nevertheless the LORD raised up the LORD spake these words unto all the chil- judges, which delivered them out of the hand dren of Israel, that the people lifted up their of those that spoiled them. voice, and wept.

17 And yet they would not hearken unto 5 And they called the name of that place their judges, but they went a whoring after °Bochim : and they sacrificed there unto the other gods, and bowed themselves unto them: LORD.

they turned quickly out of the way which their 6. And when Joshua had let the people fathers walked in, obeying the commandments go, the children of Israel went every man unto of the LORD; but they did not so. his inheritance to possess the land.

18 And when the LORD raised them up 7 And the people served the Lord all the judges, then the LORD was with the judge, days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders and delivered them out of the hand of their that 'outlived Joshua, who had seen all the enemies all the days of the judge: for it regreat works of the LORD, that he did for pented the LORD because of their groanings Israel.

by reason of them that oppressed them and 8 And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant vexed them. of the LORD, died, being an hundred and ten 19 And it came to pass, "when the judge

was dead, that they returned, and corrupted 9 And they buried him in the border of his themselves more than their fathers, in following inheritance in Timnath-heres, in the mount other gods to serve them, and to bow down of Ephraim, on the north side of the hill unto them ; 18they ceased not from their own Gaash.

doings, nor from their stubborn way. 10 | And also all that generation were 20 And the anger of the Lord was hot gathered unto their fathers : and there arose against Israel; and he said, Because that this another generation after them, which knew not people hath transgressed my covenant which the Lord, nor yet the works which he had commanded their fathers, and have not done for Israel.

hearkened unto my voice ;

years old.

6 That is, weepers. 7 Heb. prolonged days after Joshua. 11 Chap. 3. 12.

13 Heb, they let nothing fall of their.

i Or, messenger.

2 Deut. 7, 2.

3 Deut. 12. 3.

4 Josh. 23. 13.
8 Psal. 44. 12. Isa, 50. 1.
12 Or, were corrupt.

5 Exod. 23, 33, and 34. 12.
9 Lev. 26. Deut. 28.

10 Heb. saved.

21 I also will not henceforth drive out any to walk therein, as their fathers did keep it, from before them of the nations which Joshua

or not. left when he died :

23 Therefore the LORD 'left those nations, 22 That through them I may prove Israel, without driving them out hastily; neither dewhether they will keep the way of the LORD | livered he them into the hand of Joshua.

14 Or, suffered.

Verse 1. • From Gilgal to Bochim.'-From this we may The propensity to idolatry, which was predominant in all infer, that the angel had made his appearance at Gilgal, the rest of the world, thus spread itself like a plague. before he came to Bochim. The latter place is thought to From time to time idolatry was openly professed ; and this have been at or near Shiloh, or, as some think, Bethel. national treachery to their King JEHOVAH, always brought

10. 'All that generation.'—That is, doubtless, the gene- with it national misfortunes.' [APPENDIX, No. 23.) ration which had grown up in the wilderness, and had wit- 14. He delivered them into the hands of spoilers that nessed a part of the works of the Lord there. They had spoiled them.'— Idolatry was probably not openly tolerated also crossed the divided Jordan, had beheld the wonders till the generation which had sworn anew to the covenant, through which the Lord had enabled them to overcome had become extinct. But, after that, the rulers were unnations greater and mightier than themselves,' and who, able, or unwilling, any longer to prevent the worship of in the last days of Joshua, had solemnly renewed the cove- pagan deities. •Then the Hebrews,' to continue our quotadant with Jehovah.

tions from Jahn, 'rendered effeminate by this voluptuous The chapter before us claims the most attentive consi- religion, and forsaken by their King JEHOVAH, were no deration of those who would thoroughly understand the longer able to contend with their foes, and were forced to condition of the Israelites during the several centuries which bow their necks under a foreign yoke. In this humiliating elapsed from the death of Joshua to the establishment of a and painful subjection to a conquering people they called regal government. It is a masterly summary of the lead- to mind their deliverance from Egypt, the ancient kinding principles of conduct which the subsequent circum- nesses of Jehovah, the promises and threatenings of the stances illustrate. The succeeding brief collection of lead- Lord ; they forsook their idols, who could afford them no ing facts would not be well understood without the general assistance, returned to the sacred tabernacle, and then found and connecting statement contained in this chapter. a deliverer who freed them from the yoke of bondage.

11. • Served Baalim.'— The word Baalim (lords) being The reformation was generally of no longer duration than plural, the meaning is, that they served not one particular the life of the deliverer. As soon as that generation was deity, but the various gods of the country, as is expressly extinct, idolatry again crept in by the same way. Then said in v. 12. Jahn's section, on · The Theocracy from followed subjection and oppression under the yoke of a Joshna to Samuel,' in his History of the Hebrew Common- neighbouring people, till a second reformation prepared wealth, forms so valuable, though short, a commentary on them for a new deliverance. Between these extremes of this chapter, that we shall not deny ourselves the satisfac- prosperity and adversity, as the consequences of their fidetion of quoting its substance in our notes. Referring to the lity or treachery to their king, Jehovah, the Hebrew nation apostacy of the Israelites, he observes: The last admoni- was continually fluctuating till the time of Samuel. Such tions of Joshua, and the renewal of the covenant with were the arrangements of Providence, that as soon as idoJehovah, failed to produce all the effect intended. That latry gained the ascendancy, some one of the neighbouring generation, indeed, never suffered idolatry to become pre- people grew powerful, acquired the preponderance, and dominant, but still they were very negligent in regard to subjected the Hebrews. Jehovah always permitted their the expulsion of the Canaanites. Only a few tribes made oppressions to become sufficiently severe to arouse them war on their hereditary foes, and even they were soon weary from their slumbers, to remind them of the sanctions of the of the contest. They spared their dangerous and corrupt- law, and to turn them again to their God and king. Then ing neighbours, and, contrary to an express statute, were a hero arose, who inspired the people with courage, defeated satisfied with making them tributary. They even became their foes, abolished idolatry, and re-established the authoconnected with them by unlawful marriages; and then it rity of Jehovah. As the Hebrews, in the course of time, was no longer easy for them to exterminate or banish the became continually more obstinate in their idolatry, so each near relatives of their own families. Thus the Hebrews subsequent oppression of the nation was always greater and rendered the execution of the law more difficult, if not im- more severe than the preceding. So difficult was it, as possible, and wove for themselves the net in which they mankind were then situated, to preserve a knowledge of were afterwards entangled.' Their Canaanitish relatives the true God in the world; though so repeatedly and exinvited them to their festivals, at which the most gross and pressly revealed, and in so high a degree made evident to corrupting rites of idolatry were freely exercised. These the senses.' This and the preceding extracts, from the debaucheries were consecrated by the religious customs of same author, excellently discriminate the spirit of the peall nations; and however painful it may be to refer to riod, the history of which now engages our attention. them, the truth of Hebrew history will not allow us to 16. ' Judges.'--See the introductory note to this book. overlook them, in estimating the causes which operated in It is important to the right understanding of the very inteseducing the Israelites from their allegiance to JEHOVAH. resting period before us, to have a distinct idea of the nature The enticements of their pagan relatives and neighbours, of the office held by the Hebrew judges. It will have been and the impurities which their religion sanctioned, but observed that the Hebrew constitution made no provision which the law of JEHOVAH counted abominable, too soon for a permanent and general governor of the nation. It is brought His subjects to submit themselves to deities so true that such rulers did exist, as Moses, Joshua, and the tolerant of sin, and so highly honoured by the people with judges; but their office was not a permanent institution, whom they associated. At first, probably,' says Jahn,' a but arose from circumstances, and from the necessity of the representation of JEHOVAH was set up, but this was soon times, each ruler being, as occasion required, appointed by transformed to an idol, or was invoked as an idol by others, God, or elected by the people. We must not regard this of which there is a remarkable example in the time soon irregularity as a defect in the Hebrew system of governafter Joshua (Judg. xvii., xviii.). Idolatrous images were ment; for, framed as it was, it became very possible for the afterwards set up with the image, and the Hebrews ima- state to subsist in happiness and strength without a general gined that they should be the more prosperous if they ren- ruler. In the first place, God himself was the chief magisdered religious homage to the ancient gods of the land. trate, and had established an agency, through which his

will might be at all times ascertained. Under him there and was in fact only limited by the Law. They exercised was his visible minister, the high-priest, who was empow. most of the rights of sovereignty, but they could not enact ered to attend to the general affairs of the nation, when laws or impose taxes upon the people; they made peace there was no military or civil ruler specially appointed for and war, and, in their judicial character, they decided the purpose. We are also to remember that every tribe causes without appeal: yet all this power seems rather to had its own chief or prince, whose office was permanent, have been the result of character and influence, than of any and who, with the subordinate heads of families, wielded authority recognised as inherent in the office. No salary the patriarchal powers, which, in ordinary circumstances, or income attached to it, unless it might be a larger share were amply sufficient to keep the affairs of his tribe in in the spoils of war, and such presents as might, according proper order. In this state of affairs, the mild authority to Oriental custom, be offered to the judge, as testimonials of the high-priest ought to have been sufficient for the pur- of respect. These high functionaries had no external poses of general government. But this was not the case ; marks of distinction; they were surrounded by no circumthe apostacy and rebellion of the Hebrews, and the punish- stances of pomp or ceremony; they had no courtiers, ment with which such sins were visited, gave occasion to guards, train, or equipage. They were in general men of the appointment of extraordinary functionaries, which the moderate desires; and were content to deserve well of their organization of the state did not itself require. These were country, without caring to aggrandize their own power, or the judges. They arose, from time to time, as they were to be enriched by the public wealth. Some of them maniwanted; and were sometimes called by God himself to their

fest errors conduct, which the sacred writer does not high work, and were sometimes elected by the people. extenuate or conceal: but ancient or modern history does The judge was commonly a person, who, having been in- not exhibit a succession of public men more distinguished strumental in delivering the people from oppression, usually for disinterested patriotism and zeal, or more free from the continued to administer the general government during the public crimes which, in common histories, so frequently remainder of his life. Şome, however, seem to have been flow from resentments and from the lust of wealth or appointed to govern in time of peace. Deborah ruled in power. “Their exalted patriotism, like everything else in Israel before the war with Jabin; Samuel certainly was the theocratical state of the Hebrews, was partly of a relinot introduced to the government by his military exploits ; gious character; and these regents always conducted themand of Jair, Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon, it is at least uncer- selves as the officers of God; in all their enterprises they tain that they held any military command. The oppres- relied upon Him, and their only care was that their counsions which this book records were not always equally felt trymen should acknowledge the authority of JEHOVAH, all over Israel ; and hence the authority of the deliverer their invisible King..... They were not merely deliverers sometimes only extended over the tribes he had delivered, of the state from a foreign yoke, but destroyers of idolatry, or over those which chose to acknowledge his authority, or foes of pagan vices, promoters of the knowledge of God, of concurred in his appointment. Thus Jephthah did not religion, and of morality, restorers of theocracy in the exercise his authority on the west of the Jordan; nor did minds of the Hebrews, and powerful instruments of Divine that of Barak extend to the east of that river. Some of the Providence in the promotion of the great design of preservjudges appear to have ruled, contemporarily, over different ing the Hebrew constitution, and, by that means, of restribes : and this is one of the circumstances which per- cuing the true religion from destruction.' Jahn's Heb. plexes the chronology of the period.

Commonwealth-sect. Office of the Judges;' see also his The judges, as we have seen, did not transmit their dig-Archæologia ; Rosenmüller, in Lib. Jud. Proæmium ; nity to their descendants, neither did they appoint succes- Michaelis, Commentaries, art. 53; Lewis's Origines Hesors. The authority of the judges was very considerable; brææ; and Horne's Introduction, iii. 84.

CHAPTER III.

commanded their fathers by the hand of

Moses. 1 The nations which were left to prove Israel. 5 By 5 And the children of Israel dwelt

communion with them they commit idolatry. 8 Othniel delivereth them from Chushan - rishathaim, among the Canaanites, Hittites, and Amo15 Ehud from Eglon, 31 Shamgar from the rites, and Perizzites, and Hivites, and JebuPhilistines.

sites :

6 And they took their daughters to be their Now these are the nations which the LORD wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, left, to prove Israel by them, even as many and served their gods. of Israel as had not known all the wars of 7 And the children of Israel did evil in the Canaan;

sight of the LORD, and forgat the LORD their 2 Only that the generations of the children God, and served Baalim and the groves. of Israel might know, to teach them war, 8 T Therefore the anger of the LORD was at the least such as before knew nothing hot against Israel, and he sold them into the thereof;

hand of Chushan-rishathaim king of 'Meso3 Namely, five lords of the Philistines, and potamia : and the children of Israel served all the Canaanites, and the Sidonians, and the Chushan-rishathaim eight years. Hivites that dwelt in mount Lebanon, from 9 And when the children of Israel cried mount Baal-hermon unto the entering in of unto the LORD, the LORD raised up a 'deliHamath.

verer to the children of Israel, who delivered 4 And they were to prove Israel by them, them, even Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's to know whether they would hearken unto the commandments of the LORD, which he 10 And the Spirit of the LORD 'came upon

younger brother.

1 Heb. Aram-naharaim.

2 Heb. saviour.

8 Heb, was.

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