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a, Egyptian ; 6, Phrygian ; C, Dacian; d, Roman, Common Soldier ; e, Do. Officer; f, Do. Imperial.

The rings were of various kinds and sizes, and variously This kind of armour had grown into extensive use long disposed. Sometimes they were fixed independently of each before it was adopted by the Romans, who regarded it as a other, as in the very fine specimen of Phrygian mail which characteristic of barbarians—that is, of all nations except our wood-cut exhibits : in other instances, the rings were themselves and the Greeks. In the time of the emperors, twisted into each other, like the links of a chain ; and, in they were, however, led to adopt it from the Dacians and the some cases, the rings were set edgewise, as shewn in the Sarmatians. This scaled armour was not, however, always Egyptian hauberks (fig. a of the above cut), which Denon of metal : for the last-named people had none such. They copied from the walls of Carnac, and which affords the were without suitable metals, and therefore they collected earliest known specimen of this kind of armour. A the hoofs of horses, and, after purifying them, cut them into similar suit, most elaborately wrought, occurs among the slices, and polished the pieces so as to resemble the scales Sassanian sculptures at Takht-i-Bostan in the figure of a of a dragon, or a pine-cone when green. These scales they mounted king, which is also remarkable for the curious sewed together with the sinews of horses and oxen; and mailed dress by which the front of the horse is protected. the body armour thus manufactured was, according to PauThe ordinary coat of armour among the Egyptians, although sanias, not inferior to that of the Greeks either in elegance the same general form, was less thick and cumbersome or strength. The Emperor Domitian had, after this model, than this. Its external surface presented about eleven rows a cuirass of boars' hoofs stitched together; and this, indeed, of horizontal metal plates; and, when this cuirass had a would seem better adapted to such armour than the hoofs collar, with another narrower row at the bottom of the of horses. With such armour as this of scales, or indeed throat, and above this two more completed the collar. The that of rings, any part of the body might be covered; and, breadth of each plate or scale was about an inch, twelve of accordingly, we see figures covered with a dress of scale, them sufficing to cover the front of the body: they were ring, or chain armour, from head to foot, and even mounted well secured by bronze pins. They are often without collars. on horses which have the whole body, to the very hoofs, Some of them have sleeves reaching nearly to the elbow, clad in the same manner. Of this, our cut of a Dacian while others are without any. Many soldiers wore a quilted warrior on horseback is a curious specimen. The convest of the same form as the coat of armour, and intended struction of such mailed armour had been brought to a as a substitute for it; and some had corslets, reaching only state of astonishing perfection. In some instances, partifrom the waist to the upper part of the breast, and sup- cularly in scale-armour, we see figures covered completely ported by straps over the shoulder.

in suits fitted to the body with consummate accuracy, and Scale armour was that which obtained the desired results, displaying not only the shape of the wearer but even the by arranging small pieces of metal, cut into the shape of muscular parts of the person ; that is to say, the armour leaves, scales, etc., in such a manner that they fell over was so flexible that it yielded readily to the pressure of the each other like the feathers of a bird, or the scales of a fish. muscles and to the various motions of the body. Now,

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Goliath's coat of mail' was of scales; and affords the most rials we have described. It was a sort of waistcoat, someancient specimen of scaled armour on record. That it was times consisting of two compact pieces, one covering the such, does not appear in our translation, which omits the front and the other the back, and commonly fastened to descriptive epithet Dy pyp kaskassim, which is found in each other at the sides. It was at first, whether compact the text, and which is the same that, in the feminine plural,

or mailed, cut short round the loins; as in the cut is employed in Lev. xi. 9, and Ezek. xxix. 4, to express the

of the Greek warrior, which illustrates many of the scales of a fish. Whether this kind of scaled armour was

details we are now giving. This is also seen in the adopted by the Jews does not appear. We should think it

figure of the outermost Roman soldier in the annexed cut; very probable; though it is certainly true that this is the

for these short corslets continued to be worn by certain only instance in which the word d'opyd is used in appli

descriptions of warriors long after that more complete cation to armour.

cuirass had been introduced, which followed the line of Having thus indicated the various methods in which

the abdomen; and which, whether of leather or metal, was, ancient armour was made it is desirable to notice the parts

as we see in the Roman cuirasses, hammered so as to fit of which it consisted.

exactly to the natural convexities and concavities of the The thorar or breastplate.—There is no question that

body; with the natural marks of which, as of the navel, this was the most ancient piece of armour for the pro

etc., it was often impressed. Such cuirasses were sometection of the upper portion of the body. When men began

times plain, but were often highly enriched with embossed

figures, of common or precious metals, in wreathings, to extend to that the protection which the helmet had given

borders, animal heads, and other figures. The Romans, to the head, a defence for the breast was naturally the first desired and attempted. This was the principal use of the

in particular, affected the Gorgon's head on the breast, as

an amulet. thorar, which for a long time continued to be, under various modifications of form, the sole body-armour of ancient na

The girdle.—This was of more importance with the tions; and which, under further modifications, was used in

thorax only, or with the short corslet, than with the cuirass addition to other pieces of armour, subsequently introduced.

which covered the abdomen. Its use is seen in the cut of It probably originated with the Egyptians, among whom,

the Greek warrior; but it was often broader than it there according to Meyrick, it was the only body-armour ; a

appears. It was a part of their armour on which the anstatement which is now known to be incorrect. It hung

cient warriors set high value. It was often richly ornaover the breast and shoulders, in the manner of a tippet;

mented; and the gift of a warrior's girdle to another was a and was made of linen, several times folded and quilted in

testimony of the highest consideration. Thus it is not forsuch a manner as to resist the point of a weapon. These

gotten to state that Jonathan gave his girdle to David; and linen pectorals came into extensive use among the neigh

we read in the Iliad (vii. 305), that when Hector and Ajax bouring nations; and those of Egyptian manufacture were

exchanged gifts, in testimony of friendship, after a hard particularly valued. A linen thorax of this kind seems

combat together, the latter presented the former with his to have been worn in the Trojan war by the Lesser Ajax,

girdle ; it is often mentioned in Scripture; and from its use who—

in keeping the armour and clothes together, and in bearing • With a guard

the sword, as well as from its own defensive character, to Of linen texture light his breast secured.'

gird' and 'to arm' are employed as synonymous terms.

The Skirt or Kilt fell below the girdle, and with the Sir S. Meyrick thinks that the Persians were the first short cuirass covered only the hips and top of the thighs, who gave a metallic character to the thorax; and it is also but with the long cuirass covered great part of the thighs. his opinion that it was the principal piece of body-armour | It was sometimes a simple skirt, but often formed a piece of among the Hebrews..

armour, and frequently consisted of one or more rows of The Corslet, called by the Greeks mithrce, was of various leathern straps, sometimes plated with metal and richly forms; and composed, progressively, of the sundry mate- bordered or fringed. In many of the Roman cuirasses, par

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GRECIAN WARRIOR IN ARMOUR. ticularly those of superior officers, the shoulders were pro- tially the same word, in Hebrew, with such variations of tected in a similar manner.

orthography as occur in other instances. The most usual The long cuirass which covered the person from the form of this word is jioni shirion. Sir S. Meyrick is of throat to the abdomen, and, by means of the skirt, to the opinion that this always or generally means the thoraz of thighs, may be said to combine the several parts we have which we have spoken, and which the Hebrews probably described, except the girdle, as may be seen particularly in derived from Egypt. He thinks that, in remote times, it fig. f of the miscellaneous cut. They were in fact defensive was attached to a short tunic, in the same way that the tunics; and having mentioned them above, we have only to sacred breastplate was fastened upon the ephod. Beneath repeat that they were, in different times and countries, com- the pectoral were belts plated with brass or other metal, and posed of all the materials specified at the outset of this note. the uppermost of them was bound upon the bottom of the These several parts of armour when put on separately, or tunic which connected the pectoral with the belts, and all when united in such long cuirasses as this, together with of them together formed a tolerably perfect armour helmet and greaves, left only the arms, the lower part of for the front of the whole body. These belts,' called in the thighs, and the face, unprotected and not always the Hebrew Sign chagor, 'were generally two, one above the face, as some of the ancient helmets had visors. But some parts being exposed, a step further was made by investing

other, and appear similar to those that are represented in

ancient Greek sculpture, though in some degree higher up. the body from throat to heel in a complete dress of mail : this step, however, was never taken by the classical nations

This mode of arming properly explains the passage in

Scripture where Ahab is said to have been smitten with an of antiquity, it being in their view the attribute of such barbarians' as the Sarmatians, Dacians, and Parthians.

arrow 6'7770 1?" between the openings" or“ joints," that We trust that this cursory statement will assist the general is, of the belts

, it'? Do 12! “and between the thorax” or “ pecideas of the reader when armour is spoken of in Scripture;

toral.” The pectorals of the Egyptians were made of linen; which is the more necessary, as, in the absence of any dis- and perhaps anciently those of the Jews were the same. la tinct intimations concerning the Hebrew armour, we can

after times they seem to have been covered with plates of only form our notions on the subject by considering the metal, and in the New Testament we meet with the words kinds of arniour which were generally worn by ancient na- Bápakas oidnpoús, or pectorals of iron (Rev. ix. 9). The tions. It will be observed that the various words which military sagum or cloak is called in our translation a “ ha ! occur in our version, as, .coat of mail, brigandine, haber- bergeon,” but the original (kinn) is of doubtful significageon, harness, breastplate' (except that of the high-priest, tion, and occurs only twice (Exod. xxviii. 32; xxxix. 23), which has a different word) are expressed by what is essen- But of whatever kind the garment may have been, it had



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an aperture at the upper part through which the head was ancient sculptures that greaves with the open part in front, passed when it was put on the body. Strutt conjectures and defending the calf rather than the shin, were-somethat it was the tunic upon which the thorax was put, and times in use. Sometimes a greave was worn on one leg bore the same relation to the thorax that the ephod did to only, and that was the left; that leg, and indeed the left the sacred pectoral.. Meyrick is so high an authority on side generally, being advanced in action on account of the these subjects, that it is difficult to dissent from him; but buckler, which was borne on the left arm. Homer's ve think his statement too restrictive. So far from sup- heroes usually wore brass greaves : indeed the Greeks are posing that the Hebrew shirion means only the thorax, we continually called • brazen-greaved Achaians ;' whence are satisfied that it has a more extended signification, and some suppose that this defence was first, and for a time implies, perhaps, as understood by our translators, almost exclusively, used by that people. The instance before us any kind of body armour, being rather a general than a spe- shews the contrary, and besides, greaves were worn by the cific term. Indeed, he himself states, incidentally, that the Trojans as well as the Greeks. same word means a cuirass in the description of Goliath's 10. · Give me a man, that we may fight together.'—Single armour. Doubtless the Hebrews did wear such armour as combats at the head of armies are of continual recurrence he describes; but surely not such exclusively. We rather in the history and poems of ancient times; and in imagine that they were at different periods acquainted with these instances it was a condition, as in the one before us, most of the forms of defensive armour which we have that the result of such a combat should determine the noticed.

national quarrel. A remarkable example of this is the Most of the same kinds of armour and arms assigned combat between Paris and Menelaus, as described by in the sacred text to Goliath still exist in the modern Homer; to which, and other similar instances, we refrain East. The annexed engraving, copied unaltered from from particularly adverting, in order to make room for the Cassas, might seem as if intended to represent Goliath following striking illustration, drawn from the existing and his armour-bearer, though it really represents a man- practices of the Bedouin Arabs, as described by Burckhardt at-arms and his attendant (or armour-bearer) in Egypt at (Notes on the Bedouins, p. 174):— When two hostile the end of the last century.

parties of Bedouin cavalry meet, and perceive from afar 6. • Greaves of brass upon his legs.'—These were a kind that they are equal in point of numbers, they halt opposite of boots, without feet, for the defence of the legs made to each other, out of the reach of musket-shot; and the either of bull's hide or of metal, generally brass or copper. battle begins by skirmishes between two men. A horseThe ancient greave usually terminated at the ancle, and man leaves his party, and gallops off towards the enemy, rose in front nearly to the top of the knee. It was open exclaiming, “O horsemen, o horsemen, let such a one meet behind, but the opposite edges at the open part, nearly met mc !" If the adversary for whom he calls be present, and when the greave was buckled, buttoned, or tied to the leg. not afraid to meet him in combat, he gallops forward; if There were some kinds that did not reach so high as the absent, his friends reply that he is not amongst them. The knee. This piece of armour was useful not only in cumbat, challenged horseman, in his turn, exclaims, “And you, but for the purpose of guarding the leg against the impe- upou the grey mare, who are you?". The other answers, diments, such as iron spikes, etc., which the enemy strewed “I am *** the son of ***." Having thus become acin the way, as well as to enable the warrior to make his way quainted with each other, they begin to fight; none of the more easily among thorns and briers. It appears from bystanders join in the combat, to do so would be reckoned

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