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17 And Saul said unto Michal, Why hast | other messengers, and they prophesied likethou deceived me so, and sent away mine | wise. And Saul sent messengers again the enemy, that he is escaped ? And Michal third time, and they prophesied also. answered Saul, He said unto me, Let me go ; 22 Then went he also to Ramah, and came why should I kill thee?

to a great well that is in Sechu : and he is So David fled, and escaped, and came asked and said, Where are Samuel and to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all that David ? And one said, Behold, they be at Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel Naioth in Ramah. went and dwelt in Naioth.

23 | And he went thither to Naioth in 19 And it was told Saul, saying, Behold, Ramah : and the Spirit of God was upon him David is at Naioth in Ramah.

also, and he went on, and prophesied, until he
20 And Saul sent messengers to take | came to Naioth in Ramah.
David : and when they saw the company of 24 And he stripped off his clothes also, and
the prophets prophesying, and Samuel stand- / prophesied before Samuel in like man
ing as appointed over them, the Spirit of God lay down naked all that day and all that
was upon the messengers of Saul, and they | night. Wherefore they say, 'Is Saul also
also prophesied.

among the prophets?
21 And when it was told Saul, he sent |
- Heb. fell.

5 Chap. 10. 11.

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| kinds of images, some of which were less objectionable

than others. Abarbanel and other Rabbins specify different sorts of teraphim, besides those used idolatrously. They say that one sort was a kind of talisman, designed to draw down the favourable influences of the heavenly bodies; another served as a sort of dial, to make known the time of the day; and a third was in the similitude of some living person, and women had such figures of their husbands that they might have their presence, as it were, continually with them. The last of these explanations is exceedingly doubtful. We cannot help thinking that there was something wrong in these teraphim, and that they formed a superstition to which women seem to have been particularly addicted. We need not blame David, however. The image was not produced till he had left the place; and very probably he knew not that there was such a thing in the house. It must be constantly recollected that men and women live in separate tenements, and are not much in each other's company; so that a husband has very little cognizance of what is kept or done in the haram. And, whatever may have been the case in David's time, it is certainly true now, that one who receives a king's daughter for his wife is very differently circumstanced from all other husbands. The princess assumes the entire control of the domestic establishment; in which the husband is seldom considered in much other light than that of a faroured (and not always favoured) upper servant. He is usually most submissive to her; and rarely ventures on the smallest exertion of that authority which commonly belongs to husbands in the East.

Put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.' -It must be observed, however, that the word hair is not in the original, and that the word rendered pillow' (72kebir) is subject to various interpretations. The Septuagint and Josephus say that it was a goat's liver ; the use of which, as explained by the latter, was, that the liver of a goat had the property of motion for some time after being taken from the animal, and therefore gave a motion to the bed-clothes, which was necessary to convey the impression that a living person lay in the bed. But the Targum says it was a goat-skin bottle: if so, it was probably inflated with air-a fact which would impair any claims to originality which the recent invention of air-pillows may have established. Others think that the goats' hair was put about the head of the image, to look like human hair; and, lastly, some suppose that the article in question was a net or curtain of


13. Michal took an image,' etc.-In the original this
is a teraphim; and the intention, in placing it in the bed,
was evidently to make an appearance as if a human
being were lying there. Of teraphim we have already
written under Gen. xxxi. 19. As these images appear to
have been objectionable, it has occasioned some surprise
that so pious a man as David allowed any to remain in
his house. In fact, it is difficult to understand distinctly
what the ideas connected with these images were; and it
is very probable that the term was applied to different

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goats' hair, used, as a mosquito-curtain, for the purpose of i This also explains how it happened that the sick were keeping away troublesome insects. Harmer traces an in brought to Christ in their beds, to be healed. genious train of reasoning which led him to conceive that 24. Lay down naked all that day.' Reland has an ex. this pillow of goats' hair' was a mosquito-net or curtain cellent note on this subject, which we cannot refrain from of that material. His philological reasoning, indeed, quoting, with slight alteration, as given by Whiston in his somewhat halts; but as the idea has been adopted by some translation of Josephus. “The word naked does not alrecent translators, and incorporated in their versions, it is ways signify entirely naked; but sometimes means withworth while to state that his principal objection rests on out men's usual armour, or without their usual robes or the improbability of goats' hair being used for the bed of upper garments; as when Virgil bids the husbandmen a sick man. This we cannot see. We have ourselves plough naked and sow naked. And we are thus to unmattresses and pillows too of horsehair, with which also derstand when Josephus says that God had given the Jews we stuff our sofas and easy chairs; and there seems no the security of armour when they were naked; and when reason why goats' hair might not in the time of Saul have he says that Ahab fell upon the Syrians when they were been used to stuff a pillow. The ancient pillows were naked and drunk; when he says that Nehemiah comusually very hard, and the use of one of goats' hair, or manded those Jews who were building the walls of Jeruperhaps of any pillow, was probably regarded as a sort of salem to take care and have their armour on upon occasion, effeminacy, unsuited to any but women and sick persons; that the enemy might not fall upon them naked. I may and the use of it in the bed of one of such hardy habits as add that the case seems to be the same in Scripture, when David would therefore alone suggest and corroborate the it says that Saul lay down naked among the prophets (1 idea of his illness. The head of the image being thus Sam. xix. 24); when it says that Isaiah walked naked placed upon the bolster, Michal would draw over it the and barefoot (Isa. xx. 2, 3); and when it says that Peter, top of the bed covering, which would not only lessen the before he girt on his fisher's coat, was naked (John xxi. chances of detection, but increase the illusion, it being 7). Nor were the youvñtes, or naked soldiers, others than customary in the East for people to sleep with their heads those levis armaturæ, who were free from the heavy arunder the covering, Those who prefer Harmer's inter mour of the rest. And the like may be supposed in several pretation are, however, not probably wrong in assuming other places. What is said also of David gives light to that curtains or nets to keep off the gnats may have been this; who was reproached by Michal for having shamein use in the time of David, for we know from Herodotus fully uncovered himself while dancing before the ark; that they existed very anciently in Egypt.

whereas it appears by the context that he had at that time 15. Bring him up to me in the bed.--It will be recol been covered with a linen ephod, propably such as the lected that the beds commonly in use were probably, as Levites wore. We are therefore to understand that, in now, merely a padded quilt, doubled, for a mattress, and the present instance, and also in that of David, the king another, single, for a covering. There cannot, therefore, put aside the outer robes and arms, by which his dignits be a more convenient way of transporting a sick person was, perhaps, more particularly distinguished, and apthan to wrap him up in his bed and carry him away. In peared in the light under-dress which, as now worn in fact, this is the way in which we have usually seen sick the East, is complete in itself, although, from fitting closer persons, in Western Asia, carried from one place to another, to the body than the loose outer robes, it certainly does when circumstances rendered it necessary to remove them. suggest the idea of comparative nakedness.


soever thy soul 'desireth, I will even do it for 1 David consulteth with Jonathan for his safety. 11

thee. Jonathan and David renew their covenant by oath.

5 And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, 18 Jonathan's token to David. 24 Saul, missing to morrow is the new moon, and I should not David, seeketh to kill Jonathan 35 Jonathan

fail to sit with the king at meat : but let me lovingly taketh his leave of David.

go, that I may hide myself in the field unto And David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and the third day at even. came and said before Jonathan, What have 6 If thy father at all miss me, then say, I done ? what is mine iniquity ? and what is David earnestly asked leave of me that he my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my might run to Beth-lehem his city: for there is life?

a yearly “sacrifice there for all the family. 2 And he said unto him, God forbid ; thou 7 If he say thus, It is well; thy servant shalt not die: behold, my father will do | shall have peace : but if he be very wroth, nothing either great or small, but that he will then be sure that evil is determined by him. 'shew it me: and why should my father hide 8 Therefore thou shalt deal kindly with thy this thing from me? it is not so.

servant; for Sthou hast brought thy servant 3 And David sware moreover, and said, into a covenant of the LORD with thee : notThy father certainly knoweth that I have withstanding, if there be in me iniquity, slay found grace in thine eyes; and he saith, Let me thyself; for why shouldest thou bring me not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved : | to thy father? but truly as the Lord liveth, and as thy soul | 9 And Jonathan said, Far be it from thee: liveth, there is but a step between me and for if I knew certainly that evil were deterdeath.

mined by my father to come upon thee, then 4 Then said Jonathan unto David, 'What- I would not I tell it thee ? i Heb. uncover mine ear. 2 Or, Say what is thy mind, and I will do, &c. 3 Heb. speaketh, or, thinketh. Or, feast.

5 Chap. 18. 3, and 23. 18.

10 Then said David to Jonathan, Who | and when the new moon was come, the king shall tell me? or what if thy father answer sat him down to eat meat. thee roughly?

25 And the king sat upon his seat, as at 11 And Jonathan said unto David, other times, even upon a seat by the wall: and Come, and let us go out into the field. And Jonathan arose, and Abner sat by Saul's side, they went out both of them into the field. and David's place was empty.

12 And Jonathan said unto David, O 26 Nevertheless Saul spake not any thing LORD God of Israel, when I have sounded that day: for he thought, Something hath my father about to morrow any time, or the befallen him, he is not clean ; surely he is not third day, and, behold, if there be good toward clean. David, and I then send not unto thee, and 27 And it came to pass on the morrow, "shew it thee;

which was the second day of the month, that 13 The LORD do so and much more to David's place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan: but if it please my father to do | Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh not the thee evil, then I will shew it thee, and send son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to thee away, that thou mayest go in peace : day? and the LORD be with thee, as he hath been 1 28 And Jonathan answered Saul, David with my father.

earnestly asked leave of me to go to Beth14 And thou shalt not only while yet I lehem : live shew me the kindness of the LORD, that 29 And he said, Let me go, I pray thee ; I die not:

for our family hath a sacrifice in the city ; 15 But also thou shalt not cut off thy kind- and my brother, he hath commanded me to ness from my house for ever : no, not when be there : and now, if I have found favour in the LORD hath cut off the enemies of David | thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and every one from the face of the earth.

see my brethren. Therefore he cometh not 16 So Jonathan &made a covenant with the unto the king's table. house of David, saying, Let the LORD even 30 Then Saul's anger was kindled against require it at the hand of David's enemies. Jonathan, and he said unto him, "6 11Thou

17 And Jonathan caused David to swear son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not again, because he loved him: for he loved I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse

to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion 18 | Then Jonathan said to David, To of thy mother's nakedness? morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be | 31 For as long as the son of Jesse liveth missed, because thy seat will be ''empty. upon the ground, thou shalt not be established,

19 And when thou hast stayed three days, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and then thou shalt go down " quickly, and come fetch him unto me, for he 'shall surely die. to the place where thou didst hide thyself 32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father, 1when the business was in hand, and shalt and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be remain by the stone ''Ezel.

slain? what hath he done? 20 And I will shoot three arrows on the 33 And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite side thereof, as though I shot at a mark. him : whereby Jonathan knew that it was

21 And, behold, I will send a lad, saying, | determined of his father to slay David. Go, find out the arrows. If I expressly say 34 So Jonathan arose from the table in unto the lad, Behold, the arrows are on this fierce anger, and did eat no meat the second side of thee, take them ; then come thou : for day of the month : for he was grieved for there is peace to thee, and "sno hurt; as the David, because his father had done him LORD liveth.

shame. 22 But if I say thus unto the young 35 91 And it came to pass in the morning, man, Behold, the arrows are beyond thee; that Jonathan went out into the field at the go thy way: for the LORD hath sent thee time appointed with David, and a little lad away.

with him. 23 And as touching the matter which thou 36 And he said unto his lad, Run, find out and I have spoken of, behold, the LORD be now the arrows which I shoot. And as the between thee and me for ever.

18 1 Thered his own soul." : for he loved

lad ran, he shot an arrow *'beyond him. 24 | So David hid himself in the field : 37 And when the lad was come to the Heb. searched. 7 Heb. uncover thine ear. 8 Heb. cut. . Or, by his love towards him. 10 Heb. missed.

13 Heb. in the day of the business. 15 Heb, not any thing. 16 Or, Thou perverse rebel. 17 Heb. Son of perverse rebellion. 18 Heb. is the son of death. 19 Heb, to pass over him

11 Or, diligently.

12 Heb. greatly.

14 Or, that sheveth the way.

place of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, | David arose out of a place toward the south, Jonathan cried after the lad, and said, Is not and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed the arrow beyond thee?

himself three times : and they kissed one 38 And Jonathan cried after the lad, Make another, and wept one with another, until speed, haste, stay not. And Jonathan's lad David exceeded. gathered up the arrows, and came to his 42 And Jonathan said to David, Go in master.

peace, 22forasmuch as we have sworn both 39 But the lad knew not any thing: only of us in the name of the LORD, saying, The Jonathan and David knew the matter.

LORD be between me and thee, and between 40 And Jonathan gave his 2'artillery unto my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose **his lad, and said unto him, Go, carry them and departed : and Jonathan went into the to the city.

city. 41 | And as soon as the lad was gone, ! 20 Ileb. instruments. 21 Heb. that was his.

22 Or, the Lord be witness of that which, &c.

Verse 5. To-morrow is the new moon, and I should not 30. · Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman.'-In fail to sit with the king at meat.'--See the note on Num. | abusing another it is still customary in the East to apply xxviii. 11. The commencement of the new month or moon | disgraceful epithets to the mother of the abused person. was celebrated by extraordinary sacrifices and feasting, at There is no intention to stigmatize the mother personally. which, it seems, the head of a family expected all its mem She may be wholly unknown to those who employ such bers to be present. It seems that David did not ordinarily expressions, and no one thinks her injured by them; but take meat with the king; but on such occasions he was ex they are in the highest degree offensive to her son. When pected to be present-probably as being the king's son-in one person is offended with another, or when two persons law. Some of the Rabbins say that the principal persons quarrel, it is, indeed, the last and most venomous mode of of the court dined with the king on this occasion. In either attack for the parties to apply every intemperate epithet to case, David might be expected to attend; but the text does their respective mothers, wives, and daughters—to charge not indicate the presence of any persons not of the king's them with offences, and to threaten what shameful thing family.

they will do or would do to them. But the mother is in all 12. About to-morrow any time, or the third day.' these cases the most general and favourite object of this Rather, .The morrow of the third day,' that is, the day revolting form of abuse; and so prevalent is this habit, that after to-morrow.

not only will a father, like Saul, use such expressions in 18. Thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.' abusing his son, but even brothers in their quarrels with -Thy place has long been empty among thy friends,' or each other will in the same way, and for the purposes of simply, thy place has been empty,' or— has long been mutual offence, apply the same expressions to the mother empty :-are common expressions of compliment among whom both of them respect and love. Similar forms of the Persians, addressed to one who is again seen after reflected abuse-harmless to the object from which they either a long absence, or after such short absences as occur in the common course of life. The late king of Persia, for instance, used the expression as a gracious compliment to Sir John Malcolm, at his first audience on his second embassy. One who returns from a journey, or who joins a circle of acquaintance whom he has not seen within the usual number of weeks or days, is greeted with the same phrase of compliment.

19. · The stone Ezel,'— literally, the stone of the way,' or the way stone :' because, says the annotator in the Bible of 1595, it served as a sign to shew the way to them that passed by. This seems likely, and then it appears to point out a very early origin of mile-stones, or direction



25. The king sat upon his the wall:-.From the account of the manner in which the principal persons were placed at Saul's table, and that they all had an assigned place, David's seat being empty in his absence, it is evi. dent that Saul had by this time introduced considerable state and ceremony into his court. The expression-Jonathan arose,' has been thought by some to imply that Jonathan stood during the meal; but others suppose he arose on the entrance of his father, from respect, and then sat down again. Josephus says that Jonathan sat on one side of Saul, and Abner on the other, and the same view is taken by the Syriac version. By Saul's being seated next the wall,' it would seem that he sat in the corner, which, with other circumstances, goes to shew that the corner at the top of the room, was anciently, as now, the seat of honour in the East--that is, the left hand corner, which places the left arm to the wall, and leaves the right arm free.

26. He is not clean.'--Saul conjectured that David's attendance was precluded by some ceremonial defilement, from which he had not purified himself.


are reflected-are not unknown in this country, and, so far 1 as they go, are quite analogous to those employed in the East. The father, also, is sometimes, though not so often, the object to whom contumelious epithets are applied for the sake of annoying the son. Even Antar, who deeply respected his father and loved his mother, does not scruple on occasion to call his own brother • base born,' and the son of a dog.'

33. .Saul cast a javelin,' etc.—This act strongly illustrates the state of temper to which the unhappy king was by this time reduced, and the strength of those paroxysms of passion to which his diseased mind had rendered him so liable. Javelins have been noticed under Judg. v. 8; and the act of throwing one is illustrated by the cut now introduced.


Saul was there that day, detained before the

LORD; and his name was Doeg, an Edomite, I David at Nob obtaineth of Ahimelech hallowed the chiefest of the herdmen that belonged to bread. 7 Doeg was present. 8 David taketh Goliath's sword. 10 David at Gath feigneth him

Saul. self mad.

8 And David said unto Ahimelech, And

is there not here under thine hand spear or THEN came David to Nob to Abimelech the sword ? for I have neither brought my sword priest: and Ahimelech was afraid at the nor my weapons with me, because the king's meeting of David, and said unto him, Why | business required haste. art thou alone, and no man with thee?

9 And the priest said, The sword of 2 And David said unto Ahimelech the Goliath the Philistine, whom thou slewest priest, The king hath commanded me a in the 'valley of Elah, behold, it is here business, and hath said unto me, Let no man wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod: if thou know any thing of the business whereabout wilt take that, take it : for there is no other I send thee, and what I have commanded save that here. And David said, There is thee: and I have appointed my servants to none like that; give it me. such and such a place.

10 | And David arose, and fled that day 3 Now therefore what is under thine hand ? for fear of Saul, and went to Achish the king give me five loaves of bread in mine hand, or of Gath. what there is 'present.

11 And the servants of Achish said unto 4 And the priest answered David, and him, Is not this David the king of the land ? said, There is no common bread under mine did they not sing one to another of him in hand, but there is "hallowed bread ; if the dances, saying, 'Saul hath slain his thousands, young men have kept themselves at least from and David his ten thousands ? women.

12 And David laid up these words in his 5 And David answered the priest, and said heart, and was sore afraid of Achish the king unto him, Of a truth women have been kept | of Gath. from us about these three days, since I came 13 And he changed his behaviour before out, and the vessels of the young men are them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, holy, and the bread is in a manner common, and 'scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and 3 yea, though it were sanctified this day in the let his spittle fall down upon his beard. vessel.

14 Then said Achish unto his servants, Lo, 6 So the priest gave him hallowed bread : | ye see the man is "mad: wherefore then have for there was no bread there but the shew- ye brought him to me? bread, that was taken from before the Lord, 15 Have I need of inad men, that ye have to put hot bread in the day when it was taken brought this fellow to play the mad man in away.

iny presence? shall this fellow come into my 7 Now a certain man of the servants of house? Exod. 25. 30. Levit. 24. 5. Mat

8 Or, especially when this day there is other sanctified in the ressel.

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5 Chap. 18. 7, and 29. 5.

Ecclus. 47. 6.

6 Or, made marks.

7 Or, playeth the mad man.

Verse 1. Nob.'—'This is described in ch. xxii. 19 as a ' which adjoined its own. The Rabbins generally, however, city of the priests;' and in Nehem. xi. 32, its name is think that Nob was near Jerusalem-and so near, accordmentioned after Apathoth, among the cities occupied by ing to some, as to be visible from thence. This is conthe Benjamites on their return from the captivity. "Jerome firmed by Isa. x. 32 ; and it must therefore have been says that, in his time, the ruins of Nob still existed situated somewhere upon the ridge of the mount of Olives, near Diospolis or Lydda. But this was in the south of north-east of the city. Dr. Robinson states that he diliEphraim; and if he rightly determines its site, we may gently sought along this ridge for some traces of an ancient conclude that, as the ten tribes did not return with Judah site which might be regarded as that of Nob, but without and Benjamin, the latter tribe took the liberty of appro the slightest success. It seems difficult to understand this priating some part of the vacant territory of Ephraim chapter without supposing that the tabernacle must at this

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