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time have been at Nob, although we do not elsewhere find herd. Ten thousand compose a flock, which is divided into the least intimation of such a circumstance; and the con- ten tribes. One man has the conduct of all. He must be nected account which we have of the successive removals the owner of four or five hundred sheep, strong, active, of the ark, after having been restored by the Philistines vigilant, intelligent in pasture, in the weather, and in the from Beth-shemesh to Kirjath-jearim, and from thence to diseases of sheep. He has absolute dominion over fifty the house of Obed-edom, and afterwards to Jerusalem by shepherds and fifty dogs, five of each to a tribe. He David, without any mention of Nob, might incline us to chooses them, he chastises them, or discharges them at suppose that, if the tabernacle was at Nob, the ark was not will. He is the præpositus, or the chief shepherd of the in it. There is no question that the customary services and whole flock. sacrifices still took place at the tabernacle, even when the 9. The sword of Goliath. ...is here wrapped in a ark was absent.

cloth.'—Josephus says that David had dedicated the sword 4. There is hallowed bread!'-—This was the old shew. to the Lord." It was a custom among the ancients to dedi. bread, which, after lying a week on the table in the holy cate to the gods some conspicuous part of the enemy's place, was taken away and might only be eaten by the spoils ; a relic of which is preserved in the European cuspriests.

tom of depositing in churches standards captured in war. 5. The vessels of the young men are holy,' etc.-We sub- As the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, depojoin the older version of Queen Elizabeth's translators : sited in the tabernacle, had established the idea of laying *The vessels of the young men were holy though the way up things as memorials of the Lord's deliverances, it is very were profane ; and how much more then shall every one likely that Goliath's sword was deposited there with the be sanctified this day in the vessel ;' meaning, as the anno- same intention. As to the cloth in which it was wrapped tator explains— shall be more careful to keep his vessel up, we are not thence to infer that it was thrust away in a holy, when he shall have eaten of this holy food.' The

The cloth was probably a rich piece, embroidered word vessels' seems, as in 1 Thess, iv. 4, and elsewhere, or otherwise ornamented, in which the sword was wrapped to denote the persons of the young men: and David appears up. In India, at this day, all things which are valuable to mean that they were ceremonially clean when they had or sacred, or which have been acquired at great expense or set out, and that if they had since contracted any pollution trouble, are always folded in a cloth. they could now be purified.

10. Gath.'—This was one of the five principalities of 7. Doeg an Edomite.'—He was of course a proselyte to the Philistines. No trace of it now remains, and even its the Hebrew religion. Some of the Rabbins think that he site has been matter of controversy: Calmet, and others was of the seed of Israel, but is called an Edomite from after him, conjecture that Ekron and Gath were at the ophaving lived in Edom; but this has a very suspicious look, posite extremities of the land of the Philistines---the former and may be traced to their desire to intimate that no alien to the north, and the latter to the south. This conclusion by birth was admitted to offices of trust and importance ; is chiefly founded on a construction of the texts 1 Sam. v. whence also they affirm that Uriah was a true Israelite, but 8, 10, and xvii. 52, to which we see no occasion to subis called “the Hittite,' because he had dwelt among the scribe; and it is thought to be supported by the mention Hittites.

which Jerome makes of a Gath betwen Eleutheropolis and The chiefest of the herdmen that belonged to Saul- Gaza. But even this would not make Gath the southernSaul had by this time probably made large additions to his most city of the Philistines. Besides, Jerome says that paternal property in flocks and herds, which constituted a there were different Gaths in this neighbourhood; for, very considerable part of the wealth of the ancient mo- speaking of Jonah's birth-place, he says it was called Gathnarchs. As large possessions of this kind required to be Opher, to distinguish it from other places of the same name divided into several parts and fed in different places, the near Eleutheropolis and Diospolis; and which of these person who had the general superintendence of the whole he understood as the Philistine city is clear from his held an office of very considerable. importance. The conjecture in his comment on Jer. xxv. 20, that as office of governor of the royal flocks is often mentioned by Gath is not mentioned with the other Philistine states, the ancient writers, as existing in most countries of which it was probably at that time incorporated with Ashdod. they had knowledge. David, however, who was practi- He thus understood Gath to be nearer to Ashdod than to cally well acquainted with the management of cattle, seems any other of the Philistine cities; and therefore he points to have abolished the office of general overseer of the pas- to the same place as Eusebius, who says that Gaza was four toral concerns of the king, and appointed a particular over- miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Lydda. This seer for the several species of cattle, which were divided places the city within the allotted territory of Dan; and into separate flocks. Thus there was an Arab (Ishmaelite) Josephus distinctly says that Gath was in the tribe of Dan. over the camels, and another Arab (Hagarene) over the This is the position usually given in maps, and we appreflocks; there was also an overseer of the asses"; and the hend that none could be found more in unison with the herds had two overseers, one, a native of the district, for general bearing of the Scriptures. Let us take the instance those that fed in Sharon, and another for those that fed in of the migrations of the ark while in the hands of the Phithe valleys (1 Chron. xxvii. 29). This excellent distribu- listines. It was first taken to Ashdod, and was from thence tion was not, however, peculiar to him, as we find some- carried to Gath, which this account makes the nearest to thing of the same in Ulysses's little kingdom of Ithaca, Ashdod of all the Philistine towns; and its removal to the where Eumæus is the chief swineherd, and seems to have nearest town is certainly more probable than that it was nothing to do with any other cattle; while Melantheus is taken to the most distant town of all, which Calmet's acthe chief goatherd. These two act quite independently of count supposes Gath to have been, without touching at the each other, and have many servants under them. They intermediate towns of Askelon and Gaza on its way. sit at meat with princes and nobles in their master's house. Then, again, the ark was removed from Gath to Ekron, Eumæus, the son of a king, but sold for a slave, when which the common account makes to have been the nearest young, to the father of Ulysses, is treated as the friend of town, except Ashdod, to Gath; whereas the other account the family, and Homer denotes his superior dignity to the absolutely makes the ark in this removal traverse the subordinate swineherds, by calling him, the swineherd, whole length of the Philistines' country, from Gath, the prince of men.' Yet with all his superiority, he was not most southern town, to Ekron, the most northern, with the above the practical duties of his office; while at the same same silence as before concerning the intermediate towns. time he was skilled in the use of arms, and rendered his For these and other reasons, we subscribe to the opinion ! master powerful aid in his great combat with the suitors. which places Gath at no great distance from Ashdod. The character and situation of this remarkable person 13. * Feigned himself mad!--He must have feigned some serve exceedingly well to illustrate the condition which a definite disorder. It seems to have been what is called the chief herdsman, even only of a particular species of cattle, falling sickness, which exhibited the symptoms he affected, occupied in those early times. On the great sheep-walks of and which, according to Celsus, was supposed to be reSpain they have, at this day, over each flock a chief shep- | lieved by foaming at the mouth. A writer in the Christian

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Remembrancer for 1820, to whom we are indebted for this convince Achish that he was really mad. He could scarcely illustration, cites the Captives of Plautus (iii. 4) in support suppose that a man in his senses would do this indignity of it:

to his own beard. For one person to spit on the beard of Tendarus. Hegio, this fellow was at Ælis deemed

another, or to say that he will do so, is the greatest possible A madman, give no ear to what he says.

act or expression of contempt; and the fall of a man's own "T is there notorious that he thought to kill

saliva upon it is considered a sort of self-insult, of which His father and his mother, and has often

no sane man could, unless from natural infirmity, be guilty. Fits of the falling sickness come upon him,

When the late Sir John Macdonald, the East India ComWhich make him foam at mouth. Pray get you

pany's envoy in Persia, had his first audience of the Shah, from him.

in 1826, the Shah said that he had anxiously been expectHegio. Here, bear him farther off. [To the slaves.]

ing the envoy for some time, and that his place had long Aristophontes. How say you, rascal,

been empty (see the note on ch. xx. 18): the latter replied, That I am mad, and that I sought to kill

that after leaving Shiraz the sickness which prevailed in My father and my mother? and have often

the camp prevented his making such rapid progress as he Fits of the falling sickness come upon me,

wished, but that after quitting Ispahan he had hastened Which make me foam at mouth?

to the royal stirrup. His majesty said it was fortunate Hegio. Be not dismayed,

he had not arrived sooner, or he would have been involved Many have laboured under this disease,

in disputes with the Russians ; adding, ' Poof reksha pur,' And spitting has restored them to their health.

– I spit on their beards' (Captain Alexander's Travels, Tyndarus. I know to some at Ælis it has proved of

p. 208). special use.

15. Have I need of mad men ??— The Rabbins say that

the king's wife and daughter were mad, and hence they · Let his spittle fall down upon his beard. --So in- assign the stronger emphasis to the question, ‘Have I need tensely is the beard respected in the East, that this defile- of mad men ? ment of his own beard by David, was well calculated to

that is sorry

CHAPTER XXII.

Ramah, having his spear in his hand, and all

his servants were standing about him ;) 1 Adullam. 3 At

Mapen he commendeth his parents Adeleine king 7 Then Saul said unto his servants that Moab. 5 Admonished by Gad, he cometh to Hareth.

stood about him, Hear now, ye Benjamites; 6 Saul going to pursue him, complaineth of his ser

will the son of Jesse give every one of you rants' unfaithfulness. 9 Doeg accuseth Åhimelech. fields and vineyards, and make you all cap11 Saul commandeth to kill the priests. 17 The

tains of thousands, and captains of hundreds ; footmen refusing, Doeg executeth it. 20 Abiathar escaping, bringeth David the news.

8 That all of you have conspired against

me, and there is none that * sheweth me that David therefore departed thence, and escaped my son hath made a league with the son of to the cave Adullam : and when his brethren Jesse, and there is none of you and all his father's house heard it, they went for me, or sheweth unto me that

my

son hath down thither to him.

stirred up my servant against me, to lie in 2 And every one that was in distress, and wait, as at this day? every one that was in debt, and every one that 9 | Then answered Doeg the Edomite, was discontented, gathered themselves unto which was set over the servants of Saul, and him; and he became a captain over them: said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, and there were with him about four hundred to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub. men.

10 And he enquired of the LORD for him, 3 And David went thence to Mizpeh of and gave him victuals, and gave him the sword Moab : and he said unto the king of Moab, of Goliath the Philistine. Let my father and my mother, I pray thee, 11 | Then the king sent to call Abimelech come forth, and be with you, till I know what the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his God will do for me.

father's house, the priests that were in Nob: 4 And he brought them before the king of and they came all of them to the king. Moab: and they dwelt with him all the while 12 And Saul said, Hear now, thou son of that David was in the hold.

Ahitub. And he answered, 'Here I am, my 5 9 And the prophet Gad said unto David, lord. Abide not in the hold; depart, and get thee 13 And Saul said unto him, Why have ye into the land of Judah. Then David departed, conspired against me, thou and the son of and came into the forest of Hareth.

Jesse, in that thou hast given him bread, and 6 9 When Saul heard that David was dis- a sword, and hast enquired of God for him, covered, and the men that were with him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait, (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a 'tree in as at this day? ! Heb. had a creditor. 2 Heb. bitter of soul. 3 Or, grove in a high place.

4 Heb. uncovereth mine ear.

5 Heb, Behold me.

14 Then Abimelech answered the king, i Edomite turned, and he fell upon the priests, and said, And who is so faithful among all and slew on that day fourscore and five perthy servants as David, which is the king's sons that did wear a linen ephod. son in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is 19 And Nob, the city of the priests, smote honourable in thine house?

he with the edge of the sword, both men and 15 Did I then begin to enquire of God for women, children and sucklings, and oxen, him? be it far from me: let not the king im- and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the pute any thing unto his servant, nor to all the sword. house of my father : for thy servant knew 20 9T. And one of the sons of Ahimelech nothing of all this, 'less or more.

the son of Alitub, named Abiathar, escaped, 16 And the king said, Thou shalt surely and fled after David. die, Ahimelech, thou, and all thy father's 21 And Abiathar shewed David that Saul house.

had slain the Lord's priests. 17 G And the king said unto the * ®foot- 22 And David said unto Abiathar, I knew men that stood about him, Turn, and slay the it that day, when Doeg the Edomite was priests of the LORD; because their hand also there, that he would surely tell Saul : I have is with David, and because they knew when occasioned the death of all the persons of thy he fled, and did not shew it to me. But the father's house. servants of the king would not put forth their 23 Abide thou with me, fear not: for he hand to fall upon the priests of the LORD. that seeketh my life seeketh thy life: but with

18 And the king said to Doeg, Turn thou, mne thou shalt be in safeguard. and fall upon the priests. And Doeg the 6 Heb. little or great.

7 Or, guard.

B Heb, runners.

Verse 1. The cave Adullam.'-Of the city called Adullam, see the note on Josh, xii. 15, where it is intimated that this cave does not seem to have been near, or in any way connected with that city, which is in a plain where no such caves as would afford shelter to four hundred men are found. It is therefore far more probable that the cave of Adullam was in the mountainous wilderness in the east of Judah towards the Dead Sea, where such caves occur, and where the western names (as Carmel) are sometimes repeated. This conjecture is favoured by the fact that the usual haunts of David were in this quarter; whence he moved into the land of Moab, which was quite contiguous, whereas he must have crossed the whole breadth of the land, if the cave of Adullam had been near the city of that name. Other reasons occur which would take too much room to state : but the result is, that there appear at length good grounds for the local tradition which fixes the cave on the borders of the Dead Sea, although there is no certainty with regard to the particular cave usually pointed out. The cave so designated is at a poiut to which David was far more likely to summon his parents, whom he intended to take from Bethlehem into Moab, than to any place in the western plains. It is about six miles south-east of Bethlehem, in the side of a deep ravine (Wady Khureitun) which passes below the Frank mountain on the south. It is an immense natural caveru, the mouth of which can be approached only on foot along the side of the cliff. Irby and Mangles, who visited it without being aware that it was the reputed cave of Adullam, state that it runs in by a long winding, narrow passage, with small chambers or cavities on either side. We soon came to a large chamber with natural arches of great height; from this last there were numerous passages, leading in all directions, occasionally joined by others at right angles, and forming a perfect labyrinth, which our guides assured us had never been perfectly

explored, the people being afraid of losing themselves. The passages are generally four feet high by three feet wide, and were all on a level with each other. There were a few petrifactions where we were: nevertheless the grotto was perfectly clean, and the air pure and good '(Travels, pp. 340, 341). It seems probable that David, as a native of Bethlehem, must have been well acquainted with this remarkable spot, and had

probably often availed himself of its shelter when ont with his father's flocks. It would therefore naturally occur to him as a place of refuge when he fled from Gath; and his purpose of forming a band of followers was much more likely to be realized here, in the neighbourhood of his native place, than in the westward of it, where the city of Adullam stands. These circumstances have considerable weight when taken in connection with what has already been adduced; but the question is one which there is no means of deciding with certainty.

2. Every one that was in distress, etc. - See the note on Judges xi. 3.

3. Let my father and my mother ... be with you.'This is the last we hear of David's parents. The Jews think that his brethren were included ; but that the king of Moab destroyed the whole family, except one brother who was preserved by Nahash, king of the Ammonites, and this was the kind act of that king for which David afterwards (2 Sam. X. 2) expresses his gratitude.

5. Forest of Hareth.'--Jerome says that there was in his time a village called Arath, which had been the abode of David. It was west of Jerusalem ; by which, with the usual latitude, we may understand south-west, or southwest by west, which was probably the true direction, as David's present refuge does not seem to have been far from Keilah. This place is only mentioned here.

6. In Gibeah under a tree in Ramah.'—This is not intelligible. Ramah means a high place, or hill, and should not here be rendered as a proper name. Better, in Gibeah under a tree upon a hill.' " Probably there was no house large enough in Gibeah for him to hold his court within doors; and if there had been such, he might still probably have preferred the situation in which he now appears, with the height for his throne, the tree for his canopy, and the spear for his sceptre. The assembly is described in such a manner as to suggest the idea that this was the regular form in which Saul sat in state to administer public affairs, and not merely an accidental occurrence. It is, in fact, such a position as a modern Oriental prince or chief would select, when any emergency required him to hold his court or transact his affairs in the open air; and which those who do so habitually regularly prefer, both for the sake of state and convenience. It will be observed that Sanl is almost never mentioned without a five persons.'-Thus the unrighteous command of Saul acspear in his hand. Spears seem to have been the earliest complished to the letter the Lord's threatenings against sceptres, to illustrate which Bishop Patrick cites a passage the house of Eli :-Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at

from Justin (lib. xliii. cap. 3), who, speaking of the early which both the ears of every one that heareth it shall 1 times of the Romans, says, In those days kings hitherto tingle. In that day I will perform against Eli all things

had spears as signs of royal authority, which the Greeks which I have spoken concerning his house : when I begin called sceptres: for in the beginning of things, the an- I will also make an end' (iii. 11, 12; see also ii. 27cients worshipped spears for immortal gods; in memory 36). Abiathar indeed escaped, and was afterwards ex. of which religion, spears are still added to the images of alted to the high-priesthood; but it was one of the first the gods.' And as some of the Greeks called spears acts of Solomon's reign to thrust out Abiathar from being * sceptres,' so others, who had called a spear by its common priest unto the Lord, that he might fulfil the word of the name, even when regarded as a sceptre, continued long Lord which he spake concerning the house of Eli in after to call their sceptres 'spears.' So Pausanias tells Shiloh'(1 Kings ii. 27). The prediction does not, howus that sceptres were called spears by the kings of ever, extenuate the atrocity of Saul's conduct in sacriArgos.

ficing so many innocent and venerable persons to his blind 18. He fell upon the priests, and slew ....

· fourscore and

rage.

CHAPTER XXIII.

practised mischief against him; and he said i David, enquiring of the Lord by Abiathar, rescueth

to Abiathar the priest, Bring hither the Keilah. 7 God shewing him the

coming of Saul, ephod. and the treachery of the Keilites, he escapeth from

10 Then said David, O Lord God of Keilah. 14 In Ziph Jonathan cometh and com- Israel, thy servant hath certainly heard that forteth him. 19 The Ziphites discover him to Saul. Saul seeketh to come to Keilah, to destroy the 25 At Maon he is rescued from Saul by the invasion of the Philistines. 29 He dwelleth at En-gedi.

city for my sake.

11 Will the men of Keilah deliver me up Then they told David, saying, Behold, the into his hand ? will Saul come down, as thy Philistines fight against Keilah, and they rob servant hath heard? O LORD God of Israel, the threshingfloors.

I beseech thee, tell thy servant. And the LORD 2 Therefore David enquired of the Lord, said, He will come down. saying, Shall I go and smite these Philistines ? 12 Then said David, Will the men of And the LORD said unto David, Go and smite Keilah 'deliver me and my men into the hand the Philistines, and save Keilah.

of Saul ? And the LORD said, They will de3 And David's men said unto him, Behold, | liver thee up. we be afraid here in Judah: how much more 13 | Then David and his men, which were then if we come to Keilah against the armies about six hundred, arose and departed out of of the Philistines ?

Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go. 4 Then David enquired of the LORD yet And it was told Saul that David was escaped again. And the Lord answered him and said, from Keilah ; and he forbare to go forth. Arise, go down to Keilah; for I will deliver 14 And David abode in the wilderness in the Philistines into thine hand.

strong holds, and remained in a mountain in 5 So David and his men went to Keilah, the wilderness of Ziph. And Saul sought him and fought with the Philistines, and brought every day, but God delivered him not into his 1

away their cattle, and smote them with a great hand. slaughter. So David saved the inhabitants of 15 And David saw that Saul was come out Keilah.

to seek his life: and David was in the wilder6 And it came to pass, when Abiathar the ness of Ziph in a wood. son of Abimelech 'fled to David to Keilah, 16 And Jonathan Saul's son arose, and went i that he came down with an ephod in his to David into the wood, and strengthened his hand.

hand in God. ! 7 | And it was told Saul that David was 17 And he said unto him, Fear not: for

come to Keilah. And Saul said, God hath the hand of Saul my father shall not find thee; delivered him into mine hand; for he is shut and thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall in, by entering into a town that hath gates and be next unto thee; and that also Saul my bars.

father knoweth. 8 And Saul called all the people together 18 And they two made a covenant before to war, to go down to Keilah, to besiege the LORD: and David abode in the wood, and David and his men.

Jonathan went to his house. 9 | And David knew that Saul secretly 19 ( Then came up the Ziphites to Saul 1 Chap. 22. 20.

2 Heb. shut up. VOL. II.

161

K

to Gibeah, saying, Doth not David hide him- wilderness of Maon, in the plain on the south self with us in strong holds in the wood, in of Jeshimon. the hill of Hachilah, which is on the south of 25 Saul also and his men went to seek Jeshimon ?

him. And they told David : wherefore he 20 Now therefore, O king, come down ac- came down into a rock, and abode in the wilcording to all the desire of thy soul to come derness of Maon. And when Saul heard that, down; and our part shall be to deliver him he pursued after David in the wilderness of into the king's hand.

Maon. 21 And Saul said, Blessed be ye of the 26 And Saul went on this side of the mounLORD; for ye have compassion on me. tain, and David and his men on that side of

22 Go, I pray you, prepare yet, and know the mountain : and David made haste to get and see his place where his "haunt is, and who away for fear of Saul; for Saul and his men hath seen him there : for it is told me that he compassed David and his men round about to dealeth very subtilly.

take them. 23 See therefore, and take knowledge of 27 | But there came a messenger unto all the lurking places where he hideth himself, Saul, saying, Haste thee, and come ; for the and come ye again to me with the certainty, Philistines have 'invaded the land. and I will

go
with
you:

and it shall come to 28 Wherefore Saul returned from pursuing pass, if he be in the land, that I will search after David, and went against the Philistines: him out throughout all the thousands of therefore they called that place "Sela-hamJudah.

mahlekoth. 24 And they arose, and went to Ziph be- 29 | And David went up from thence, and fore Saul: but David and his men were in the dwelt in strong holds at En-gedi. 8 Heb. on the right hand.

$ Heb. foot shall be. 6 Heb. spread themselves upon, ke. 7 That is, the rock of divisions.

4 Or, the wilderness.

Verse 2. ' Keilah.'—This place is mentioned in Josh. the theocracy, whereby he knew that Jehovah was the XV. 44, among the western towns of Judah. Jerome says true king of Israel, and cheerfully submitted to his unthat it existed in the fourth century as a small village, doubted right to appoint whom he would as his regent, eight miles from Eleutheropolis, on the road to Hebron, even to his own exclusion ; and, with generous humility, where the tomb of the prophet Habakkuk was shewn. was the first to recognize and admire the superior qualities

15. · Ziph.'— This occurs elsewhere as the name of a of the man on whom it was known that his forfeited des. city in the tribe of Judah (Josh. xv. 55; 2 Chron. xi. 8). tinies had fallen. Yet lest, in our admiration of JonaIt is mentioned by Jerome, but was not subsequently than's conduct, human virtue should seem too highly noticed till Dr. Robinson discovered the name in the Teil exalted, it may be well to remember, that the hereditary Zif (Hill of Zif), which occurs about four and a half miles principle in civil government was as yet without precedent south by east from Hebron, and which is a round emi- among the Hebrews, with whom sons had not yet learned nence, about a hundred feet high, situated in a plain. On to look to succeed their fathers in their public offices. the top is a level plot, apparently once enclosed by a wall. None of the judges had transmitted their authority to their A site, also called Zif, lies about ten minutes east of this sons or relatives; and the only instance in which an athill, upon a low hill or ridge between two small wadys, tempt had been made (by Abimelech) to establish this which commence here, and run towards the Dead Sea. hereditary principle, had most miserably failed. But the There is now little to be seen besides broken walls and friendship of Jonathan and David is a passage in the hisfoundations, mostly of uphewn stones, but indicative of tory of the Hebrew kingdom from which the mind resolidity, and covering a considerable tract of ground. In luctantly withdraws. If it had occurred in a fiction, it the middle is a low massive square building, constructed would be pointed out as an example of most refined and of small squared stones, and vaulted within with pointed consummate art, that the writer represents to us in such arches; shewing that the place must have been inhabited colours of beauty and truth the person he intends to set long after the Mohammedan conquest. Cisterns are found aside, and allows him so largely to share our sympathies here as well as on the hill. Here then we have the Ziph and admiration with the hero of his tale. which gave its name to the surrounding wilderness.

19. * In the hill of Hachilah, which is on the south of Wilderness of Ziph.'-A hilly region was often Jeshimon.'—This hill Hachilah must be the same as the called a wilderness, as at present by the Arabs; and it mountain in the wilderness of Ziph,' mentioned in o. 14. usually took its name from some principal town within its It could not be the Tell Zif mentioned the note on o. limits.

15, and which is by no means calculated for a retreat to 17. ' Thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next David and his men. It was probably the general name of unto thee.'- There is really nothing in all history finer the whole ridge of mountains upon which the town of than this love of Jonathan to David; it was, as the Ziph stood, and which bounded the wilderness of Ziph on latter himself found occasion to describe it, • Wonderful, the south. This is rendered the more clear if we take the passing the love of women! It was a noble spirit with marginal reading, on the south of the wilderness,' inwhich the son of the king held close to his heart, and ad- stead of Jeshimon as a proper name. This is also the mitted the superior claims of, the man destined to super- sense given by the Vulgate and the best modern Hebraists. sede him and his in the most splendid object of human The rocky wilderness stretching eastward from Ziph to ambition, which, on ordinary principles, he might have wards the Dead Sea, afforded among their recesses very considered his just inheritance. But his were not ordi- suitable retreats for fugitives. nary principles, such as swayed the mind and determined 23. Throughout all the thousands of Judah.'—That is the conduct of his father. His were the true principles of throughout all the districts or cantons; which were pro

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