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KUBBEN, OR Tome. after the death of Samuel, removed farther southward, this amphitheatre; and here stands the castle, in what even into the wilderness of Paran,' it would seem that, must have been the middle of the ancient town. This is having no confidence in Saul's fits of right feeling, he was a remarkable ruin, the exterior walls of which may from fearful of the consequences of the absence of that degree the style be referred to Herod or the Romans, while the inof moral restraint upon him which had existed while the terior has been built up at a subsequent period, in a later and prophet lived. The southern country offers, in the pro Saracenic style of architecture. The other ruins consist per season, excellent pastures, to which those of Judah, chiefly of the foundations and broken walls of dwellings who had large possessions of cattle,' were wont to send and other edifices, scattered in every direction, and thrown their flocks during a part of the year. The advantage together in mournful confusion and desolation. Most of offered by the free use of these open pastures was, how the stones have been only rough-hewn, or else have been ever, in some degree counterbalanced by the danger from worn away by time and exposure. A more particular ac. the prowling Arab tribes with which they sometimes came | count of the ruins may be seen in Professor Robinson's iu contact. David probably supported his men during | Researches, ii. 196-199. the eight months of his stay in this region by acting 3. Of the house of Caleb.'—Caleb means a dog in Heagainst those tribes, and making spoil of their cattle. And brew; and the ancient versions, as well as several of the as their hand was against every man, it was natural that modern, do not render it as a proper name, but as a further every man's hand should be against them; the rather, as indication of Nabal's character. Under this view it will we may be sure, from their general conduct, that they denote a man of a dog-like, that is, of a churlish, snapping, lost no occasion of oppressing or plundering the people snarling disposition, or, as Boothroyd has it, irritable as inhabiting, or pasturing their flocks, along or near the a dog' southern frontier. Thus the presence of David's troop 5. Get you up to Carinel, and go to Nabal, and greet was, for that reason, a great advantage to the shepherds, him in my name, etc.—We have already stated the results as he had by this time secured sufficient control over his of Dr. Robinson's researches in the region containing Carmen to oblige them to respect the property of the Israel mel, Maon, Ziph, and En-gedi. One passage in his stateites. And this was, at least in the feelings of the people, ment affords a very interesting commentary on the portion no small thing in a body of men, living abroad with of the history of David contained in this and the conswords in their hands, and obliged, as they were, to col nected chapters. He writes: “We were here in the lect their subsistence in the best way they could.

midst of scenes memorable of old for the adventures of - Wilderness.'-By wilderness or desert the reader is David during his wanderings in order to escape from the not always to understand a country altogether barren and jealousy of Saul; and we did not fail to peruse here, and unfruitful, but such only as is rarely or never sown or with the deepest interest, the chapters of Scripture which cultivated; which, though it yields no crops of corn or record those wanderings and adventures. Ziph and Maon fruit, yet affords herbage, more or less, for the grazing of gave their names to the desert on the east, as did En-gedi; cattle, with fountains or rills of water, though more and twice did the inhabitants of Ziph endeavour to betray sparingly interspersed than in other places.

the youthful outlaw to the vengeance of his persecutor. 2. The man was very great.'—This, coupled with the At that time David and his men appear to have been very following description of his substance, affords an interest much in the condition of similar outlaws at the present ing indication of what was considered to constitute a very day; for “every one that was in distress, and every one large property among the Hebrews at this period.

that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, - He was shearing his sheep in Carmel.'—Except for gathered themselves unto him: and he became a captain this incident, and for the trophy set up by Saul for his over them : and there were with him about four hundred victory over the Amorites (xv. 12), and the mere name men.” They lurked in these deserts, associating with the in Josh. xv. 55, Carmel is not further mentioned in Scrip herdsmen and shepherds of Nabal and others, and doing ture. Eusebius and Jerome describe it as a village with them good offices, probably in return for information and a Roman garrison. It is mentioned in the history of the supplies obtained through them. Hence when Nabal beld Crusades as a place where king Almaric found a pool his annual sheep-shearing in Carmel, David felt himself with plenty of water for his troops in 1172, when he drew entitled to share in the festival, and sent a message, reback and encamped here, after having marched without counting his own services, and asking for a present. effect against Saladin, who invaded the country south and “ Wherefore let the young men find favour in thine eyes; east of the Dead Sea. But it is not said whether the for we come in a good day; give, I pray thee, whatsoever place was then inhabited or ruined. How and when Car cometh to thine hand unto thy servants, and to thy son mel became desolate no record tells, and its name and site David.” In all these particulars we were deeply struck were forgotten until the present century, when it was with the truth and strength of the Biblical descriptions of visited by Seetzen; but since his day no traveller appears manners and customs, almost identically the same as they to have recognized it till Dr. Robinson's visit.

exist at the present day. On such a festive occasion neari The place now bears the name of Kurmul, and lies a town or village, even in our own time, an Arab sheikh about eight miles east of south from Hebron. The ruins of the neighbouring desert would hardly fail to put in a i are extensive, lying around the head and along the two word, either in person or by message; and his message, sides of a valley of some width and depth; and the head both in form and substance, would be only a transcript of of which forms a semicircular amphitheatre shut in by that of David. rocks. The main ruins are on the level ground west of | 6. Peace be both to thee, and peace be to thine house,

and peace be unto all that thou hast'-The immutability not only prevented him, but stooped towards him and of ancient customs in the East is shewn in nothing more kissed him between the eyes; and never had Nushiryan strikingly than in matters of form and ceremony, and conferred such a mark of distinction on any one but Antar.' especially in that branch in which salutations are compre To this last action, of kissing between the eyes, we have hended. The permanent type, the burden of all saluta referred in the note to ch. x. 1. In the above extract we tions, is now, as it was formerly, PEACE. We know not see, that, as is still the custom, they dismounted as soon Buy single passage we could adduce which would shew as they saw the king, and therefore either waited till he this more strikingly, and so illustrate this and similar rode up, or proceeded on foot to meet him. The parallel texts, than the following extract from William Biddulph, is the more complete it, as some understand, David was an old traveller in Palestine, whose account is inserted in mounted, and that therefore the expression .fell at his feet Purchas's Pilgrimage (p. 1340):– The greatest part of (literally. fell on his feet') means that she took hold of his them are very courteous people amongst themselves, salut feet-to kiss them, doubtless-as he sat on his ass or mule. ing one another at their meetings with their hand on their 25. • Nabal is his name, and folly is with him.'-The breast (for they never uncover their head) with these significant character of the Hebrew names gave great words: Salam Alike Sultanum ; that is, Peace be unto you, occasion for a reference to, or an application of, the meanSir. Wherunto the other replieth, Alekem Salam ; that ings which they offered. Of this there are many instances is, Peace be to you also. And sometimes thus, Elph in Scripture; and the present is one of these, Nabal signiMarhabbaianum ; or in Turkish, thus, Hosh Geldanos, fying a fool. Sophi Geldanos, that is, Welcome, my dear friend. And - folly.'-The folly here specified is not to be underin the morning, Subalkier Sultanum, that is, Good mor stood in the usual sense of the word in a European idiom, row, Sir: and in the evening, thus, Misalker Sultanum, as a negative quality, or the mere want of sense, but as a that is, Good even, Sir. And when friends and acquaint kind of obstinately stupid lethargy, or perverse absence of ance meet, who have not seen one another many days mind, in which the will is not altogether passive. before, they salute one another in Turkish, thus, Neder 29. · The soul of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of halen ? that is, How do you? In Arabick, thus, Ish life.'-Mr. Roberts, in his Oriental Ilustrations, borrows halac Seedi ? that is, How do you, Sir ? And Ish babtac ? from the proverbial expressions of the Hindoos by much that is, How doth thy gate ? (meaning all within his gate), the best illustration of this text that has ever fallen under and so proceeds by particulars to ask how doth thy our notice. He says: • Anything important or valuable is child, slave, horse, cat, dog, ass, &c., and everything called a kattu, i.C., “a bundle, a pack, a bale." A young in the house except his wife; for that is held a very man who is enamoured of a female is said to be “bound up unkind question, and unusual amongst them. And if a in the kattı, bundle, of love.” Of a just judge the people man come to their houses, and at the door inquire of the say, “ He is bound up in the bundle of justice.” i He children for their father, they will answer him ; but if he adds other instances, from the application of which we inquire for the mother, they will throw stones at him and see that Abigail intended to express that, under the Lord's revile him,

protection, the life of David was so securely guarded, 11. My bread and my water,' etc.-Here we have an- | that all the attempts of his enemies against his existence other indication of the value of water. Among us it must prove abortive. would be considered strange to mention water in this way; 30. He held a feast .... like the feast of a king.' but it is not thus in the East. Water was usually pro- | Sheep-shearing is an operation to which allusion is frevided by the masters for their husbandmen and the quently made in the sacred volume. The wool in very shearers of their sheep. Nabal had probably procured | remote times was not shorn with an iron instrument, but his with some difficulty, and by the labour of his people; plucked off with the hand. From the concurrent testiand it was therefore quite natural for him to mention itmony of several writers, the time when it is performed in among the articles of provision which he could not be ex Palestine falls in the month of March. If this be adpected to spare. On such great occasions as the ploughing mitted, it fixes the time of the year when Jacob departed or harvest to the husbandman, or a shearing to the shep from Laban on his return to his father's house, for he left herd, the owner was careful to supply an adequate quan him at the time he went to shear his sheep. In like tity of water for the men while at work. In all such manner the sheep of Nabal were shorn in spring; for operations in the East, a number of attendants are usually among the presents which Abigail made to David, five employed to serve out water to the labourers, carrying it measures of parched corn are mentioned. But we know to them as they stand at their work. Weak wine seems from other passages of Scripture that they were accusto have been sometimes employed anciently. Homer tomed to use parched corn when it was full grown, but describes wide as being served to ploughmen; but we not ripe; for the people of Israel were commanded in the may believe that water was more common, though less law not to eat parched corn or green ears, until the selfpoetical :

same day they had made an offering to the Lord. This Oft as in their course

time seems to have been spent by the eastern swains in They came to the field's bourn, so oft a man

more than usual hilarity: and it may be inferred from Met them, who in their hands a goblet placed

several hints in the Scriptures that the wealthier proprie

tors invited their friends and dependants to sumptuous Charged with delicious wine.' Iliad, xviii.-CowPER.

entertainments. Nabal, on that joyous occasion, which

the servants of David called a good or festive day, alAn adequate supply of water--good water-is also a though a churlish and niggardly man, 'held a feast in his circumstance of the most essential importance in the pro- house, like the feast of a king;' and on a similar occasion vision for the festivities in which the occasions of extra Absalom treated his friends and relations in the same ordinary rural or pastoral exertion terminated.

magnificent style. The modern Arabs are more frugal 23. She hasted, and lighted off the ass.'—See the note and parsimonious; yet their hearts, so little accustomed to on Gen. xxiv. 65. The following description of Antar's expand with joyous feelings, acknowledge the powerful action on approaching the king of Persia is a very excel. | influence of increasing wealth, and dispose them to inlent illustration of Abigail's proceeding in the presence of dulge in greater jollity than usual. On these occasions David. Antar and his party meet with the king as he is they perhaps kill a lamb, or a goat, and treat their relariding out to hunt:- On perceiving Nushirvan they |tions and friends; and at once to testify their respect for instantly dismounted. Antar presented himself, and at their guests, and add to the luxury of the feast, crown the tempted to kiss Chosroe's feet in the stirrup, but the king | festive board with new cheese and milk, dates, and honey.

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CHAPTER XXVI.

of water from Saul's bolster; and they gat

them away, and no man saw it, nor knew it, I Saul, by the discovery of the Ziphites, cometh to

neither awaked : for they were all asleep; beHachilah against David. 5 David coming into the trench stayeth Abishai from killing Saul, but taketh cause a deep sleep from the LORD was fallen his speur and cruse. '13 David reproveth Abner, upon them. 18 and exhorteth Saul. 21 Saul acknowledgeth his 13 | Then David went over to the other sin.

side, and stood on the top of an hill afar off ; And the Ziphites came unto Saul to Gibeah, a great space being between them: saying, 'Doth not David hide himself in the 14 And David cried to the people, and to hill of Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon ? Abner the son of Ner, saying, Answerest thou

2 Then Saul arose, and went down to the not, Abner? Then Abner answered and said, wilderness of Ziph, having three thousand Who art thou that criest to the king ? chosen men of Israel with him, to seek David | 15 And David said to Abner, Art not thou in the wilderness of Ziph.

a valiant man? and who is like to thee in 3 And Saul pitched in the hill of Hachilah, Israel? wherefore then hast thou not kept thy which is before Jeshimon, by the way. But lord the king? for there came one of the David abode in the wilderness, and he saw people in to destroy the king thy lord. that Saul came after him into the wilderness. 16 This thing is not good that thou hast

4 David therefore sent out spies, and un done. As the LORD liveth, ye are 'worthy to derstood that Saul was come in very deed. I die, because ye have not kept your master, the

5 | And David arose, and came to the LORD's anointed. And now see where the place where Saul had pitched : and David be king's spear is, and the cruse of water that was held the place where Saul lay, and Abner the at his bolster. son of Ner, the captain of his host: and Saul 17 And Saul knew David's voice, and said, lay in the Strench, and the people pitched Is this thy voice, my son David ? And David round about him.

said, It is my voice, my lord, O king. 6 Then answered David and said to Ahi- 18 And he said, Wherefore doth my lord melech the Hittite, and to Abishai the son of thus pursue after his servant ? for what have Zeruiah, brother to Joab, saying, Who will I done? or what evil is in mine hand ? go down with me to Saul to the camp? And 19 Now therefore, I pray thee, let my lord Abishai said, I will go down with thee. the king hear the words of his servant. If the

7 So David and Abishai came to the people LORD have stirred thee up against me, let him by night: and, behold, Saul lay sleeping within | Raccept an offering: but if they be the children the trench, and his spear stuck in the ground of men, cursed be they before the LORD; for at his bolster: but Abner and the people lay they have driven me out this day from 'abidround about him.

ing in the inheritance of the LORD, saying, 8 Then said Abishai to David, God hath Go, serve other gods. *delivered thine enemy into thine hand this 20 Now therefore, let not my blood fall to day: now therefore let me smite him, I pray the earth before the face of the LORD : for thee, with the spear even to the earth at the king of Israel is come out to seek a flea, once, and I will not smite him the second as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountime.

tains. 9 And David said to Abishai, Destroy him 21 | Then said Saul, I have sinned : renot: for who can stretch forth his hand against turn, my son David : for I will no more do the Lord's anointed, and be guiltless ? thee harm, because my soul was precious in

10 David said furthermore, As the LORD thine eyes this day: behold, I have played the liveth, the Lord shall smite him; or his day fool, and have erred exceedingly. shall come to die; or he shall descend into 22 And David answered and said, Behold battle, and perish.

the king's spear! and let one of the young 11 The LORD forbid that I should stretch men come over and fetch it. forth mine hand against the Lord's anointed : | 23 The LORD render to every man his but, I pray thee, take thou now the spear that righteousness and his faithfulness : for the is at his bolster, and the cruse of water, and LORD delivered thee into my hand to day, but let us go.

I would not stretch forth mine hand against 12 So David took the spear and the cruse the Lord's anointed.

23. 19.

2 Chap. 14. 50, and 17.56. 5 Heb, the sons of death.

3 Or, midst of his carriages. 6 Heb. smell.

4 Heb. shut up. Heb. cleaving.

24 And, behold, as thy life was much set thou, my son David : thou shalt both do great by this day in mine eyes, so let my life be things, and also shalt still prevail. So David much set by in the eyes of the LORD, and let went on his way, and Saul returned to his him deliver me out of all tribulation.

place. 25 Then Saul said to David, Blessed be

Verse 5. Saul lay in the trench, and the people pitched | bales of merchandise, forming a sort of wall to the interior round about him.'-Å "trench' is here an exceedingly un area. In the centre of this area the tent of the principal

person, if he have any tent, is pitched; and the provisions likely meaning of the word Sayn magal. The marginal

and baggage are also usually there deposited. If the chief reading, in the midst of the carriages,' is better, if we personage have no tent (and he often does without one if no understand it to mean not wheel-carriages, but of things women are of the party), he establishes himself among or carried on mules, etc., that is, baggage. This is occasionally under shelter of the heap of baggage, where the other heads the sense of the word 'carriage' in our version. We may of the party join him, unless his dignity be so distinguished be almost certain that no wheel-carriages were used in such that he is left to enjoy it apart, except he see fit to invite military excursions as the present-much less in such a the society of others. The mass of the party repose along hilly part of the country as was the scene of this transaction. the circumference of the circle, mostly within the rampart A very slight reference to existing usages in the East will formed by the bales; but it often happens that many sleep suffice to elucidate the present and other allusions contained outside, particularly those who have charge of the cattle, in the Scriptures, to the form of encampments. In all the to be ready to protect them from thieves, or to check any different forms of encampment- the nomade, the travelling, strife that may arise among them. This is also done by the military-a general preference is given to a circular other persons who have a personal interest in the cattle arrangement. The circumstances of the ground sometimes they use-as more generally happens in the caravans of compel a departure from it; and the additional exigencies horses and mules which traverse settled countries than in connected with pastorage and water render this more fre the camel caravans which cross the great deserts. It will quent among the Bedouins than in other cases. With easily be seen how far this applies to the elucidation of the them, when the circular form can be adopted, the place of text before us; and we believe that the statement we have honour, occupied by the emir, sheikh, or chief, is in the given will furnish a sufficient explanation of all the pascentre; the other tents being pitched at a respectful dis sages of Scripture which bear on this subject. tance around. Under the ordinary circumstances of a 11. The spear that is at his bolster, and the cruse of camp, however, the chief often, among some tribes, fore water.'-Literally in , 'at his head,' answering to goes this distinction for the sake of the character for hospitality, which requires him to have his tent, in every form

10mp, at his feet.' This it is necessary to explain, that of encampment, the nearest to that direction from which the present text may not seem to contradict an observation strangers usually arrive. The eastern military and regal made under ch. xix. 13. Saul, as a king, and as sleeping camps, when the ground allows, are also disposed circu

apparently in the open air, may have had a bolster; but the larly; and, if the army be large, in a number of con

present text does not say that he had; and we think it more centric circles, the royal pavilion being in the centre.

than doubtful that bolsters had yet come into use for other A description which Mr. Morier gives of the encamp

than sick persons and women. The sleep of Saul, with ment of the Persian army, in the plain of Oujan, well

his head on a bolster and a vessel of water by his side, reexplains this - except in the circumstance that, as the

ceives illustration from the practice of Eastern travellers. king had a palace in the plain, and resided in it instead of The bolster is round, about eight inches in diameter and in a tent, that became the central object. Around this

twenty in length. In travelling, it is carried rolled up in building, to an immense extent, at various intervals, was the mat or carpet in which the owner sleeps. In a hot clispread the camp, consisting of tents and pavilions, of all co

mate, a draught of water is very refreshing in the night: lours and all denominations. An order had been issued that

hence a vessel, filled with water, is always near where a every tent in the camp should be pitched with its entrance

person sleeps. As to the custom of sleeping with the spear immediately facing the palace; by which it was intended

stuck into the ground at the head, see p. 27 of this vothat every one who came forth should make the ser ferou,

lume. However, the text as a whole receives much illusor bow the head to the royal abode..... The king thus be tration from the existing customs of the East. came, as it were, the nave of a great wheel ; and he was so

13, 14. Then David....stood on the top of an hill afar completely hemmed in by his troops, that if an enemy had off, a great space being between them: and David cried to appeared, it would have been impossible to get at him with the people,' etc.-See also Judg. ix. 7, 20; 2 Sam. ii. 25, etc. out first cutting a road through the labyrinth of ropes and In all these instances persons are described as addressing tents which everywhere surrounded him' (Second Journey,

the people “afar off,' and from the tops of hills, so that we p. 268). Unquestionably, Saul's camp was arranged on

are sometimes surprised to think how it was possible for the same general principle, and probably for the same rea

them to be heard. We do not remember ever to have met sons-the honour and security of the royal person. It is

with any attempt to explain this, save in the following innot indeed clear that Saul's party had tents in this unos

teresting passage from Hough's Letters on the Nielgherries. tentatious expedition; but the same general principle is

• The great extent to which the sound of the voice is conobserved even when a party is without tents. This explains

veyed has been thought by some persons to be a proof of how David was able to single out Saul even by night; and

the extreme rarity of the atmosphere, A similar observait gives point to his ironical reproaches of Abner and the

tion is made by Captain Parry in his Voyage of Discovery rest, who had so insufficiently guarded their lord, around

to the Polar Regions, 1819-20, where he states, that in the whom they slept. The mention of baggage, if baggage

depth of winter the sound of the men's voices was heard at

a much greater distance than usual. This phenomenon is be really intended by the word sya, may obtain some

constantly observed on the Nielgherries, or Blue Mountains further illustration from observing the manner in which of Coimbatore in South India. I have heard the natives, travelling or mercantile caravans encamp. The circular especially in the morning and evening, when the air was form is usually adopted. The circle is formed by a long still, carry on conversations from one hill to another, and rope fastened to the ground by pins of wood or iron, and that apparently without any extraordinary effort. They to which the camels are tied at night, forming the exterior do not shout in the manner that strangers think necessary circle. Within this, a kind of rampart is made with the in order to be heard at so great a distance; but utter every

syllable as distinctly as if they were conversing face to face in the mountains of Edom, their numbers are the most exWhen listening to them, I have often been reminded of cessive and incredible; and so dense are the flocks in which those passages of holy writ where it is recorded, that they fly, that the Arab boys often kill two or three at a time Jotham addressed the ungrateful people of Shechem from merely by throwing a stick among them. According to i Mount Gerizim. In the dense atmosphere of England, and Russell the bird is found at all seasons, but thus numerously even in the purer air of the plains of India, it is not easy to chiefly in May and June, when, even in Northern Syria, a imagine how a discourse could be carried on at so great a quantity sufficient to load an ass has sometimes been taken distance, and from such an eminence; but on the Nielgher at one shutting of the clap-net. The Turks, among whom ries, the portions of sacred history to which I have referred the more delicate kinds of wild fowl are not in much rereceive a striking illustration.'

quest, are remarkably fond of this bird; but by the Franks 20. 'A partridge.' — The original word is 87 korē, in Syria the flesh is considered black, hard, and dry, and which signifies the crier' or caller.' That it indicates a the bird never appears at their tables. The katta deposits species of the Tetraonidæ (grouse, partridges), there is no upon the ground two or three eggs of a greenish black reason to doubt; but to which one, if to any one, of the nume

colour, and about the size of a pigeon's; and the dangers rous species inhabiting that country, it applies, is hard to say. to which they are exposed in this situation agrees with the Probably it includes more than one species, as the ancients reference to the korē in Jer, xvii. 11; "the partridge sitteth did not discriminate species by different names so nicely as on eggs and hatcheth them not.' The Arabs collect large we do, except among domestic animals. We set down the quantities of them, and eat them, fried in butter. Burck. names of such of them as we have been able to ascertain. hardt, Hasselquist, and others are strongly of opinion that Francolinus vulgaris, or Syrian partridge; Perdrix rubra, this bird is the selav (or quail) of Scripture; but perhaps or red-legged partridge; Perdrix saxatilis, or Greek part not on sufficient evidence, although it must be admitted ridge; Perdriz petrosa, or Barbary partridge; Pterocles that the question as to the selav of the Israelites must be alchata, or pin-tailed sand-grouse; Pierocles arenarius, or understood to lie between the katta and the common quail. sand-grouse, and probably others which have not been yet

It must be conceded, however, that some of the indicaascertained. If we are to suppose that some particular

tions with respect to the ‘partridge' of our version might be equally applicable to some one of the red-legged partridges, which, in the different species mentioned, are also very common in Palestine. Travellers seem to have applied the term 'red-legged' without any discrimination of species --for not only that which is distinctly so called, but the Greek and Barbary partridges, and the Francoline vulgaris, are red-legged. Monro shot a 'red-legged partridge' in the plains of Philistia, and says that its plumage resembled that of the red-legged partridge of France, but was nearly twice the size, being little less than a hen-pheasant. This he says was the Tetrao rubricollis (red-necked) of Linnæus, and he is probably right, as he must have known the obvious distinction of the species, which is red-legged as well as red-necked. Monro shot another partridge near Jerusalem, and found it to be the Barbary partridge. Burckhardt mentions the red-legged' partridge as a

powerful runner. The present text in reference to hunt. PARTRIDGE. PIN-TAILED SAND-GROUSE. (Katta.)

ing a partridge on the mountains, is applicable to the red

legged partridges even more than to the katta, for they are ntended by the Hebrew korē, there are two be partial to upland brushwood, which is no uncommon chatween which we should somewhat hesitate to make the racter of the hills and mountains of Palestine. The mode in preference. The first is the katta, or katha, which has which the Arabs hunt them affords a further illustration of received that name among the Arabs from its cry or call, the comparison. They often get near enough to throw a which is a remarkable circumstance when we refer to the destructive fire into a covey, by advancing under cover of etymology of the Hebrew word. Besides, the katta is one an oblong piece of canvas, stretched over a couple of reeds of the most common birds in and near Palestine, and actu or sticks, like a door. Having also observed that the birds ally swarms in the stony districts beyond the Jordan, become languid and fatigued after they have been hastily They are so numerous in this quarter, that they occasion put up once or twice, they immediately run in upon them, ally appear like clouds in the distance. In fact, there is no and knock them down with staves. Captains Irby and place in which they are known to be equally abundant, not, Mangles state that, 'on approaching an Arab encampment certainly, in Arabia Petræa. Burckhardt notices them near Homs, we beheld a very animated and busy scene : often. Near Boszra he says— The quantity of kattas here the girls were singing, and the children busied in running are beyond description; the whole plain seemed sometimes down the young partridges with dogs, as they were as yet to rise: and far off in the air they were seen like large only able to fly a short distance at a time.'- Travels, moving clouds.' In the country east of the Dead Sea, and p. 261.

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CHAPTER XXVII.

and Saul shall despair of me, to seek me any 1 Saul hearing David to be in Gath, seeketh no more for

more in any coast of Israel : so shall I escape him. 5 David beggeth Ziklag of Achish. 8 He, out of his hand. · invading other countries, persuadeih Achish he fought 2 And David arose, and he passed over against Judah.

with the six hundred men that were with him And David said in his heart, I shall now unto Achish, the son of Maoch, king of 'perish one day by the hand of Saul: there is Gath. nothing better for me than that I should spee- 3 And David dwelt with Achish at Gath, dily escape into the land of the Philistines; he and his men, every man with his houshold, 172

| Heb. be consumed.

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