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even David with his two wives, Ahinoam the the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Jezreelitess, and Abigail the Carmelitess, Shur, even unto the land of Egypt. Nabal's wife.

9 And David smote the land, and left nei4 And it was told Saul that David was fled ther man nor woman alive, and took away the to Gath: and he sought no more again for sheep, and the oxen, and the asses, and the him.

camels, and the apparel, and returned, and 5 And David said unto Achish, If I have came to Achish. now found grace in thine eyes, let them give 10 And Achish said, "Whither have ye me a place in some town in the country, that I made a road to day? And David said, may dwell there : for why should thy servant Against the south of Judah, and against the dwell in the royal city with thee?

south of the Jerahmeelites, and against the 6 Then Achish gave him Ziklag that day : south of the Kenites. wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of 11 And David saved neither man nor woman Judah unto this day.

alive, to bring tidings to Gath, saying, Lest 7 And 'the time that David dwelt in the they should tell on us, saying, So did David, country of the Philistines was 'a full year and and so will be his manner all the while he four months.

dwelleth in the country of the Philistines. 8 9 And David and his men went up, and 12 And Achish believed David, saying, He invaded the Geshurites, and the 'Gezerites, and hath made his people Israel utterly to abhor the Amalekites: for those nations were of old him ; therefore he shall be my servant for ever.

* Heb. the number of days. 3 Heb. a year of days. 4 Or, Gerzites. 5 Or, Did you not make a road, &c.

6 Heb. to stink,

Verse 2. ' Achish, the son of Maoch, king of Gath.' – The manner in which this person is distinguished, as the son of Maoch, seems to render it probable that he was not the same as the Achish who reigned when David first went to Gath. David's intention was now very different from what it had been at the former visit. His future prospects, and the enmity of the reigning king, were probably the common talk, and might afford sufficient reason for the king of Gath to deem it an act of policy to receive him well. Some think that a refuge within his dominions is to be understood as having been voluntarily offered by the king.

6. . Ziklag.'- In the distribution of the land this town was assigned to Judah (Josh. xv. 31), and afterwards to Simeon (Josh. xix. 5); but it does not appear that the Israelites ever possessed it; and we now find it belonging to the Philistines, who gave it to David. We see, in ch. XXX., that when the Philistines assembled at Aphek to make war against Saul, and when David also had proceeded to the same place of rendezvous, the Amalekites availed themselves of the opportunity of invading the land, and burut Ziklag; but, as the author of these chapters adds in the text, that the town still in his time pertained to the

kings of Judah, it must afterwards have been rebuilt. We I have no information about the place of Ziklag, except that

it was in Daroma, the southern province of Palestine. Daroma began at Eleutheropolis, and extended thence about

twenty miles southward. If we place it in the northern part of that province, we shall have it at a convenient distance to the south of Gath; for the history of David's transactions, during his sojourn among the Philistines, seems to render it quite clear that Ziklag must have been several miles to the south of Gath.

8. · Geshurites,'-See the note on Josh. xiii. 2.

- Gezrites.'-If, on the best authority to be obtained, the town of Gezer be rightly placed in the note to Josh. xii. 12, the southward direction of David's excursion will not allow these Gezrites to have been the inhabitants of that Gezer, as some writers conceive. The word is rather uncertain, and does not occur in the Septuagint version of this text. We have no information concerning such a people, unless, as Wells conjectures, they are the same as the Gerrhenians of 2 Macc. xiii. 24; so called from their chief town Gerra, mentioned by Strabo as lying between Gaza and Pelusium in Egypt.

10. Jerahmeelites.'— The Jerahmeelites were merely one of the branches of the family of Judah, and probably occupied the southern part of that tribe's territory. The information that David had been acting against his own tribe was well calculated to please and satisfy Achish. Jerahmeel, who gave name to this branch of the tribe, was the great-grandson of Judah ; and concerning him and his posterity there are various particulars in i Chron. ii.


said unto David, Know thou assuredly, that 1 Achish putteth confidence in David. 3 Saul, having

thou shalt go out with me to battle, thou and destroyed the witches, 4 and now in his fear for

thy men. saken of God, 7 seeketh to a witch. 9 T'he witch, 2 And David said to Achish, Surely thou encouraged by Saul, raiseth up Samuel. 15 Saul,

shalt know what thy servant can do. And hearing his ruin, fainteth. 21 The woman with his

Achish said to David, Therefore will I make servants refresh him with meat.

thee keeper of mine head for ever. And it came to pass in those days, that the 3 Now 'Samuel was dead, and all Israel Philistines gathered their armies together for had lamented him, and buried him in Ramah, warfare, to fight with Israel. And Achish even in his own city. And Saul had put away

I Chep. 25. 1.

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those that had familiar spirits, and the wizards, Saul answered, I am sore distressed; for the out of the land.

Philistines make war against me, and God is 4 T And the Philistines gathered themselves departed from me, and answereth me no more, together, and came and pitched in Shunem : neither oby prophets, nor by dreams: thereand Saul gathered all Israel together, and fore I have called thee, that thou mayest they pitched in Gilboa.

make known unto me what I shall do. 3 And when Saul saw the host of the 16 Then said Samuel, Wherefore then Philistines, he was afraid, and his heart dost thou ask of me, seeing the LORD is greatly trembled.

departed from thee, and is become thine 6 And when Saul enquired of the LORD, enemy? the LORD answered him not, neither by 17 And the LORD hath done to him, 'as dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets. he spake by me: for the LORD hath rent the

7 Then said Saul unto his servants, kingdom out of thine hand, and given it to Seek me a woman that hath a familiar spirit, thy neighbour, even to David: that I may go to her, and enquire of her. 18 Because thou obeyedst not the voice of And his servants said to him, Behold, there the LORD, nor executedst his fierce wrath is a woman that hath a familiar spirit at upon Amalek, therefore hath the LORD done En-dor.

this thing unto thee this day. 8 And Saul disguised himself, and put on 19 Moreover the LORD will also deliver other raiment, and he went, and two men Israel with thee into the hand of the Philiswith him, and they came to the woman by tines : and to morrow shalt thou and thy sons night: and he said, I pray thee, divine unto be with me : the Lord also shall deliver the me by the familiar spirit, and bring me him host of Israel into the hand of the Philistines. up, whom I shall name unto thee.

20 Then Saul "fell straightway all along 9 And the woman said unto him, Behold, on the earth, and was sore afraid, because of thou knowest what Saul hath done, how he the words of Samuel: and there was no hath cut off those that have familiar spirits, strength in him ; for he had eaten no bread and the wizards, out of the land : wherefore all the day, nor all the night. then layest thou a snare for my life, to cause 21 | And the woman came unto Saul, and me to die?

saw that he was sore troubled, and said unto 10 And Saul_sware to her by the LORD, him, Behold, thine handmaid hath obeyed thy saying, As the Lord liveth, there shall no voice, and I have put my life in my hand, and punishment happen to thee for this thing. have hearkened unto thy words which thou

11 Then said the woman, Whom shall I spakest unto me. bring up unto thee? And he said, Bring me 22 Now therefore, I pray thee, hearken

thou also unto the voice of thine handmaid, 12 And when the woman saw Samuel, she and let me set a morsel of bread before thee; cried with a loud voice: and the woman and eat, that thou mayest have strength when spake to Saul, saying, Why hast thou de- thou goest on thy way. ceived me? for thou art Saul.

23 But he refused, and said, I will not eat. 13 And the king said unto her, Be not But his servants, together with the woman, afraid : for what sawest thou? And the compelled him; and he hearkened unto their woman said unto Saul, I saw gods ascending voice. So he arose from the earth, and sat out of the earth.

upon the bed. 14 And he said unto her, ?What form is 24 And the woman had a fat calf in the he of? And she said, An old man cometh house ; and she hasted, and killed it, and up; and he is covered with a mantle. And took flour, and kneaded it, and did bake Saul perceived that it was Samuel, and he unleavened bread thereof: stooped with his face to the ground, and 25 And she brought it before Saul, and bowed himself.

before his servants; and they did eat. Then 15 | And Samuel said to Saul, Why hast they rose up, and went away that night. thou disquieted me, to bring me up? And 3 Heb. by the hand of prophets.

up Samuel.

* Or, for himself,

5 Chap 16, 23. 7 Heb. mado haste and fell with the fulness of his stature.

% Heb. what is his form !

6 Heb. mine hand.

Verse 2. *I will make thee keeper of mine head.'- In the -that can believe the real resurrection of Samuel, or that East the head is usually mentioned as the principal part of there is anything but delusion in the practice of necrothe body. In common language the head' is equivalent to mancy, or the popular raising of ghosts' (Vulgar Errors,

the life: therefore, what Achish means is, probably, that i. 10). For these and other reasons many believe that the he would make David the commander of his life-guard-a witch of Endor was nothing more nor less than a cunning most honourable office in the East.

woman,' who, being acquainted with the state of public 4. “ Shunem.'-This place is mentioned in Josh. xix. 18, affairs-guessing that the tall stranger, who assured her as being in the tribe of Issachar. Here it is the place that no harm should happen to herself, could be no other where the Philistines encamp. It is also celebrated as the than the king of Israel--and being well acquainted, as pronative place of the beautiful Abishag (1 Kings i. 3), and bably most of the Israelites were, with the person of Samuel as the residence of the good woman who entertained -undertook the no very difficult task of deceiving Saul. Elisha (2 Kings iv. 8-37; viii. 1-6). Eusebius and Je- Under this view, it is thought that Saul did not see the aprome describe it as being in their day a village five Roman pearance, but trusted to the

woman's statement that she saw miles from Mount Tabor towards the south, and bearing it; and that the voice which was heard was produced by the name of Sulem. It has been recently recognised under the powers of ventriloquism :-although others suppose the corresponding name of Solam, by several travellers, in that the woman had an associate who personated the appeara village three miles and a half north of Jezreel.

ance and imitated the voice of the dead prophet. Some, Gilboa.'—The circumstance of the narrative would however, conclude that this associate was a demon, whose alone lead us to seek Gilboa in the mountains which bound aid she invoked on this occasion. But, thirdly, a large the great plain of Esdraelon on the south-east, and are in- class of highly respectable interpreters contend that the terposed between it and the Jordan valley. Here there appearance was really that of Samuel; but, of course, deny are a number of ridges, with a general direction from north- that the power of the woman or of the devil had any share west to south-east, separated by vallies running in the in its production. They think that, when the woman was same direction. The largest of these vallies is the south- preparing either to use her craft in imposing on Saul, or else ernmost; it is a broad, deep plain, about two miles and a was about to employ her incantations in the expectation of half wide, and leading direct into the Jordan valley. This raising a demoniacal spirit to answer his questions, Samuel is supposed to be distinctively (for the plain of Esdraelon himself, or his spirit, appeared, by the Lord's permission, is sometimes so called) the valley of Jezreel. The moun- to the very great and declared surprise of the woman hertains which bound it on the north appear to be those of self. The text certainly does throughout convey the imLittle Hermon, and the higher mountains which bound it pression that the appearance was real. This also was the on the south undoubtedly form Mount Gilboa. There is opinion of the ancient Jewish church, as expressed in still, indeed, an inhabited village, in whose name of Jelbom Ecclus. xlvi. 20, where of Samuel it is said, that after his that of Gilboa may be recognised.

death he prophesied, and shewed the king his end.' Jose7. • A woman that hath a familiar spirit. —See the note phus also describes the appearance as really that of Samuel. on Deat. xviii. 11. From the present text it appears that Dr. Hales, in bis New Analysis of Chronology, has an able those who pretended to the spirit of divination included in article on this view of the subject; in which he thinks that their pretensions the power of obtaining access to the coun- the following were among the reasons for the permitted sels of the dead; or, rather, of calling on the dead to appear appearance to Saul :-1. To make Saul's crime the instruto those who desired their presence. These were therefore ment of his punishment, in the dreadful denunciation of what we call necromancers; the belief in whose powers his approaching doom. 2. To shew to the heathen world has existed in most countries, and still lingers perhaps in the infinite superiority of the ORACLE OF THE LORD, insome of the dark corners even of our own land. The pre- spiring his prophets, over the powers of darkness and the sent chapter has given occasion to much discussion, turning delusive prognostics of their wretched votaries in their chiefly on the points-whether the appearance of Samuel false oracles. 3. To confirm the belief of a future state, was real, or an imposition of the pythoness on the credu- by “One who rose from the dead,” even under the Mosaical lity of Saul; and, if real, by what power it was produced ? dispensation' (Luke xvi. 31). That the spirit of Samuel was evoked by the woman, and -En-dor.' -- This town is, in Josh. xvii. 11, assigned came on the compulsion of her powerful arts, is an opinion to the half-tribe of Manasseh, although lying beyond the that has had its advocates, but has of late years generally limits of that tribe. It is mentioned in Ps. Ixxxiii. 10, in been rejected. Even Sir Thomas Brown, whose errors are connection with the victory of Deborah and Barak; but is often on the side of credulity, rejected this explanation. chiefly memorable for the circumstance recorded in this In his chapter, .Of the last and most common promoter of chapter. The name does not occur in the New Testament; false opinions-the endeavours of Satan,' he says. Thus but it was near to Nain, and in the time of Eusebius and hath he (Satan) also made men believe that he can raise Jerome it still existed as a large village, four miles south the dead, that he hath the key of life and death, and a pre- of Mount Tabor. At about this distance, in the northern

rogative above that principle which makes no regression slope of the lower ridge of the lesser Hermon, a village of | from privations. After alluding to the opinions of the this name is still found. Burckhardt describes the inha.

heathen philosophical schools on this point, he adds :- bitants as being aware of the Scriptural note of their vil• More inconsistent is the error of Christians, who, holding lage; for they point out the grotto which they believe the the dead do rest in the Lord, do yet believe they are at the witch to have inhabited. The Bible says nothing of her lure of the devil,—that he, who is in bonds himself, com- grotto, and she probably lived in a house like the other inmandeth the fetters of the dead, and, dwelling in the bot- habitants of the place. tomless lake, (calleth) the blessed from Abraham’s bosom:


2 And the lords of the Philistines passed

on by hundreds, and by thousands : but 1 David marching with the Philistines, 3 is disallowed

David and his men passed on in the rereward by their princes. 6 Achish dismisseth him, with commendations of his fidelity.

with Achish.

3 Then said the princes of the Philistines, Now the Philistines gathered together all What do these Hebrews here ? And Achish their armies to Aphek: and the Israelites said unto the princes of the Philistines, Is not pitched by a fountain which is in Jezreel. this David, the servant of Saul the king of


Israel, which hath been with me these days, 1 day: nevertheless 'the lords favour thee or these years, and I have found no fault in not. him since he fell unto me unto this day?

7 Wherefore now return, and go in peace, 4 And the princes of the Philistines were that thou displease not the lords of the Phiwroth with him; and the princes of the Phi- listines, listines said unto him, "Make this fellow 8 And David said unto Achish, But what return, that he may go again to his place have I done ? and what hast thou found which thou hast appointed him, and let him in thy servant so long as I have been 'with not go down with us to battle, lest in the thee unto this day, that I may not go fight battle he be an adversary to us : for where against the enemies of my lord the king? with should he reconcile himself unto his 9 And Achish answered and said to David, master ? should it not be with the heads of I know that thou art good in my sight, as an these men ?

angel of God: notwithstanding the princes of 5 Is not this David, of whom they sang the Philistines have said, He shall not go up one to another in dances, saying, 'Saul slew with us to the battle. his thousands, and David his ten thou- 10 Wherefore now rise up early in the sands?

morning with thy master's servants that are 6 T Then Achish called David, and said come with thee: and as soon as ye be up unto him, Surely, as the LORD liveth, thou early in the morning, and have light, depart. hast been upright, and thy going out and thy 11 So David and his men rose up early coming in with me in the host is good in my to depart in the morning, to return into the sight : for I have not found evil in thee since land of the Philistines. And the Philistines the day of thy coming unto me unto this went up to Jezreel.

11 Chron. 12. 19.

2 Chap. 18. 7, and 21. 11.
4 Heb. do not evil in the eyes of the lords.

3 Heb. thou art not good in the eyes of the lords.

5 Heb, before thee.

Verse 1. Aphek.'-See note to Josh. xii. 18. This must have been in the tribe of Issachar, in or on the borders of the great plain of Esdraelon; and must not be confounded with the place of the same name in the tribe of Judah, where the Philistines had their camp in the time of Eli (ch. iv. 1).

- Jezreel:— This place is described in Josh. xix. 18, as being in the lot of Issachar. It is often mentioned in the subsequent history, as it acquired political importance from the presence of the kings of Israel, who had a palace in Jezreel, and sometimes held their court there, although Samaria was the capital. . It is most frequently mentioned in the history of the house of Ahab. There was the vineyard of Naboth, which Ahab coveted to enlarge the palacegrounds (1 Kings xviii. 45, 46; xxi.); and here Jehu executed his dreadful commission against the house of Ahab, when Jezebel, Joram, and all who were connected with that wretched dynasty perished (2 Kings ix. 14, 37; x. 1-11). These horrid scenes appear to have given

the kings of Israel a distaste to this residence, as it is not again mentioned in their history. It is, however, named by Hosea (i. 4; comp. i. 11 ; ii. 22); and in Judith (i. 8; iv. 3; vii. 3); it occurs under the name of Esdraelon. In the days of Eusebius and Jerome it was still a large village, called Esdraela ( Jezrael'); and in the same age it again occurs as Stradela. Nothing more is heard of it till the time of the Crusades, when it was called by the Franks, Parvum Gerinnm, and by the Arabs, Zerin; and it is described as commanding a wide prospect-on the east to the mountains of Gilead, and on the west to Mount Carmel (Guil. Tyr. xxii. 26). But this line of identification seems to have been afterwards lost sight of, and Jezreel came to be identified with Jenin.

3. ' The princes of the Philistines.'—The heads of the other Philistine states, not the lords in the court of Achish, who probably concurred in or submitted to the views which the king entertained concerning David.


and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned

it with fire; 1 The Amalekites spoil Ziklag. 7 David asking

2 And had taken the women captives, that counsel is encouraged by God to pursue them. 11 By the means of a revived Egyptian he is brought to

were therein : they slew not any, either great the enemies, and recovereth all the spoil. 22 David's or small, but carried them away, and went on law to divide the spoil equally between them that fight their way. and them that keep the stuft. 26 He sendeth pre- 3 | So David and his men came to the sents to his friends.

city, and, behold, it was burned with fire; And it came to pass, when David and his and their wives, and their sons, and their men were come to Ziklag on the third day, daughters, were taken captives. that the Amalekites had invaded the south, 4 Then David and the people that were Wishim lifted up their voice and wept, until because of all the great spoil that they had they no more power to weep.

taken out of the land of the Philistines, and 5 Ans Ravid's two wives were taken cap: out of the land of Judah. tives, Ahilar the Jezreelitess, and Abigail 17 And David smote them from the twithe wife of N O the Carmelite.

light even unto the evening of 'the next day : 6 And Davra was greatly distressed ; for and there escaped not a man of them, save the people spake of stoning him, because the four hundred young men, which rode upon soul of all the people was 'grieved, every camels, and fled. man for his sons and for his daughters : but 18 And David recovered all that the David encouraged himself in the Lord his Amalekites had carried away: and David God.

rescued his two wives. 7 And David said to Abiathar the priest, 19 And there was nothing lacking to them, Ahimelech's son, I pray thee, bring me hither neither small nor great, neither sons nor the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither daughters, neither spoil

, nor any thing that the ephod to David.

they had taken to them : David recovered all. 8 And David enquired at the Lord, say- 20 And David took all the flocks and the ing, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall herds, which they drave before those other I overtake them? And he answered him, cattle, and said, 'I'his is David's spoil. Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, 21 And David came to the two hundred and without fail recover all,

men, which were so faint that they could not 9 1 So David went, he and the six hundred follow David, whom they had made also to men that were with him, and came to the abide at the brook Besor : and they went brook Besor, where those that were left behind forth to meet David, and to meet the people stayed.

that were with him : and when David came io But David pursued, he and four hun- near to the people, he 'saluted them. ! dred men: for two hundred abode behind, 22 | Then answered all the wicked men

which were so faint that they could not go and men of Belial, of those that went with over the brook Besor.

David, and said, Because they went not with 11 And they found an Egyptian in the us, we will not give them ought of the spoil that field, and brought him to David, and gave we have recovered, save to every man his wife

him bread, and he did eat; and they made and his children, that they may lead them 1 him drink water;

away, and depart. 12 And they gave him a piece of a cake of 23 Then said David, Ye shall not do so, figs, and two clusters of raisins : and when he my brethren, with that which the LORD hath had eaten, his spirit came again to him: for given us, who hath preserved us, and delivered he had eaten no bread, nor drunk any water, the company that came against us into our three days and three nights.

haud. 13 And David said unto him, To whom 24 For who will hearken unto you in this belongest thou? and whence art thou? And matter? but as his part is that goeth down to he said, I am a young man of Egypt, servant the battle, so shall his part be that tarrieth by to an Amalekite ; and my master left me, the stuff: they shall part alike. because three days agone I fell sick.

25 And it was so from that day 'forward, 14 We made an invasion upon the south of that he made it a statute and an ordinance the Cherethites, and upon the coast which for Israel unto this day. belongeth to Judah, and upon the south of 26 | And when David came to Ziklag, he Caleb; and we burned Ziklag with fire. sent of the spoil unto the elders of Judah,

15 And David said to him, Canst thou even to his friends, saying, Behold a present bring me down to this company? And he for you of the spoil of the enemies of the said, Swear unto me by God, that thou wilt Lord; neither kill me, nor deliver me into the hands 27 To them which were in Beth-el, and to of my master, and I will bring thee down to them which were in south Ramoth, and to them this company.

which were in Jattir, 16 | And when he had brought him down, 28 And to them which were in Aroer, and behold, they were spread abroad upon all the to them which were in Siphmoth, and to them earth, eating and drinking, and dancing, which were in Eshtemoa,

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