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servant found in his heart to pray this prayer bless the house of thy servant, that it may conunto thee.

tinue for ever before thee: for thou, O LORD 28 And now, O LORD God, thou art that God, hast spoken it: and with thy blessing God, and 'thy words be true, and thou hast let the house of thy servant be blessed for promised this goodness unto thy servant: ever. 29 Therefore now let it please thee to 1 14 John 17. 17.

15 Heb. be thou pleased and bless.

Verse 18. King David went in, and sat before the introduced. The posture of crouching, shewn in the Lord.'-To our notions it may seem not properly respecte second figure of the cut, was very common among the ful for David to go and address the Lord in a sitting pos- Egyptians, but is now rather unusual in the East. Sitting ture. We have partly shewn by anticipation under 1 Sam. cross-legged, a posture rather awkwardly represented in iv. 18, that this impression is groundless. The plain fact the last figure, is now the usual and ordinary posture in is, that in the East the sitting postures are various, and common life. It is the same as that which tailors adopt that one of them is considered as respectful, or even re- in this country, and which to those used to it, is really the verent, as any posture can be..

sitting posture which gives more perfect repose to the The Orientals now sit upon the ground, or on carpets body than any other. The postures in which the figures or cushions laid on the ground. And although there is 1 and 3 are represented in the cut-of sitting on the heels evidence that the Israelites used raised seats, such as -are more difficult, and give less repose. These two chairs and stools, it is clear that they also sat on the were postures of respect among the Egyptians; and they ground in the various postures now used in the East. The are figured in them when in the presence of their supe

riors, as well as when bearing sacred emblems before the shrines of their gods. And this posture of sitting on the heels—the only one in which the Egyptians could sit before the shrine of their gods, is obviously that in which David sat before the shrine of Jehovah. This continues to be the posture of respect in the East ; and no one thinks of using any other in the presence of a superior. Great personages sit thus, if they sit at all, in the presence of kings; and it is one of the positions, and the only sitting

one, which the Moslems take in their devotions. VARIOUS MODES OF SITTING.

19. · The manner of man'—that is, a human custom, to case, in this respect, appears to have been much the same which God had graciously condescended, in order to convey with them as with the Egyptians, who, although they used to his servant this intimation of His designs in a way which all kinds of raised seats, yet also sat on the floor in every he had been accustomed to consider the most binding. variety of posture. This is evinced by the small cut here!

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CHAPTER VIII.

twenty thousand footmen: and David houghed 1 Darid subdueth the Philistines and the Moabites. 3

all the chariot horses, but reserved of them for He smiteth Hadadezer, and the Syrians. 9 Toi

an hundred chariots. sendeth Joram with presents to bless him. 11 The | 5 And when the Syrians of Damascus came presents and the spoil David dedicateth to God. to succour Hadadezer king of Zobah, David 14 He putteth garrisons in Edom. 16 David's

slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand officers.

men. AND 'after this it came to pass, that David 1 6 Then David put garrisons in Syria of smote the Philistines, and subdued them : and Damascus : and the Syrians became servants David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand 1 to David, and brought gifts. And the LORD of the Philistines.

preserved David whithersoever he went. 2 And he smote Moab, and measured them 7 And David took the shields of gold that with a line, casting them down to the ground; / were on the servants

| were on the servants of Hadadezer, and even with two lines measured he to put to brought them to Jerusalem. death, and with one full line to keep alive. 8 And from Betah, and from Berothai, And so the Moabites became David's servants, cities of Hadadezer, king David took exceedand brought gifts.

ing much brass. 3 | David smote also Hadadezer, the son 9 When Toi king of Hamath heard that of Rehob, king of *Zobah, as he went to reco David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer, ver his border at the river Euphrates.

- 10 Then Toi sent Joram his son unto king 4 And David took from him a thousand David, to 'salute him, and to bless him, be'chariots, and seven hundred horsemen, and cause he had fought against Hadadezer, and 1 i Chron. 18.1, &c. 2 Or, the bridle of Ammah. 3 Psalm 60.2. Or, of his. 5 As 1 Chron. 18. 4.

6 Heb, ask him of peace.

203

smitten hiin : for Hadadezer 'had wars with throughout all Edom put he garrisons, and all Toi. And Joram brought with him vessels | they of Edom became David's servants. And of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of the Lord preserved David whithersoever he brass :

went. 11 Which also king David did dedicate | 15 | And David reigned over all Israel; unto the LORD, with the silver and gold that and David executed judgment and justice ! he had dedicated of all nations which he sub- unto all his people. dued;

16 And Joab the son of Zeruiah was over, 12 Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the chil- the host; and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud dren of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of was 'recorder ; . Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son 17 And Zadok the son of Ahitub, and of Rehob, king of Zobah.

Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, were the .13 And David gat him a name when he priests; and Seraiah was the "scribe; returned from ‘smiting of the Syrians in the 18 "And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was valley of salt, being eighteen thousand men over both the Cherethites and the Pelethites; ,

14 | And he put garrisons in Edom; and David's sons were 'Schief rulers. 7 Heb. was a man of wars with. Heb. in his hand were. Heb. his smiting. 10 Or, remembrancer, or, writer of chroniclei.

11 Or, secretary.

12 1 Chron, 18, 17.

13 Or, princes.

Verse 1. • Metheg-ammah.'—There has been some spe- | ceeding than any modern European nation: for they were culation about the signification of this name. It seems forbidden to employ horses in war, and did not employ sufficient to know that it denotes · Gath and her towns; them for travelling or agriculture : and it is therefore difas in the parallel passage, i Chron. xviii. 1.

ficult to see what they could have done with these ani2. • Measured them with a line.'-Some apply this to the | mals, if they had preserved them. It is true they might country of Moab; but the plain meaning of the text seems have sold them ; but then their enemies might have conto be, that David (in conformity, doubtless, with a known trived to buy them back again, and employed them anew usage of Oriental warfare) caused all his captives to lie against their conquerors. The policy therefore was to down, and instead of destroying the whole, as the law au diminish, as far as possible, the race of these animals, as thorized, and as they all probably expected, marked off a possessed by their neighbours; and the importance of this certain proportion to be spared. What that proportion was we cannot estimate without recollecting that the immeis not very clear. Our version seems to make those who diate neighbours of the Hebrews do not appear to have had were destroyed two-thirds of the whole; but we prefer the any native breed of horses, but to have obtained them by reading of the Septuagint and Vulgate, which, although purchase from Armenia or Egypt-a circumstance which they differ in terms, concur in the sense of making the rendered it not easy to repair the loss which the destrucproportion one-half. The former says there were two tion of their horses involved. The same course was lines for preserving alive, and two for putting to death : | adopted by the Romans towards elephants, which they and the latter, that there were two lines, one for each pur killed,--because, on the one hand, they had no desire pose; and this is the clearest interpretation. As to the themselves to obtain the assistance of such auxiliaries, and principle of the measure, all comment has been anticipated knew, on the other, that these creatures were sometimes in the remarks on the ancient war-law of the Hebrews and dangerous to the troops in which they were employed. their neighbours, in the notes to Deut. xx. 6, 7, and 8. · Brass.'--Josephus says that this brass was of most Judg. i., which will serve to shew that the procedure here excellent quality, surpassing in value gold itself, like the described could scarcely at that time have been considered famous Corinthian brass among the Greeks. . as a severe measure, but rather as an act of lenity, with the 10. · Vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of intention of sparing a part of the male captives, whom the brass.'--If what Denon says be true, that the arts of other law and the general custom of war doomed to death. nations are only spoils of those of the Egyptians, it will be 3. · Zobah-See the note on i Chron. xviii. 3.

right to consider that the vases and other vessels, whether 4. · Houghed all the chariot horses.' –See the notes on of pottery or metal, in use among that most ingenious Deut. xvii. 16, Josh. xi. 6. The neighbouring nations, people, furnished the models for the style, fashion, and with some exceptions, continue strong in cavalry; while material of those possessed by, at least, their more immethe Hebrews, according to the intentions of their lawgiver, diate neighbours--including the Hebrews, Syrians, and remain without horses. In David's own Psalms there are others. We have therefore figured a small collection of frequent references to this, chiefly as contrasting their own | Egyptian vessels; and our conviction that they may be confidence in Jehovah with the reliance which their ene taken as examples of some of the vessels mentioned in mies placed on their strong bodies of cavalry (Ps. xx. 7; Scripture, is founded on stronger reasons than the alleged xxxiii. 17; lxxvi. 6; cxlvii. 10); and such expressions derivation of all the arts from Egypt, and that is, on their occurring in hymns, were well calculated to foster in the ancient universality and their existing prevalence. minds of tbe Hebrews, those feelings of contempt towards Wherever they originated, certain it is, that we everycavalry which they unquestionably entertained. The di where recognize the same essential forms in the ancient rection to hough the horses of the enemy is not in the vases and domestic vessels. The Greek vases do not more Law; but was given to Joshua on occasion of his war with certainly resemble those of Egypt, from which they are the northern Canaanites: but whether David in the pre confessedly derived, than do those of ancient Persia and sent instance acted with reference to that direction, or ac Babylonia. But then, also, they are modern European and cording to the common practice of the time, is not very modern Oriental. We may well derive the former from clear. The practice of thus treating the horses of the ad the Egyptians, or indirectly from the Greeks, and we see verse party, when they cannot be brought off, has been them preserved, more or less, in our water pitchers, jars, continued in modern warfare, for the purpose of disabling ewers, bowls, ale and wine glasses, goblets, flower-glasses, the animals and rendering them unserviceable to the tea-pots, and many other examples. But then again we enemy. The Hebrews had more reason for such a pro. I recognize the same forms-or at least many of them

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DOMESTIC AXD ORNAMENTAL VESSELS OY TUB EGYPTIANS, COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS EGYPTIAN SCULPTURES,

China, India, Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria-everywhere in of sall.'-See 2 Kings xiv. 7. That not the Syrians, as here, the East. In Baghdad, or in any other town in that most but the Edomites, are intended, is evident from the folancient of historical regions in which Baghdad is situated, lowing verse, and is clearly expressed in 1 Chron. xviii. we see in the shop of an ordinary potter a variety of forms 12, where we doubtless have the correct reading, from of common vessels, which we do not hesitate at once to re which it would appear that a whole line has here been cognize as classical,' or as · Egyptian.' If we dig in the dropped after “Syrians,' which we might insert thusneighbouring primitive soil of Babylonia, or Chaldæa, or the Meanwhile Abishai the son of Zeruiah slew of the Edomites, • plain of Shinar,' we there find precisely the same wares in the valley, etc. Thus it appears that while David as are exhibited in the shop of the potter, whose forms carried on the war in person against the Syrians, his we hesitate any longer to call “classical' or Egyptian.' general Abishai brought the Edomites under subjection. They are universal; and therefore they are Egyptian, and 17. Zadok ... and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar Syrian, and Hebrew: although, of course, we must make were the priests.'--This is an obvious error of transcripsome allowance for occasional peculiarities, resulting from tion, and we must read Abiathar the son of Abimelech. the individual wants or tastes of a particular nation. Now, We know that it was Abiathar who was priest; that he of these ancient universal forms, the remains of Egypt was the son of Ahimelech, and that this Abimelech had certainly furnish the most complete and various speci. been slain some years before by Doeg. This is the first mens; and it is almost impossible to be much mistaken in occasion in which Zadok is mentioned as high priest; but ! referring to them for the purpose of Scriptural illus afterwards, throughout the reign of David, he and Abitration : it being only necessary to recollect that in such athar are often named separately or together, as both specimens we sometimes discover a tendency to the gro bearing that character-a singular innovation, resulting , tesque in style and ornament, which we may reject as a probably from circumstances over which the king bad little general illustration, regarding it as a peculiarity of Egyp control. It seems likely that after Saul had slain the tian taste.

priests of Ithamar’s line at Nob, he restored the pontificate Concerning the paintings of Egyptian metallic vases, to the line of Eleazer, in the person of Zadok; while Mr. Long, in his · Egyptian Antiquities,' observes—The David and his people, during his wandering and his reign art of working in the precious metals, such as the making in Judah, had been accustomed to look to Abiathar, the of golden ornaments on gold vases, of large size and beau- escaped son of Abimelech, as the high-priest; that he tiful workmanship, might be inferred from a variety of thought it proper and prudent to recognize Zadok in that incidental notices in ancient writers, but is confirmed by character without depriving A biathar of the consideration the representations given in Rosellini. Here we see nu he had previously enjoyed. If this explanation be cormerous vases, painted yellow, which no doubt is intended rect, Zadok would have had this advantage over Abiato represent gold. Many of these, though exceedingly thar, that he had actually discharged the regular funogrotesque in some of their details, are often very finely tions of high-priesthood at the tabernacle, which the formed, and indicate not only a high state of manual skili, other had never an opportunity of doing. It is probably but much taste and imagination. Other plates in the same on this account that wherever the two names occur to. work contain drawings of a great variety of vases and gether that of Zadok is placed first. vessels, some of which, for the lightness and beauty of 18. Cherethites . . . Pelethites.'--See 1 Chron, xviii. their form, are not to be surpassed by any specimens of 17. In the notes on the same chapter will be found some ancient or modern art.'

remarks on other particulars mentioned here. 13. Returned from smiting of the Syrians in the valley

CHAPTER IX.

5 I Then king David sent, and fetched him

| out of the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, 1 David by Ziba sendeth for Mephibosheth. 7 For

from Lo-debar. . Jonathan's sake he entertaineth him at his table, and restoreth him all that was Sauls. 9 He maketh

6 Now when Mephibosheth, the son of JoZiba his farmer.

nathan, the son of Saul, was come unto David,

he fell on his face, and did reverence. And And David said, Is there yet any that is left | David said, Mephibosheth. And he answered, of the house of Saul, that I may shew him Behold thy servant! kindness for Jonathan's sake ?

7 9 And David said unto him, Fear not: 2 And there was of the house of Saul a for I will surely shew thee kindness for Jonaservant whose name was Ziba. And when than thy father's sake, and will restore thee they had called him unto David, the king said all the land of Saul thy father; and thou shalt unto him, Art thou Ziba ? And he said, Thy eat bread at my table continually. servant is he.

8 And he bowed himself, and said, What 3 And the king said, Is there not yet any is thy servant, that thou shouldest look upon of the house of Saul, that I may shew the such a dead dog as I am ? kindness of God unto him ? And Ziba said | 9 | Then the king called to Ziba, Saul's unto the king, Jonathan hath yet a son, which servant, and said unto him, I have given unto is 'lame on his feet.

thy master's son all that pertained to Saul and 4 And the king said unto him, Where is to all his house. he? And Ziba said unto the king, Behold, | 10 Thou therefore, and thy sons, and thy he is in the house of Machir, the son of Am- servants, shall till the land for him, and thou miel, in Lo-debar.

shalt bring in the fruits, that thy master's son 1 Chap. 4. 4.

is thy serxahdog as I am ?lor to Ziba, Saul's

may have food to eat; but Mephibosheth thy | 12 And Mephibosheth had a young son, master's son shall eat bread alway at my table. whose name was Micah. And all that dwelt Now Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants. in the house of Ziba were servants unto Me

11 Then said Ziba unto the king, Accord phibosheth. ing to all that my lord the king hath com 13 So Mephibosheth dwelt in Jerusalem : manded his servant, so shall thy servant do. for he did eat continually at the king's table; As for Mephibosheth, said the king, he shall and was lame on both his feet. eat at my table, as one of the king's sons.

Verse 11. ' He shall eat at my table, as one of the king's sons.'—The general reader may be perplexed to know why, when David intended Mephibosheth to eat at his own table, he yet directed Ziba to bring to Jerusalem the produce of his estate, that he might have food to eat (v. 10).

The fact seems to be, that David by no means intended that Mephibosheth, or any one else, should eat constantly with him; but only that he should have a right to the honourable distinction of a place at his table, on those public occasions and festivals when the king was accustomed to dine with the princes of his own family, and,

perhaps, with the chief officers of state. This is still customary in the East, where the king usually eats alone, but on certain occasions admits his relations and great functionaries to his table. This is a very great privilege; but

of course it does not affect the favoured person's ordinary | means of subsistence. The situation of Jonathan's son

in David's court seems to have been analogous to that of David himself in the court of Saul. He, as the king's son-in-law, had an assigned place at the royal table, but was not expected to occupy it till the new moon. (See the note on 1 Sam. xxv. 5.)

CHAPTER X.

Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Beth1 David's messengers, sent to comfort Hanun the son of

rehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thouNahash, are villainously entreated. 6 The Ammon- -sand footmen, and of king Maacah a thouites, strengthened by the Syrians at Helam, are over sand men, and of Ish-tob twelve thousand come by Joab and Abishai. 15 Shobach, making a

| men. new supply of the Syrians at Helam, is slain by 7 And when David heard of it he sent. Joab. David.

and all the host of the mighty men. And it came to pass after this, that the 'king | 8 And the children of Ammon came out, of the children of Ammon died, and Hanun and put the battle in array at the entering in his son reigned in his stead.

of the gate: and the Syrians of Zoba, and of 2 Then said David, I will shew kindness Rehob, and Ish-tob, and Maacah, were by unto Hanun the son of Nahash, as his father themselves in the field. shewed kindness unto me. And David sent 9 When Joab saw that the front of the to comfort him by the hand of his servants for battle was against him before and behind, he his father. And David's servanty came into chose of all the choice men of Israel, and put the land of the children of Ammon.

them in array against the Syrians : 3 And the princes of the children of Am- 10 And the rest of the people he delivered mon said unto Hanun their lord, *Thinkest into the hand of Abishai his brother, that he thou that David doth honour thy father, that might put them in array against the children he hath sent comforters unto thee? hath not of Ammon. David rather sent his servants unto thee, to | 11 And he said, If the Syrians be too strong search the city, and to spy it out, and to over- for me, then thou shalt help me : but if the throw it?

children of Ammon be too strong for thee, then 4 Wherefore Hanun took David's servants, I will come and help thee. and shaved off the one half of their beards, | 12 Be of good courage, and let us play the and cut off their garments in the middle, even , men for our people, and for the cities of our to their buttocks, and sent them away, God: and the LORD do that which seemeth

5 When they told it unto David, he sent him good. to meet them, because the men were greatly 13 And Joab drew nigh, and the people ashamed: and the king said, Tarry at Jeri- that were with him, unto the battle against the cho until your beards be grown, and then Syrians : and they fled before him. return

14 And when the children of Ammon saw 6 | And when the children of Ammon saw that the Syrians were fled, then fled they also that they stank before David, the children of before Abishai, and entered into the city. So 1 1 Chron. 19. 1. 8 Heb. In thine eyes doth David.

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