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the hill the traveller comes suddenly upon an area, once | and must be regarded as belonging to some one of the splen. surrounded by limestone columns, of which fifteen are still did structures with which he adorned the city. In the deep standing, and two prostrate. These columns form two ravine which bounds the city on the north there is another rows, thirty-two paces apart, while less than two paces in: | colonnade. The area in which these columns stand is com. tervene between the columns. They measure 7 feetpletely shut in by hills, with the exception of an opening 9 inches in circumference; but there is no trace of the on the north-east; and so peculiarly sequestered is the situorder of their architecture, nor are there any foundations | ation, that it is only visible from a few points of the heights to indicate the nature of the edifice to which they belonged, of the ancient site, by which it is overshadowed. The Some refer them to the temple which Herod built in 1 columns, of which a large number are entire, and several honour of Augustus, others to a Greek church which in fragments, are erect, and arranged on a quadrangle 196 seems once to have occupied the summit of the hill. paces in length, and 64 in breadth. They are three paces The descent of the hill on the W.S.W. side brings the asunder, which would give 170 columns as the whole traveller to a very remarkable colonnade, which is easily number when the colonnade was complete. The columns traceable by a great number of columns, erect or pros- resemble in size and material those of the colonnade last trate along the side of the hill for at least one-third noticed, and appear to belong to the same age. These also of a mile, where it terminates at a heap of ruins, near probably formed part of Herod's city, though it is difficult the eastern extremity of the ancient site. The columns to determine the use to which the colonnade was appropri. are 16 feet high, 2 feet in diameter at the base, and i foot | ated. It was possibly one of the places of public assembly 9 inches at the top. The capitals have disappeared : but | and amusement which Herod introduced into his domi. the shafts retain their polish, and when not broken, are in nions. good preservation. Eighty-two of these columns are still The modern representative of Samaria is a poor village erect, and the number of those fallen and broken must be of about thirty dwellings of the most humble description; greater. Most of them are of the limestone common to the and is governed by its own sheikh, who is himself a husregion; but some are of white marble and some of granite. bandman. In the walls of these dwellings, however, porThe mass of ruins in which this colonnade terminates to tions of sculptured blocks of stone are perceived, and even wards the west is composed of blocks of hewn stone, cover fragments of granite pillars have been worked into the ing no great area on the slope of the hill, many feet lower masonry, while other vestiges of former edifices are seen than the summit. Neither the situation nor extent of this pile occasionally scattered widely about. favours the notion of its having been a palace; nor is it 30. * Ahab......the son of Omri did evil in the sight of easy to conjecture the design of the edifice. The colon the Lord above all that were before him.'-Hitherto the irrenade, the remains of which now stand solitary and mourn gularities connected with the service of the golden calves ful in the midst of ploughed fields, may, however, with set up by Jeroboam, as symbols of Jehovah, had formed little hesitation be referred to the time of Herod the Great, I the chief offence of Israel. But Ahab having married Jezebel, the daughter of Ethbaal king of Tyre, he soon be- | And the fact that a son of the king's nurse was able to place came entirely subservient to her influence, and gave the himself on the throne confirms the opinion which has been sanction of his authority to the introduction of the gods of more than once stated in this work, that in the East nurses other nations. The king built a temple in Samaria, erected held a very important rank in families. See Jahn's Hean image, and consecrated a grove to Baal, the god of the brew Commonwealth, v. 36. Sidonians. Jezebel, earnest in promoting the worship of
Baal.'--This word (yd) is not, so to speak, the her own god, maintained a multitude of priests and pro
proper name of a god, but a general title of honour (anphets of Baal. In a few years idolatry became the predo
swering to master, lord,' or 'husband') applied to many difminant religion of the land; and Jehovah, and the golden
ferent gods. Thus we have ‘Baalim,' in the plural, for calves as representations of him, were viewed with no more
false gods collectively, and in some cases the title • Baal' is reverence than Baal and his image. It now appeared as if
applied to Jehovah himself (Hos. ii. 16). As the sun was the knowledge of the true God was for ever lost to the
the great and prominent object of ancient idolatry, we must Israelites; but Elijah the prophet boldly stood up, and op
understand that he is most usually intended by Baal, parposed himself to the authority of the king, and succeeded
ticularly when the name is mentioned with that of the in retaining many of his countrymen in the worship of Jeho
moon and the host of heaven. In other cases, various local vah. The greater the power was which supported idolatry, idols are intended, which may in most instances be resolved so much the more striking were the prophecies and mira
into different symbolizations or impersonations of the sun cles which directed the attention of the Israelites to Jeho
as representing the life-giving powers of nature. On the vah, and brought disgrace upon the idols, and confusion on
connection between Baal and Moloch, and on the probatheir worshippers. The history of this great and memorable
bility of their representing two aspects of the same struggle gives to the narrative of Ahab's reign an unusual
power, see the note on Lev. xviii. 20. In the inprominence and extent in the Hebrew annals; and although
stance of the Baal now before us, a great weight of a writer studious of brevity might at the first view be dis
testimony enables us to determine, with almost absolute posed to omit, as episodical, much of the history of Elijah
certainty, that he was the Phænician Melkart, called by the Tislıbite, a little reflection will render it manifest that
the Greeks and Romans the Hercules of Tyre. It will be the prominence given to the history of this illustrious
observed that Jezebel, who introduced and so jealously champion for the truth, was a designed and necessary re
supported this worship, was the daughter of a Phænician sult from the fact that the history of the Hebrew nation is king-Eth-baal, the king of Zidon, which proves it to have the history of a church; and that although the history of
been the Baai, or great god, of that people. It was therethis great controversy might be omitted or overlooked by
| fore also the same Baal whose worship was at a later period those who erroneously regard the history of the Hebrews | introduced by Athaliah, the daughter of this sume Jezebel. merely as a political history, in the other point of view it into the kingdom of Judah. This single fact is so conclu. becomes of the most vital importance.
sive as to the identity of this Baal with that of Phænicia, 31. Ethbaal king of the Zidonians.'--He was also king | that we shall not dwell on others which might be adduced of Tyre, which indeed is the title given him by Josephus
from similarity of worship, and from other circumstances. and his authorities. He is mentioned by Menander under
It will be observed, that both Jezebel and her father Eththe name Ithobalus. Josephus, on the authority of the
baal have the name of the idul incorporated with their Tyrian annals, thus enumerates the kings of Tyre that
own. succeeded Hiram, the contemporary of Solomon :-
Now, the Phænician Baal was Melkart, whom the • After the death of Hiram, his son Balnazarus suc
Greeks, according to their usual custom of identifying the ceeded him on the throne, who lived forty-three years, and
gods of other pations with their own, confounded with reigned seven. Next to him his son Abdastartus, who lived
Hercules, and distinguished as the Hercules of Tyre. In twenty-nine years, and reigned nine. He was murdered
reality, however, he was a very different idol from their by the four sons of his nurse, the eldest of whom reigned
own deified hero of that name, and would appear to have twelve years. Then Astartus, the son of Deleastartus, who
been an impersonation of the sun. It was allowed even by lived fifty-four years, and reigned twelve. Next, his bro
the Greeks, that of all the gods and demi-gods who bore ther Aserymus, who lived fifty-four years, and reigned nine.
this name, he of Phænicia was the most aucient of all. He was slain by his brother Pheletes, who then ascended
Those who wish to understand his reputed place in the the throne. He lived fifty years, and reigned eight
genealogy of the Phænician gods, may find it in the fragmonths. Ithobalus, a priest of Astarte, put him to death,
ment of Sanchoniathon preserved by Eusebius, and it would and assumed the sceptre. He lived sixty-eight years, and
be unintelligible separately from the context. It may sufreigned thirty-two. His successor was his son, Badezorus,
fice to state that, from the earliest foundation of Tyre, who lived forty-five years, and reigned six. His son and
Melkart appears to have been the tutelar god of that city; successor, Margenus, lived thirty-two years, and reigned
and that his worship extended with the extension of that nine. Pygmalion succeeded him, who lived fifty-six years,
state, until it was prevalent in all the towns of the Phæniand reigned forty-seven. In the seventh year of his reign,
cian confederation, and was established in the most distant his sister Dido fied, and built Carthage in Libya.
colonies of that most enterprising people. At Gades According to this, the time from the death of Hiram to
(Cadiz) the everlasting light was kept burning in his the beginning of the reign of Ithobalus is about fifty years;
temple; and the Carthaginians, who retained his worship, and from the death of Solomon to the beginning of Ahab's
for a long time sent to Tyre for his service a tenth part of reign are fifty-seven years. Hiram, who was already king
their income. He almost became the universal god of the in the time of David, and reigned only thirty-two years,
Phænician people, at home and in all their dispersions; must have died at least ten years before Solomon, and con
and some faint traces of his worship still subsist among the sequently from the death of Hiram to Ahab, about sixty
people of Malta. seven years elapsed. If all these numbers are correct,
The name which he bears (Melkart, Melkrat, or MelAhab must have married Jezebel after he became king.
chrat), is usually understood to mean the king of the city,' But allowance must be made for the mistakes which tran
i. e. Tyre; although Selden thinks it means the strong scribers are apt to make in copying numerals. We here see
king. We are, however, convinced in our own minds, the reason why Jezebel, the daughter of a priest of Astarte, was so zealous a promoter of idolatry; and as twentyone years after the death of Ithobalus, his grand-daughter melek eretz (the vowels not being essential), · king of the Didó built Carthage and founded that celebrated com earth,' which would naturally be applied to him as an immonwealth, we may judge what sort of a spirit animated personation of the sun. the females of this royal family. Hence we shall feel less Under the name of the Tyrian Hercules this idol was surprise that Jezebel should have exerted such an influence very famous. When Herodotus was in Egypt, he learned over the king and kingdom of Israel, and that her daughter that Hercules was there regarded as one of the primeval Athaliah afterwards took possession of the throne of Judah. | gods of that country; and being anxious to obtain some
,מלך ארץ that the name is equivalent to the Hebrew
more explicit information on the subject, he undertook a voyage to Tyre, for the express purpose of seeking such information at the famous temple there dedicated to his worship. What he learned confirmed his impression as to the high antiquity of this god; for the priests informed him that the foundation of the temple was coeval with that of the city, which, they said, was founded 2300 years before that time. His attention was attracted by the various rich offerings in the temple, particularly by one pillar all of gold, and another of emerald, which by night shone with amazing splendour. Some particulars, furnished by him and other writers, are interesting, as shewing some such analogies to the rites in the worship of the true God, as may have the more readily induced the Israelites to fall into the idolatry of their neighbours. No human sacrifices were offered to him: nor does the Bible anywhere lay this charge to the worship of Baal-no swine were sacrificed to him; though this was a commou enough sacrifice to many other idols—the fire was always burning on his altar
-the priests officiated barefoot-and kissing was among the acts of worship, which is in fact expressly mentioned in ch. xix. 18.
Many representations of the Phænician Baal or Melkart are extant on coins. We give two, which will serve as fair average specimens : they are both in the British Mu. seum, and are represented of twice the real size. The first, which deserves the most attention as being the most ancient, and in the style which the coins of Western Asia exhibit before improved by Greek and Roman taste, is of copper. It was found in the island of Cossy ra (now Pantellaria), which belonged to the Tyrians. The second represents Baal as horned, vested in a cuirass, and bearing an enormous trident. Creuzer questions whether it may not represent Baal in the character of Lord of the seas, or of the infernal regions- we think the former—as this was the aspect under which their universal idol was of peculiar interest to the Phænicians. The third figure, representing Baal with a terrific aspect, furnished with wings, aud armed with a glaive in his right hand and a kind of gridiron in his left, strongly suggests the traditional idea of Moloch; and in fact Creuzer, from whom it is copied, suggests that it is no other than • Baal-kronos, or Moloch,' being that aspect of Baal under which he is identified with Moloch. The fourth figure exhibits Baal or Melkart in that warlike aspect which probably suggested to the Greeks the identification of that idol with Hercules. He is here furnished with four legs, to signify, probably, the pervading energy of the sun and the rapidity of his course. All these are in a style of configuration which reminds one strongly of the rude idols of the South Sea islanders. The other is a Tyrian coin of silver (weighing 2144 grains), and exhibiting a very striking head of the same idol, in a more modern and perfect style of art. One of the figures in the date is unfortunately obliterated; but the curator of the coins in the British Museum thinks that the complete date may have given 84 B.C. Coins of this description are sometimes
1. BAAL, OR MELKART.-From a Copper Coin of Cossyra in the
British Museum. (Twice the size of the original.)
5. BAAL, OR THE TYRIAN HERCULES -- From a Silver Coin of Tyro
in the British Museum. (Twice the size of the original.)
thouse, fell sick; and han, the mistress of the
may go in and dress it for me and my son,
that we may eat it, and die. 1 Elijah, having prophesied against Ahab, is sent
13 And Elijah said unto her, Fear not; go to Cherith, where the ravens feed him. 8 He is
and do as thou hast said: but make me sent to the widow of Zaréphath. 17 He raiseth the widow's son. 24 The woman believeth him.
thereof a little cake first, and bring it unto me,
and after make for thee and for thy son. AND `Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the in- ! 14 For thus saith the LORD God of Israel, habitants of Gilead, said unto Ahab, * As the The barrel of meal shall not waste, neither LORD God of Israel liveth, before whom I shall the cruse of oil fail, until the day that stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these the LORD 'sendeth rain upon the earth. years, but according to my word.
15 And she went and did according to the 2 And the word of the LORD came unto saying of Elijah : and she, and he, and her him, saying,
house, did eat many days. 3 Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, 16 And the barrel of meal wasted not, neiand hide thyself by the brook Cherith, that is ther did the cruse of oil fail, according to the before Jordan.
word of the LORD, which he spake 'by Elijalı. 4 And it shall be, that thou shalt drink of | 17 | And it came to pass after these things, the brook; and I have commanded the ravens that the son of the woman, the mistress of the to feed thee there.
house, fell sick; and his sickness was so sore, 5 So he went and did according unto the that there was no breath left in him. word of the LORD: for he went and dwelt by L 18 And she said unto Elijah, What have I the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan. to do with thee, O thou man of God ? art thou
6 And the ravens brought him bread and come unto me to call my sin to remembrance, flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in | and to slay my son ? the evening; and he drank of the brook.
19 And he said unto her, Give me thy son. 7 And it came to pass Rafter a while, that | And he took him out of her bosom, and carried the brook dried up, because there had been him up into a loft, where he abode, and laid no rain in the land.
him upon his own bed. 8. And the word of the LORD came unto 20 And he cried unto the LORD, and said, him, saying,
O LORD my God, hast thou also brought evil 9 Arise, get thee to *Zarephath, which be upon the widow with whom I sojourn, by slaylongeth to Zidon, and dwell there : behold, I ing her son ? have commanded a widow woman there to 21 And he østretched himself upon the child sustain thee.
three times, and cried unto the Lord, and said, 10 So he arose and went to Zarephath. | O LORD my God, I pray thee, let this child's And when he came to the gate of the city, behold, the widow woman was there gathering | 22 And the LORD heard the voice of Eliof sticks : and he called to her, and said, Fetch jah ; and the soul of the child came into him me, I pray thee, a little water in a vessel, that again, and he revived. I may drink.
L 23 And Elijah took the child, and brought 11 And as she was going to fetch it, he him down out of the chamber into the house, called to her, and said, Bring me, I pray thee, and delivered him unto his mother : and Elia morsel of bread in thine hand.
jah said, See, thy son liveth. 12 And she said, Aš the LORD thy God | 24 And the woman said to Elijah, Now liveth, I have not a cake, but an handful of by this I know that thou art a man of God, meal in a barrel, and a little oil in a cruse : and that the word of the LORD in thy mouth and, behold, I am gathering two sticks, that I is truth.
ath. IO LORD L'into him againrd the v
Heb. Elijaha. Luke 4. 25, he is called Elias.
4 Luke 4, 26, called Sarepta.
5 Heb. giveth.
9 Ecclus. 48. 3. James 5. 17.
3 Heb. at the end of days. S Or, a full year. 7 Heb, by the hand of.
8 Heb. measured. 9 Heb. into his inuard parts.
Verse 1. • Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the inha- | east of Jordan: for many places are mentioned only once bitants of Gilead.' — It is commonly thought that this in Scripture. It also rather tells against this interpretadescribes Elijah as a native of the town of Tishbe in tion, that the Jews in our Saviour's time believed that no Galilee (tribe of Naphtali), which the Apocrypha men prophet ever came out of Galilee. Furthermore, we doubt tions as the birth-place of Tobit, and which is the only that the text describes Elijah as the native of one place and place of the name we know. But it does not follow that the inhabitant of another; especially when we consider there was no place of the same or similar name on the l that the original clause is 7yba ravno brinn, in which of Agenor, king of Phænicia, was stolen and carried to In the present case, the word o n , as taken without the Crete by Jupiter. The town stood near the sea, about points, may mean ravens, or Arabians, or Orebim as a nine miles south of Sidon, where its modern representaproper name, or strangers. Now it is certain that any tive is found in a small collection of humble dwellings person finding the word without vowels, and left to find (forming a hamlet called • Sarphan'), about half a mile the meaning from the context, would not for a moment from the sea-side. The ancient town would seem to have think of ravens, but would fix on one of the other alter- stood on the declivity of the hills on which this village natives. As to the Orebim, there was a rock called Oreb stands, and on the space between them and the sea. There (Judges vii. 25), the inhabitants near which may be sup- are no standing ruins; Sarepta having shared the fate of posed to have been so called; but this was on the other five or six other considerable cities in this quarter, the side of the Jordan. And with reference to the Arabians, sites of which are only distinguishable by numerous stones, nothing seems to us more likely than that encampments of much dilapidated, but retaining marks of having been cut Arabs (who still intrude their tents into the border or square by the chisel, with mortar adhering to them, and waste lands of settled countries) would, in this season of some fragments of columns. Antoninus Martyr, who drought, have been formed on the banks of the brook seems to have been there in the seventh century, says Cherith, and (knowing the scarcity of water elsewhere) that Sarepta then existed as a small town, inhabited by would have remained there as long as it afforded water to l Christians, and where they failed not to shew the apart
the word rendered the inhabitants' is the same as that them that is, as long as Elijah remained. They were rendered the Tishbite,' with the necessary difference in also, both from their condition and habits, the very perthe servile prefix, and which, in this connection, the sons in whose keeping the secret of his retreat was most Septuagint understood as a proper name, giving the sense safe-far more so than it would have been with any townsof the Tishbite, from Tishbe of Gilead.' This inter men, subjects of Ahab. They were the least likely to pretation also agrees with Josephus, who says that Elijah know his person, and that he was sought after by the was a prophet of Thesbon, a country of Gilead.
king: and if they did know, they were less than any other 5. * The brook Cherith.'—This appears to have been persons open to the inducements the king could offer, or a winter torrent falling into the Jordan. There have been the fears he could impose. If however the reader prefers various opinions about its situation, particularly with re to hold that the well-disposed inhabitants of a town called ference to the side of the river on which it lay. In the Oreb or Orbo, were the parties by whom Elijah was supfirst place, however, we suppose that if Elijah was appre plied with food, there are good authorities to support him hensive of Ahab's persecution, he would probably not in that conclusion, and to shew that a small town of that have remained in the west of Jordan, but would have in name did exist near at hand. terposed that river between himself and his pursuers. As to the ravens, we can easily conceive that, in an age We think this also is proved by the text, which places it when the love of the marvellous had become absolutely a • before Jordan ;' for, as explained in the note to 1 Sam. mania among the Jews, they would by choice select of xiii. 5, before,' as a topographical indication, usually many interpretations the most unlikely and wonderful: means . eastward. Upon the whole, it appears to us that and we feel as assured that, having the present alternatives the local traditions point out as fair an alternative as any before them, they would, from their instinctive marvelthat can be chosen. They place the retreat of the prophet lousness, fix on this, as we are that this is the very one near a brook on the east of the Jordan, a few miles below which, of all the others, a man of plain understanding would the ford near Bethshan. The district is finely broken into reject. Indeed, the opportunity of determining the sense hill and vale; and being well wooded, and caverns being to ravens must to a Jew have been too delicious to be neg. formed in the sides of some of the hills, it might furnish lected, since it afforded excellent opportunities of amas secure a retreat to the fugitive prophet as could be well plifying and illustrating the matter in his own peculiar selected, unless he had retired to the mountains or deserts vein. on the outskirts of the kingdom. Josephus indeed says The difficulties attending the common opinion have that he went into the southern parts of the country, which greatly embarrassed the commentators. Of this a sample does not apply to the situation mentioned, which is nearly may be given from the Synopsis Criticorum of the elaeast from Samaria.
borate Poole:– Unquestionably they brought meat dressed, 6. · The ravens brought him bread,' etc.—That the word not raw (Gen. ix. 1). You may ask, where did the rarens D'any pointed by the Masoretes so as to be pronounced get it? Ans. 1, From the kitchen of king Ahab or of orebim (sing. oreb), means ravens, is unquestionable; and Jehoshaphat. 2, Or, it was prepared for him by some this therefore is the sense which our present pointed copies of the seven thousand, to whom God communicated the of the Hebrew Scriptures would convey. But the Ma- | secret (1 Kings xix. 8). Or, 3, The angels perhaps soretic points form a system of interpretation, which a exposed the meat in some certain place, whence the ravens very large number of Hebrew scholars refuse to regard as brought it. Or, 4, He could provide who gave them in every point conclusive. As most of our readers pro such a commission, and who could effect this in a thoubably know, these points, representing the vowels, have the sand ways. God prepared a table for his servant in effect of fixing the particular significations of every word, the utmost penury. He did not take care that wine just as to the consonants grn, the different senses of grain, should be brought him.' Hales (who takes the view grin, groan, etc., are given by the difference of the inter- | that the inhabitants of a place called Oreb are denoted) posed vowels. These vowels thus restrict to a particular properly remarks on this — Such a comment, put out of a meaning a word the sense of which we should otherwise learned language into plain English, can onl have to collect from the context, or from tradition. Now smile, mingled with regret, that literary talent s the Hebrew text was written and remained for many ages so wasted or misemployed on idle speculation. We should without vowel points; and these points were added by the add, that the Jewish interpreters have not only suggested Jewish doctors to fix the sense, which, without such a | the alternatives mentioned by Poole, but several others, resource, was likely to lose its uniformity of interpretation among which one is, that the meat was a portion of that after the race became dispersed among all nations. Now, which Obadiah provided for the prophets whom he conalthough these doctors rendered a valuable service to cealed in the caverns. Scriptural interpretation by their very arduous labour, 9. • Zarephath, which belongeth to Zidon.'—This place, and although their determinations, taken in the mass, called Sarepta in the New Testament, was one of the doubtless convey the received and traditionary sense which Phænician towns which stood between Tyre and Sidon, was in their time assigned to the text, we are by no means and which, although less renowned than these two famous bound in every instance to their decisions, particularly as cities, were still noted in history for their industry and in many cases they will be found, when many alternatives manufactures. Reland quotes several ancient writers who lay before them, to have chosen the most marvellous and celebrate the wine of Sarepta. It was also famous in strange rather than that which the context would most mythology as the spot from which Europa, the daughter obviously suggest.