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plerael, 897. Wudah, 014-898.

of 42 Jehoshbegan to in Jerusalem daughter o

Chap. XXII.]

I. KINGS. governor of the city, and to Joash the king's made, and all the cities that he built, are they son;

not written in the book of the chronicles of 27 And say, Thus saith the king, Put this the kings of Israel ? fellow in the prison, and feed him with bread 40 So Ahab slept with his fathers; and of affliction and with water of affliction, until Ahaziah his son reigned in his stead. I come in peace.

41 | And 'Jehoshaphat the son of Asa 28 And Micaiah said, If thou return at all began to reign over Judah in the fourth year in peace, the LORD hath not spoken by me. of Ahab king of Israel. And he said, Hearken, 0 people, every one

42 Jehoshaphat was thirty and five years of you.

old when he began to reign; and he reigned 29 g So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat | twenty and five years in Jerusalem. And his the king of Judah went up to Ramoth-gilead. mother's name was Azubah the daughter of

30 And the king of Israel said unto Jeho- | Shilhi. shaphat, ''I will disguise myself, and enter | 43 And he walked in all the ways of Asa into the battle ; but put thou on thy robes. his father; he turned not aside from it, doing And the king of Israel disguised himself, and that which was right in the eyes of the LORD: went into the battle.

nevertheless the high places were not taken 31 9 But the king of Syria commanded his away; for the people offered and burnt incense thirty and two captains that had rule over his yet in the high places. chariots, saying, Fight neither with small nor 44 And Jehoshaphat made peace with the great, save only with the king of Israel. king of Israel.

32 And it came to pass, when the captains 45 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat, that they said, and his might that he shewed, and how he Surely it is the king of Israel. And they warred, are they not written in the book of the turned aside to fight against him : and Jeho chronicles of the kings of Judah ? shaphat cried out.

46 And the remnant of the sodomites, 33 And it came to pass, when the captains which remained in the days of his father Asa, of the chariots perceived that it was not the | he took out of the land. king of Israel, that they turned back from 47 There was then no king in Edom : a pursuing him.

deputy was king. 34 C And a certain man drew a bow ''at a | 48 *Jehoshaphat "made ships of Tharshish venture, and smote the king of Israel between to go to Ophir for gold : but they went not ; the "joints of the harness : wherefore he said | for the ships were broken at Ezion-geber. unto the driver of his chariot, Turn thine 49 Then said Ahaziah the son of Ahab hand, and carry me out of the host ; for I am unto Jehoshaphat, Let my servants go with i'wounded.

thy servants in the ships. But Jehoshaphat 35 And the battle *increased that day: and would not. the king was stayed up in his chariot against 50 | And Jehoshaphat slept with his the Syrians, and died at even : and the blood | fathers, and was buried with his fathers in ran out of the wound into the "Smidst of the the city of David his father : and Jehoram chariot.

his son reigned in his stead. 36 And there went a proclamation through 51 | Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to out the host about the going down of the sun, reign over Israel in Samaria the seventeenth saying, Every man to his city, and every man year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned to his own country.

two years over Israel. 37 4 So the king died, and '®was brought 52 And he did evil in the sight of the to Samaria ; and they buried the king in Lord, and walked in the way of his father, Samaria.

and in the way of his mother, and in the way 38 And one washed the chariot in the pool | of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made of Samaria ; and the dogs licked up his blood; Israel to sin: and they washed his armour ; according "’unto 53 For he served Baal, and worshipped the word of the LORD which he spake. him, and provoked to anger the LORD God

39 9. Now the rest of the acts of Ahab, and of Israel, according to all that his father had all that he did, and the ivory house which he done. 10 Or, when he was to disguise himself and enter into the battle.

12 Feb. joints and the breastplate.

b. in his simplicity. Heb. cane.

19 Heb. made sick.

14 Heb. ascended.
18 2 Chron. 20. 31.

15 leb, bosom.

19 Or, had ten ships.

17 Clap. 21. 19.

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, 891. Verse 2. Jehoshaphat the king of Judah came down to wore a spike on the top of their helmets (as shewn in the the king of Israel.' – It is remarkable that the first formal cut at the end of the first book of Samuel), which very alliance between the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel possibly bore the name of a horn, and which conveys a should have taken place during the reigns of two princes further illustration, whether such spikes or horns were of such opposite characters as Ahab in Israel and Jehosha also used by the Israelites or not. It is likely that the phat in Judah. But it was so: and in forming it, and horns produced by Zedekiah were two, one to represent in cementing it by the marriage of his eldest son Je the power of each of the kings who were proceeding to horam to Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, battle with the Syrians. he doubtless acted from very ill-considered policy, and 39. The ivory house.'—The ivory was doubtless oblaid in a great store of disasters for himself and his tained from the Phænicians of Tyre, with whom Ahab house. It is unfortunate that we are unacquainted with had established very intimate relations, and not by direct the motives which led to this most unhappy connection. traffic as in the time of Solomon. The ivory house was A close and intimate union between the two kingdoms probably so called from being ornamented and in parts could not but be, in itself, a political good; and the error inlaid with ivory—the taste for which sort of decoration is of Jehoshaphat probably lay in considering this fact by not yet extinct in the East. There is, for instance, the itself, without taking due account of that evil character of ivory mosque at Ahmedabad in India, which, although Ahab and his house, and that alienation of his people from built of white marble, has obtained that distinction from God, which were calculated to neutralise, and actually did being curiously lined with ivory, and inlaid with a profar more than neutralise, the natural advantages of such fusion of gems to imitate natural flowers, bordered with an alliance.

silver foliage in mother of pearl. This style of decoration 11. · Zedekiah..... made him horns of iron,' etc.- Of is also exhibited in the palaces of more western countries, horns artificially lised as ornaments, and as symbols of mili as in the apartments of the palace of Adrianople, described tary prowess, we have spoken under 1 Sam. ii. 1. A refer by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, which were wainence to the particulars there stated makes the intention of scoted with inlaid work of mother of pearl, ivory of dif. Zedekiah's symbol clear. It may also be remarked that the ferent colours, and olive wood, like the little boxes brought Syrians of that age, as represented in Egyptian paintings, | from Turkey.'

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THE SECOND BOOK

OF THE

K I N GS,

COMMONLY CALLED

THE FOURTH BOOK OF THE KINGS.

CHAPTER I.

unto him, he said unto them, Why are ye now

turned back ? | Moab rebelleth. 2 Ahaziah, sending to Baalzebub, hath his judgment by Elijah. 5 Elijah twice

6 And they said unto him, There came a Inringeth fire from heaven upon them whom Ahaziah | man up to meet us, and said unto us, Go, sent to apprehend him. 13 He pitieth the third turn again unto the king that sent you, and captain, and, encouraged by an angel, telleth the kiny say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Is it not of his death. 17 Jehorata succeedeth Ahaziah.

because there is not a God in Israel, that thou S

h es HEN Moab sendest to enquire of Baal-zebub the god of

rebelled a | Ekron ? therefore thou shalt not come down gainst Israel from that bed on which thou art gone up, but

after the shalt surely die. per death of 1 7 And he said unto them, 'What manner

- Ahab. of man was he which came up to meet you,

2 | And and told you these words? Ahaziah fell 8 And they answered him, He was an hairy down through man, and girt with a girdle of leather about a lattice in his his loins. And he said, It is Elijah the upper cham- | Tishbite. ber that was 9 Then the king sent unto him a captain in Samaria, of fifty with his fifty. And he went up to and was sick : | him: and, behold, he sat on the top of an hill. and he sent And he spake unto him, Thou man of God,

messengers, the king hath said, Come down. and said unto them, Go, enquire of Baal- 10 And Elijah answered and said to the zebub the god of Ekron whether I shall captain of fifty, If I be a man of God, then let recover of this disease.

fire come down from heaven, and consume 3 But the angel of the Lord said to Elijah thee and thy fifty. And there came down fire the Tishbite, Arise, go up to meet the mes- | from heaven, and consumed him and his fifty. sengers of the king of Samaria, and say unto 11 Again also he sent unto him another them, Is it not because there is not a God in | captain of fifty with his fifty. And he answered Israel, that ye go to enquire of Baal-zebub and said unto him, O man of God, thus hath the god of Ekron ?

the king said, Come down quickly. 4 Now therefore thus saith the LORD, 12 And Elijah answered and said unto *Thou shalt not come down from that bed on them, If I be a man of God, let fire come down which thou art gone up, but shalt surely die. from heaven, and consume thee and thy fifty. And Elijah departed.

And the fire of God came down from heaven, 5 | And when the messengers turned back and consumed him and his fifiy. 1 Chap. 3.5. Heb. The bed whither thou are gone up, thou shall not come down from it. 3 Heb. what was the manner of the man.

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13 1 And he sent again a captain of the 16 And he said unto him, Thus saith the third fifty with his fifty. And the third cap- LORD, Forasmuch as thou hast sent messengers tain of fifty went up, and came and fell on to enquire of Baal-zebub the god of Ekron, is his knees before Elijah, and besought him, l it not because there is no God in Israel to and said unto him, O man of God, I pray thee, | enquire of his word ? therefore thou shalt not let my life, and the life of these fifty thy ser- come down off that bed on which thou art vants, be precious in thy sight.

gone up, but shalt surely die. 14 Behold, there came fire down from hea- | 17 | So he died according to the word ven, and burnt up the two captains of the of the LORD which Elijah had spoken. And former fifties with their fifties : therefore let Jehoram reigned in his stead in the second my life now be precious in thy sight.

year of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king 15 And the angel of the Lord said unto of Judah; because he had no son. Elijah, Go down with him : be not afraid of 18 Now the rest of the acts of Ahaziah him. And he arose, and went down with him which he did, are they not written in the book unto the king.

of the chronicles of the kings of Israel ?

4 lleb, bowed.

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Verse 2. · Fell down through a lattice.' - This probably | Olympus he was much disturbed by flies; in consequence means that he fell from the roof of the house into the in- of which, either from his own invention or through the terior court or garden. He was perhaps leaning against | instruction of some other person, he sacrificed to Jupiter the slight fence or battlement, when it gave way under Apomyius, or thc erpeller of flies, and then the flies fled him. We have sometimes heard of such accidents in the beyond the Alpheus. After this the Eleans also sacrificed East.

to Jupiter Apomyius, as one who drove away flies from - Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron.'—There are some Olympia. (Eliac. pr. c. xiv.) We consider this very considerable difficulties relating to this idol. The name illustrative. It seems that Hercules himself was also • Baalzebub’(212: Sya) means the lord of flies;' and the

honoured in precisely the same character among the first question is, whether he was thus named by his wor

Erythræans, although we do not read of any fly-expelling

feats among the twelve celebrated labours of that hero. shippers, or nicknamed thus by the Hebrews, to avoid even

As another instance we may refer to Apollo, one of whose the verbal recognition or utterance of his proper name,

many surnames was Smintheus (Suivbeus), from the Cretan which, under this view, we may suppose to have been

word for a mouse, which he received from having cleared Baal-Samen, 'the lord of heaven,' one of the gods men

the Cretan colony in Troas from the swarms of mice with tioned by Sanchoniathon in his Phænician theogony.

which it had been infested. He is often mentioned under That the Hebrews were in the habit of nicknaming the

this name by Homer. From Abaziah's application, it pagan idols and the seats of idolatrous worship is certain;

would seem as if Baal-zebub enjoyed some peculiar reputation for the cure of diseases: to explain which it is only necessary to observe, that under all systems of polytheism there have been always some particular gods distinguished for their supposed attention to the maladies of men.

There is however another opinion concerning Baalzebub, which deserves attention : that is, that Baal-zebub was not a fly-expelling god, but was himself an insect-god, analogous to the scarabæus or beetle of the Egyptians,

which we slightly mentioned in the note on seals under Silver Coin or Aradus.

i Kings xxi. This opinion has the support of Calmet, in

his Dissertation sur l' Origine, des "Philistins. After but if they did so in the present instance, what becomes of dwelling upon the fact that Baal-zebub is not called that opinion which makes Beelzebul (BeenseBox), the the fly-expelling god, but the fiy-god'-on which dung god,' of the New Testament, a nickname of thé Baal we think he lays rather too much stress-and observing zebub of the Old ? It is then the nickname of a nickname. that the figure of a fly sometimes appears on Phænician Reserving for another place our opinion on this point, and coins, he quotes Philastrius, who intimates that the insectwithout thinking it worth while to state more minutely | worship was preserved at Accaron (Ekron) even subthe grounds of our conviction, we entertain little doubt sequent to the Christian era, and mentions a sect of Jewish that Baal-zebub, the fly.god,' is the name by which this heretics who worshipped the fly of that place. Calmet idol was recognized by his worshippers. One might cer himself also notices the fact that flies of gold were found at tainly hesitate at this conclusion, were it not that we find Tournay, in the tomb of Childeric; and, as he was a some even of the ' elegant divinities' of Greece and Rome | pagan, these were perhaps his divinities; and we may add similarly distinguished; and the reason why they were to this, that the scarabæus is often found in the mummyso distinguished, assists us to understand that this Baal cases of the Egyptians. We do not, after all, see why obtained the surname of Zebub on account of his being these two opinions may not coalesce, and Baal-zebub be at considered to protect the town or district in which he was the same time an insect-god and an expeller of insects. worshipped from the visitation of gnats and other trouble Enough, at least, has been said to render it unnecessary to some insects, the presence of which does often, in the East, suppose that · Baal-zebub' was a nickname given to the form by no means the lightest calamity of life. The most god of Ekron by the Israelites. He was clearly the tuteremarkable analogy is that offered by the fact, that the lary god of Ekron, as Dagon was of Ashdod, and Melkart eastern Europeans had a fly-expelling Jupiter (ZEÙS of Tyre. Whether he was worshipped in the human or 'Arbuvios) as well as the western Asiatics a fly-expelling insect form, or as a combination of both, the evidence of Baal. Pausanias relates, that when Hercales sacrificed in | Phænician coins only can determine. We know, how

ever, that, in other instances, the same idol may exhibit three varieties of form-human, animal, and both combined.

8. · An hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather.'It is generally agreed that the hairiness refers not to Elijah's person, but to his mantle ; and that this mantle of hair and girdle of leather formed the cheap and humble attire which the prophets usually wore. In like manner

nonnon the great anti-type of Elijah, John the Baptist, had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his

FAHREF2F FAES POR loins' (Matt. iii. 4). Strong and broad girdles of leather are still much in use among the nomade tribes and the artisans and husbandmen of Western Asia. See the notes on 1 Sam. x. 5; and 2 Sam, iii. 31.

16. Thou shalt not come down off that bed.'-From this it is clear that Ahaziah did not sleep on the floor, as people of high consideration often do in the East. It appears that he lay on the raised divan, or on such a bedstead as we mentioned in the note to Deut. iji. 11. Sometimes the principle of this bedstead is applied to form a permanent platform or gallery at the upper end of a room, with a balustrade in front. It is sometimes so elevated that steps are provided for the ascent. The beds are laid here at night, and it serves as a sitting-place by day, being rather a modification of the divan than what we should

MUUUUUUUUUUUUU! call a bedstead. We imagine that either this, or the simple divan, or the bedstead mentioned in the note referred to above, must be understood whenever a bed is mentioned, so as to imply that it was elevated above the ground.

ROYAL BED.-Modern Oriental.

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CHAPTER 11.

thy master from thy head to day? And

he answered, Yea, I know it; hold ye your 1 Elijah, taking his leave of Elisha, with his mantle divideth Jordan, 9 and, granting Elisha his request,

peace. is taken up by a fiery chariot into heaven. 12 Elisha,

6 And Elijah said unto him, Tarry, I pray dividing Jordan with Elijah's mantle, is acknow thee, here ; for the LORD hath sent me to ledged his successor. 16 The young prophets, hardly Jordan. And he said, As the Lord liveth, obtaining leave to seek Elijah, could not find him.

and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee. 19 Elisha with salt healeth the unwholesome waters. 23 Bears destroy the children that mocked Elisha.

And they two went on.

7 And fifty men of the sons of the prophets And it came to pass, when the LORD would went, and stood 'to view afar off: and they two take up Elijah into heaven by a whirlwind, stood by Jordan. that Elijah went with Elisha from Gilgal. 8 And Elijah took his mantle, and wrapped

2 And Elijah said unto Elisha, Tarry here, it together, and smote the waters, and they I pray thee ; for the Lord hath sent me to were divided hither and thither, so that they Beth-el. And Elisha said unto him, As the two went over on dry ground. LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not 9 | And it came to pass, when they were leave thee. So they went down to Beth-el. gone over, that Elijah said unto Elisha, Ask

3 And the sons of the prophets that were what I shall do for thee, before I be taken at Beth-el came forth to Elisha, and said away from thee. And Elisha said, I pray unto him, Knowest thou that the LORD will thee, let a double portion of thy spirit be take away thy master from thy head to day? upon me. And he said, Yea, I know it ; hold ye your *10 And he said, "Thou hast asked a hard peace.

thing : nevertheless, if thou see me when I am 4 And Elijah said unto him, Elisha, tarry taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; but here, I pray thee; for the Lord hath sent me | if not, it shall not be so. to Jericho. And he said, As the Lord liveth, 11 And it came to pass, as they still went and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee. on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a So they came to Jericho.

chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted 5 And the sons of the propliets that were them both asunder; and °Elijah went up by a at Jericho came to Elisha, and said unto him, whirlwind into heaven. Knowest thou that the LORD will take away | 12 | And Elisha saw it, and he cried, 'My 1 Heb. in sight, or, over against. . Heb. Thou hast done hard in asking. 3 Ecclus. 48. 9. 1 Mac. 2. 58. Chap. 13. 14.

glemt over other and the waterend wrapp

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