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Verse 1. Thy servant my husband is dead.' – The apart like a summer-house in a garden, but such an anJewish interpreters suppose that this person was Obadiah, nexed and communicating tenement as we have already and that the debt was contracted on account of the expense slightly referred to in the note to 2 Sam. xviii. 24, and of supporting the hundred prophets whom he concealed in which may be loosely described as being to an Oriental caverns in the time of Ahab. But this is mere conjecture. house what the porch of a church, with its vestry or other

10. Let us make a little chamber .... on the wall.'-- rooms, is to the church itself. As a general idea, we may Not build a little chamber, but make one ready, and keep state that the principal part of an Oriental mansion occuit in constant readiness for him. On the wall,' directs pies one, two, three, or even all four sides of an interior our attention to the situation of the chamber, as belonging court or garden, none of the buildings of which have either to the outer tenement, one side of which is formed by the front or back towards the street; for, interposed bethe wall towards the street. Modern English commen tween this and the street is another smaller court, with its tators explain this with a reference to Dr. Shaw's de distinct rooms, forming a smaller house or tenement. The scription of an Oriental house. The description is very entrance from the street is, through a passage, into this

court, from which another passage conducts to the large
interior court. This is the ground communication; be-
sides which the first floor of both the houses has a com-
municating door, so that a person on the first floor of the
one house need not descend to the court to enter the other.
Now, in this small outer house there are seldom more
than two or three • little chambers,' besides that larger
one which serves the owner as a divan or receiving-room
(see the note on 2 Sam. xviii.), and which is usually built
against the exterior front wall, over the outer entrance-
passage, except when peculiar circumstances render it
more desirable that this apartment should be on the oppo-
site side, or even on one of the lateral sides of this outer
court. If we have made this general description intel-
ligible, the reader will comprehend our meaning, when we
state our impression that the little chamber' prepared for
Elisha was one of the little chambers of this small outer
tenement. A person accommodated here can go in and
out with perfect independence of the main building of the
inuer court, into which he probably never enters, and does
not in the least interfere with the arrangement of the
family. A visitor or friend is almost never accommodated
anywhere else—and certainly never in the interior court.
Usage is against it; and no one expects, or would even
accept it. A European who settles in an Oriental house,

and does not care for or attend to this distinction of outer CHAMBER ON THE WALL.

and inner, is soon reminded of it by the difficulty he finds

in persuading a native visitor to proceed beyond the outer good, and perfectly intelligible to those who have an actual

court, particularly if there are females in the family, and in knowledge of the East; but as the details seem to be

the end he finds it convenient to adopt their custom, and to strangely misunderstood by those who have not had that

receive or accommodate them in a room of the outer court. advantage, we will volunteer, with reference to the present

Whether, therefore, we refer to the use of the word aleeah, text, such an explanation as long residence in Oriental

or to the arrangement of Oriental buildings, or to the houses may enable us to furnish.. It will be observed that

manners of the East, we have not the least doubt that the Hebrew word here used is 7:aliyah, the same which Elisba's little chamber on the wall,' and other such chamis rendered 'summer parlour' in Judg. iii. 23, 25; • loft,' bers mentioned in Scripture, were such as we have dein 1 Kings xvii. 19-23; and little chamber' here. Now scribed. Our wood-cut represents the kiosk or balcony, the Arabic version employs here a precisely equivalent projecting into the street, of such chambers on the wall as word in sound and orthography, which word fixes the sig this note has in view nification with great propriety to the part of a mansion - A table.'The only tables now in use among the still thus denominated, and which is not, as some misun. Orientals are stands on which are placed the trays in which derstand Dr. Shaw to mean, a separate building standing | food is brought in, as shewn in the annexed engraving.

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TABLES.- Modern Oriental.

19. · My head, my head.'—This was doubtless what is strong rods for the sceptres of them that bear rule.' called a 'stroke of the sun.' Mr. Madden, who speaks of Now, the authority of the owner, of whatever kind, was this infliction as a medical man, witnessed instances of it and is considered to be as much delegated to the person in the desert between Palestine and Egypt, two of which to whom it is committed, as by a signet-ring. Various terminated fatally within forty-eight hours. He calls it instances of this might be adduced. Thus, on leaving the * the real inflammatory fever, or synocha of Cullen ;' and camp of an Arab sheikh, Abou Raschid, that personage adds, .This fever in the desert arises, I imagine, from sent on with Irby and Mangles to Shobek his mace-bearer sudden exposure to the rays of the sun. One of my camel with his iron mace, to ensure for them the same reception drivers was attacked during the journey. He complained as if he had himself been of their company. From this suddenly of intense pain in the back of his head; he laid his it would appear that Elisha, wishing to be spared the nefinger on the spot, and from the moment of this seizure he cessity of going himself, sent on his servant with his staff had a burning fever. . . . . All the symptoms of this com as a symbol of his authority, expecting that the same plaint are those of coup de soleil in an aggravated form.' effects would be produced as by his own touch, which was (Travels, ii. 190.) The sun of Palestine is strong enough considered necessary to the exercise of miraculous or exto produce this effect, according to the testimony of various traordinary powers of healing. See the note on v. 11. travellers. This is particularly the case in the plains, 38. Set on the great pot and seethe pottage.'— The ansuch as those of Jericho and Esdraelon. In or on the nexed engraving, from one of the mural paintings of borders of the latter, Shunem was situated ; and in a ancient Egypt, shews the kind of pot in use, the mode iu battle which was fought by the army of Baldwin IV., near which it was set on,' and pottage seethed in it. The pot Tiberias, on its eastern border, William of Tyre relates, is of exactly the same shape with the crock' used in the that more soldiers were slain by the sun than by the south-western parts of England. sword. [It fell,' in verse 18, means, 'it came to pass.']

24. 'Drive, and go forward.'-She had required but one ass and a servant- the ass for herself to ride upon, and the servant to run behind and drive it. Some commentators, out of compassion to the servant, have supposed that he also was mounted: which is a most gratuitous supposition, equally disproved by the text and by the existing usages of the East. Without such an explanation, the description, as it stands in the text, exhibits a circumstance which a traveller in the East has continual occasion to witness. Women usually ride on asses, and are commonly followed by a man on foot, whose business it is to drive or goad the animal forward, at such a pace as the lady may desire. If the lady be of high consideration, perhaps one man goes before to lead the animal, while another follows to drive it on. The leader may be dispensed with, but the driver very seldon. The men do not

SEETHING POTTAGE. feel it a very arduous duty to follow an ass; as will be 39. Went out into the fields to gather herbs.:- This does easily apprehended after what we have on former occa not imply that culinary vegetables were not cultivated in sions said concerning those who run before or beside even gardens, for at this very time we know that Ahab, and a horse. Saddled asses are let out for hire in all Oriental doubtless many others, had ' gardens of herbs,' i Kings xxi. towns; and when one is hired, the owner, or some person 2: nor, on the other hand, does it compel us to suppose that employed by him, always runs behind to drive it on, the sons of the prophets were restricted to wild vegetables. whether the rider be a man or a woman.

The fact is, that at the present day, even in places where 29. Take my staff in thine hand, and go thy way.' | garden culture is extensive, and the produce far more Perhaps the staff was of some form peculiarly appro- various and abundant than we can suppose it to have been priated to the prophets, and as such the symbol of their in those times, wild pot-herbs are in most extensive use in authority or functions. Sceptres were nothing more ori- Western Asia-far more so than with us, although many ginally than rods or staves. In Ezek. xix. 11, we read of of our wild plants and roots are known to be excellent and

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nutritive vegetables. Thus Russel, after giving a long | phet and his disciples. The Colocynth or Ccloquintida is account of the garden-stuff of Aleppo, adds that, besides essentially a desert plant; and in the desert parts of Syria, those from culture, the fields afford bugloss, mallow, Egypt, and Arabia, and on the banks of the rivers Tigris asparagus, etc., which the people use as pot-herbs, besides and Euphrates, its tendrils run over vast tracts of ground, some others which they use as salads. The common pot offering a prodigious number of gourds, which are crushed tage of the East is made by cutting the meat into small under foot by camels, horses, and men. In winter we pieces, and boiling it with rice (or meal) and vegetables, have seen the extent of many miles covered with the coulall of which is afterwards poured into a proper vessel. necting tendrils and dry gourds of the preceding season, - "Wild vine,' or literally,' vine of the field. This

the latter making precisely the same appearance as in our was perhaps the colocynth, or Cucumis colocynthis, which

shops, and when crushed, with a crackling noise beneath was called a wild vine from the shape of its leaves and the

the foot, discharging, in the form of a light powder, the climbing nature of its stem, just as the Spanish call every

valuable drug which it contains. It is found in the plain climbing plant Yedra, because in that particular it re

of Jericho, whence some have sought to identify it with sembles the ivy. The fruit of the colocynth is yellow when

the famous' apples of Sodom,' fair to the eye, but within ripe, and about the size of a golden pippin. The whole

dust and corruption. This distinction has been competed plant is noted among the ancients for its bitter taste, and for

by other plants, and among them by the Globe Cucumber, its violently purgative qualities. Gourds of different kinds

which, however, derives its specific name, Cucumis Propheform a common ingredient in the varieties of pottage so

tarum, from the notion that ihis was the gourd which the frequent in warm climates. When travelling, one of the

sons of the prophets' shred by mistake into their pottage, most agreeable messes set before us owed its savour to the

and which made them declare, when they came to taste it, gourds that had been shred into it. The niype pakku'oth,

that there was death in the pot !' This plant has a

nauseous odour, while the fruit is to the full as bitter as or gourds, which the young men put into the pot, indi the coloquintida ; but the fruit being not larger than a cated their nature by the bitter taste they communicated to cherry is not likely to have been that which was in the the preparation. The addition of flour commanded by the present instance shred into the pot. This fruit has a prophet was merely a continuation of the process; hence rather singular appearance, from the manner in which its the wonderful change was to be ascribed, not to the surface is armed with prickles, which are, however, soft method pursued, but to the faith entertained by the pro- and harmless.


the land of Israel a little maid ; and she | Naaman, by the report of a captive maid, is sent to

'waited on Naaman's wife. Samaria to be cured of his leprosy. 8 Elisha, send

3 And she said unto her mistress, Would ing him to Jordan, cureth him. 15 He refusing | God my lord were with the prophet that is in Naaman's gifts granteth him some of the earth. 20 Samaria! for he would recover him of his Gehazi, abusing his master's name unto Naaman, is emitten with leprosy.


4 Ånd one went in, and told his lord, sayNow Naaman, captain of the host of the king | ing, Thus and thus said the maid that is of of Syria, was a great man 'with his master, the land of Israel. and ? Phonourable, because by him the LORD 1 5 And the king of Syria said, Go to, go, had given 'deliverance unto Syria : he was also and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel. a mighty man in valour, but he was a leper. And he departed, and took ®with bim ten

2 And the Syrians had gone out by com- | talents of silver, and six thousand pieces of panies, and had brought away captive out of gold, and ten changes of raiment. I Heb, before. 2 Or, gracious. 3 Jleb. lifted up, or, accepted in countenance. Or, victory. Heb. was before. lleb, before.

7 Heb. gather in.

8 Heb. in his hand.

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6 And he brought the letter to the king of 17 And Naaman said, Shall there not then, Israel, saying, Now when this letter is come I pray thee, be given to thy servant two mules' unto thee, behold, I have therewith sent Naa- | burden of earth? for thy servant will henceman my servant to thee, that thou mayest forth offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice recover him of his leprosy.

unto other gods, but unto the LORD. 7 And it came to pass, when the king of 18 In this thing the LORD pardon thy Israel had read the letter, that he rent his servant, that when my master goeth into the clothes, and said, Am I God, to kill and to | house of Rimmon to worship there, and he inake alive, that this man doth send unto me | leaneth on my hand, and I bow myself in the to recover a man of his leprosy? wherefore house of Rimmon: when I bow down myself consider, I pray you, and see how he seeketh in the house of Rimmon, the LORD pardon thy a quarrel against me.

servant in this thing. 8 | And it was so, when Elisha the man of I 19 And he said unto him, Go in peace. God had heard that the king of Israel had So he departed from him 'a little way." rent his clothes, that he sent to the king, | 20 9 But Gehazi, the servant of Elisha the saying, Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes ? man of God, said, Behold, my master hath let him come now to me, and he shall know spared Naaman this Syrian, in not receiving that there is a prophet in Israel.

at his hands that which he brought: but, as 9 So Naaman came with his horses and the Lord liveth, I will run after him, and take with his chariot, and stood at the door of the somewhat of him. house of Elisha.

21 So Gehazi followed after Naaman. 10 And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, And when Naaman saw him running after saying, Go and wash in Jordan seven times, him, he lighted down from the chariot to meet and thy flesh shall come again to thee, and him, and said, 'Is all well ? thou shalt be clean.

22 And he said, All is well. My master 11 But Naaman was wroth, and went away, | hath sent me, saying, Behold, even now there and said, Behold, ' ''I thought, He will surely be come to me from mount Ephraim two young come out to me, and stand, and call on the men of the sons of the prophets : give them, I name of the Lord his God, and ''strike his pray thee, a talent of silver, and two changes hand over the place, and recover the leper. of garments.

12 Are not ? Abana and Pharpar, rivers of | 23 And Naaman said, Be content, take two Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel ? talents. And he urged him, and bound two may I not wash in them, and be clean ? So talents of silver in two bags, with two changes he turned and went away in a rage.

of garments, and laid them upon two of his 13 And his servants came near, and spake servants ; and they bare them before him. unto him, and said, My father, if the prophet 24 And when he came to the tower, he had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest took them from their hand, and bestowed them thou not have done it? how much rather then, in the house : and he let the men go, and they when he saith to thee, Wash, and be clean? departed.

14 Then went he down, and dipped himself 25 But he went in, and stood before his seven times in Jordan, according to the saying master. And Elisha said unto him, Whence of the man of God: and his flesh came again comest thou, Gehazi ? And he said, Thy like unto the flesh of a little child, and the servant went ??no whither. was clean.

26 And he said unto him, Went not mine 15 | And he returned to the man of God, heart with thee, when the man turned again he and all his company, and came, and stood from his chariot to meet thee? Is it a time to before him : and he said, Behold, now I know receive money, and to receive garments, and that there is no God in all the earth, but in oliveyards, and vineyards, and sheep, and oxen, Israel : now therefore, I pray thee, take a and menservants, and maidservants? blessing of thy servant.

27 The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall16 But he said, As the Lord liveth, before cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever. whom I stand, I will receive none. And he | And he went out from his presence a leper as urged him to take it; but he refused. white as snow. 9 Heb. I said.

10 O1, I said with myself, He will surely come out, &c.

11 Heb. move up and down.

15 Heb. Is there peace?

12 Or, Amana,

13 Luke 4. 27.

16 Or sccret place.

14 Heb, a litile piece of ground.

17 Heb, not hither, or thither.

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GREAT OFFICER ON A JOURNEY. Verse 11. · Strike his hand over the place.' This is a | is but this river immediately at the city ; but before it curious and a most ancient instance of a very prevalent reaches it, it receives another stream, which may be con. superstition, which ascribed extraordinary healing powers sidered one of its sources, and was probably one of the two to the touch of persons of high rank, or of real or reputed which in the partial eyes of Naaman eclipsed all the waters sanctity. The touch was in fact everywhere the established of Israel. The Barrady rises in the mountains of Antimode by which a person was expected to exhibit whatever Libanus, to the north-west of the town; and, at a consihealing power he possessed or pretended to. At this day derable distance therefrom, receives the river Zebdeni, it is not unusual in the East for a European physician to after which it rolls with increased volume its diversified be expected to heal a patient merely by stroking his hand and picturesque stream through the city and its surroundover the ailing part; and still more is this the case, when ing gardens and orchards; in its passage through which, the person applied to is supposed to be endowed with su- | in four principal streams, it is made to supply those innupernatural powers. We can find illustrations of this in merable rills and fountains which render Damascus, perEngland. Even so late as the reign of Queen Anne, our haps, the most luxuriously watered city of the East, and sovereigns were supposed to possess the power of healing | cause it to be considered the site of Eden by the natives of the king's evil by their touch; and as it was found a con those usually dry and sultry regions. In this service the venient instrument of state for confirming the loyalty of waters of the Barrady are nearly exhausted. The remains, the ignorant, the virtue thus liberally conceded to the | however, are again united on leaving the town and its touch of royalty was not, until after the above named suburbs, and the weakened stream contrives to struggle on reign, left unexercised. On stated occasions the touch of till it is finally lost in the bog of el-Mardj. The river the royal hand was bestowed on the afflicted, during a re Barrady, before its division into the four streams, which ligious service appropriate to the occasion. Edward the are considered the four rivers of Eden by those who here Confessor and Charles II. are even reported to have healed fix the site of Paradise, is a rapid and broad stream, not the blind by the same process, as the emperor Vespasian generally fordable, and although not, as a whole or in was said to have done long before. This notion still lurks part, at all comparable to the Jordan for size and importamong us, as there may still, in our remote towns and vil. ance, is in some respects more interesting to the traveller lages, be found certain old women who are believed to have from the alternate circumstances of the confining cliff, the the power of removing warts and curing burns, by simply cascade, the broad valley, or the rich cultivation which it stroking the affected parts with their hands. The leading exhibits. There can be no question this river was either idea which assigns to the hands the faculty of transmitting the Abana or Pharpar; but which was the other is very spiritual powers, or of communicating healing virtues, is difficult to determine. If it was one of the many rivulets clearly taken from the common use of the same members that enter the Barrady before it arrives at Damascus, the in communicating or bestowing temporal benefits; and in Zebdeni seems the most likely to be intended; but if not, conformity with it, the lame, the blind, and the deaf, who probability would decide in favour of the Nahr el Berde, sought help from the Son of David,' often received it which, like the Barrady, rises in Anti-Libanus, and prothrough the imposition of his hands upon the parts af ceeding nearly due west, passes nearly three miles to the fected.

south of Damascus, and joins the Barrady as its attenuated 12. Abana and Pharpar.'-Neither of these names can stream advances, after having supplied the city, to the row be recognized at Damascus, though the waters of Bahar el-Mardj (Lake of the Meadow). Perhaps the simiDamascus' are still mentioned with rapture by the inha larity between the names Barrady and Berde indicates bitants. Maundrell, and others after him, speak but of one such a correlative reference as fits them to he mentioned stream at Damascus-the river Barrady. It is true there together, like the Abana and Pharpar. Certain it is that VOL. II.


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