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16 | So Jehu rode in a chariot, and went to saith the Lord; and I will requite thee in Jezreel ; for Joram lay there. And Ahaziah this ? 'plat, saith the LORD. Now therefore king of Judah was come down to see Joram. take and cast him into the plat of ground, ac
17 And there stood a watchman on the cording to the word of the LORD. tower in Jezreel, and he spied the company of 27 1 But when Ahaziah the king of Judah Jehu as he came, and said, I see a company,
saw this, he fled by the way of the garden And Joram said, Take an horseman, and send house. And Jehu followed after him, and to meet them, and let him say, Is it peace ? said, Smite him also in the chariot. And they
18 So there went one on horseback to did so at the going up to Gur, which is by meet him, and said, Thus saith the king, Is it Ibleam. And he fled to Megiddo, and died peace? And Jehu said, What hast thou to there. do with peace? turn thee behind me. And 28 And his servants carried him in a chathe watchman told, saying, The messenger came riot to Jerusalem, and buried him in his to them, but he cometh not again.
sepulchre with his fathers in the city of 19 Then he sent out a second on horseback, David. which came to them, and said, Thus saith the 29 And in the eleventh year of Joram the king, Is it peace? And Jehu answered, What son of Ahab began Ahaziah to reign over hast thou to do with peace ? turn thee behind Judah. me.
30 1 And when Jehu was come to Jezreel, 20 And the watchman told, saying, He Jezebel heard of it; and she painted her came even unto them, and cometh not again : face, and tired her head, and looked out at a and the driving is like the driving of Jehu window. the son of Nimshi ; for he driveth furiously. 31 And as Jehu entered in at the gate, she
21 And Joram said, 'Make ready. And said, Had Zimri peace, who slew his master? his chariot was made ready. And Joram 32 And he lifted up his face to the window, king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah and said, Who is on my side? who ? And went out, each in his chariot, and they went there looked out to him two or three out against Jehu, and ''met him in the portion "eunuchs. of Naboth the Jezreelite.
33 And he said, Throw her down. So they 22 And it came to pass, when Joram saw threw her down: and some of her blood was Jehu, that he said, Is it peace, Jehu? And sprinkled on the wall, and on the horses : and he answered, What peace, so long as the he trode her under foot. whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel and her 34 And when he was come in, he did eat witchcrafts are so many ?
and drink, and said, Go, see now this cursed 23 And Joram turned his hands, and fled, woman, and bury her: for she is a king's and said to Ahaziah, There is treachery, 0 daughter. Ahaziah.
35 And they went to bury her : but they 24 And Jehu 'drew a bow with his full found no more of her than the scull, and the strength, and smote Jehoram between his feet, and the palms of her hands. arms, and the arrow went out at his heart, and 36 Wherefore they came again, and told he "sunk down in his chariot.
him. And he said, This is the word of the 25 Then said Jehu to Bidkar his captain, LORD, which he spake by his servant Elijah Take up, and cast him in the portion of the field the Tishbite, saying, **In the portion of Jezof Naboth the Jezreelite : for remember how reel shall dogs eat the flesh of Jezebel : that, when I and thou rode together after 37 And the carcase of Jezebel shall be as Ahab his father, ''the Lord laid this burden dung upon the face of the field in the portion
of Jezreel ; so that they shall not say, This is 26 Surely I have seen yesterday the Jezebel. blood of Naboth, and the blood of his sons, 12 Or, marching.
15 Heb. found. 16 Heb. filled his hand with a bou. 18 1 Kings 21. 29.
20 Or, portion. 21 Heb. put her eyes in painting. 22 Or, chamberlains. 23 Heb. by the hand of.
2 1 Kings 21, 23.
13 Ileb. in madness. 14 Heb, Bind.
19 Heb. bloods,
17 Heb. lowed.
Verse 1. " Ramoth-gilead. — This place is frequently mentioned in Scripture, under the names of Ramoth, Ramoth-gilead, and Ramoth-mizpeh. The Scripture indications concerning it are, that it was a principal town on the east of the Jordan, in that part of this territory which
was assigned to the tribe of Gad. It was a city of refuge, and its situation and strength rendered it an important frontier-town against the Syrians, the possession of which therefore became an object of great consequence to them in their wars with the Hebrews. Ahab lost his life in the attempt to retake it from the Syrians; but the now extravagant people: they would have us take their word reigning king appears to have succeeded in this object, for an oracle, as if they were not men and sinners! The though at the expense of a severe wound, which induced Oriental point of honour is not to be sought in this him to leave his army in occupation, and proceed himself direction. to Jezreel to be healed (viii. 29). The war does not ap- 13. • The top of the stairs.”—The captains were propear to have been quite terminated, and Ramoth-gilead bably assembled in the state-room over the gateway of seems to have been the head-quarters of the army kept in whatever building, citadel, or palace, was the scene of this the field, and of which Jehu was one of the principal com- transaction. The prophet took Jehu to a chamber in the inanders. There were probably constant communications interior of the building, where he anointed him. And kept up between Ramoth-gilead and Jezreel; and the king now, when Jehu returns to his associates, and declares the seems to have watched with interest all indications of news prophetic errand, they conduct him to the top of the stairs from that quarter. This explains his sending out a courier leading to the roof of the same apartment, and which was to meet the party coming from that direction, as well as the most conspicuous place of an Oriental structure that his going out himself, ill as he was, as soon as he heard could be chosen, being at the very top of the gate-building, that one of the chief commanders was approaching. He and fully in view of the people and the military in the perhaps feared that the Syrians had recovered Ramoth- open ground in front of the building. We do not see any gilead and put the Hebrews to flight.
other explanation to render this part of the narrative Eusebius says that Ramoth-gilead was fifteen miles to equally intelligible. the west of Philadelphia, and Jerome, that it was near the
17. • Tower in Jezreel.'--The Hebrew has several words Jabbok ; the influence of which statements would give it some inclination northward instead of due west from Phi.
for towers and other elevated buildings which we have but ladelphia. Accordingly, at about the assigned distance,
imperfect means of discriminating, though doubtless each west-worth-west from Philadelphia, and about eight miles
of these terms originally distinguished a particular class south of the Jabbok, we find ruins of a town called Jelaad,
of elevated structures. The present word is birap migdol, upon a mountain of the same name, and which is merely and perhaps the first time it occurs tends well to fix its a different spelling of the Hebrew word (782) for
meaning. • Let us build us a city and a tower (migdol) • Gilead.' Mr. Buckingham, however, is rather disposed
whose top may reach unto heaven' (Gen. xi. 4). "This to find it at a site now called Ramtha or Ramza, about
would seem to imply that the migdol was distinguished by twenty-three miles north-north-west from Philadelphia,
its elevation; and from its frequent (but not exclusive) and four miles to the north of the Jabbok. He passed the
connection with towns, we may presume that it belonged
to that class of elevated structures which have been applace at a little distance, and regrets that he could not more particularly examine the remains which it offered.
plied to use and ornament in towns in all times and counThe site is principally distinguished by the ruins of a
tries. At least, for the sake of some distinction, we may large castellated enclosure of stone, standing on the side
take this idea, reserving the notice of other kinds of
towers for another occasion. We shall not however insist of a hill; but whether it had been a Christian establish
on the idea of a' watch-tower,' since this does not seem ment, a castle, a caravanserai, or some portion of a deserted settlement, could not be determined. • Near it,'
peculiar to any one kind of tower, but to be common to says the traveller, “stood a stately and wide spreading oak,
all: that is, there does not appear to have been any tower which, like the rest of the oaks we had seen, was not an
built expressly as a watch-tower; but any elevated pile,
when built, was used for the purpose as occasion required. evergreen one, but had its leaves withered and its boughs almost bare, while the greater portion of the other trees
Hence we find this idea associated with the migdol, as well found here were fresh with verdure. Between these two
, , $ sites the reader must choose for himself. We rather in- tzariach. We are not willing to suppose that the Hebrew cline to the latter, as best agreeing with all the Scriptural cities were wholly destitute of those elevated piles, which intimations. It is, equally with the other, in the tribe of both in Asia and Europe form the chief ornaments of Gad-more certainly in the Gilead of Scripture (see the towns. We almost everywhere find them associated with note on Gen. xxxi. 47)— nearer to the frontier of the temples; but this could not have been the case in the Syrians, and more in their way in any attempt upon Israel Hebrew towns, as Jerusalem was the only one which pos-nearer to the Jabbok, and nearer also to Jezreel. The sessed a temple. If therefore the Hebrews had towers in analogy of name, at least, is as much in favour of this as their towns, they doubtless either stood isolated, or in conthe other; for Ramoth-gilead is frequently called Ramoth nection with secular public buildings, such as palaces. In alone, but never Gilead. We think it probable that the the present instance the noted tower in Jezreel was ob. places were in the third century named as now, and that viously thus connected with the royal residence. Indeed, Eusebius fixed on that called · Gilead' as the representa- as the royal towns were generally seated on hills, and the tive of Ramoth-gilead, while Jerome had rather Ramoth king's residence usually on the highest part of such hills, in view. The subject is perplexing, and this is the best commanding an extensive view of the surrounding country, solution of its difficulties which we can offer.
it is reasonable to suppose that a tower was erected near 12. 'It is false.'— To give the lie in the East is not every such residence, as well for distinction as for a considered offensive: and the natives are astonished at the station, whence a watchman might note whatever occurred indignation which Europeans inanifest at having their in the neighbourhood. It is impossible to determine the assertion questioned. This is particularly the case in form which was borne by the towers with which the Persia, where a king upon his throne, without intending Hebrew towns were ornamented. All the intimations to give offence, lias been known), in a very quiet way, to
which we can collect from Scripture seem to convey the ask a British ambassador, • Is not that a lie which you are impression that they were round : as for instance, in the telling ?" Chardin's account of his controversies with the Song of Solomon, 'thy deck is like the tower of David' Persian minister (Nazir), about the price of the jewels (iv. 4), and thy neck is like a tower of ivory' (vii. 4). which Chardin himself had brought for the king, affords In both these verses the word is migdol, as here; and, so some curious illustrations of this. On one occasion this far as we have examined, this word is always used whermost intelligent traveller was so provoked at the minister's ever it is possible to understand that a tower of ornamental declared doubts of his veracity, that he expressed his character is intended. Thinking, then, that the existence annoyance in rather warm terms. On this the Nazir flew of ornamental towers is clearly deducible from various into a passion, and asked him tartly whether he was a passages in the poetical Scriptures, and that several of prophet, that people should be under an obligation to these passages intimate that they were round, we do not him to believe his word? Chardin could not refrain from know how the subject can be better illustrated than by a laughing at this; on which the minister, turning with an reference to the existing towers or minars of Western air of anger to the company, and pointing to him, ex- Asia, and which now give to Jerusalem, Constantinople, claimed, with an oath, The Franks are altogether an Alexandria, and other important cities, almost all the
צָרִיחַ tirah, and the טִירָה mizpah, the מִצְפָּה as with the
beauty which, as towns, they possess. We therefore give Josh. xvii. 11, as belonging, with Megiddo, to the tribe of a collection of such towers, shewing the principal and Manasseh, and, from the manner in which it is there menmore interesting varieties of form which they exhibit, tioned—Ibleam and other towns '-was doubtless a conThe great beauty of many of these forms will not be dis- siderable place, although not one of the ancient royal cities puted; and in viewing some of them, even the partialities of like Megiddo, from which Ibleam does not seem to have national taste will not always prevent the European spec. been very distant. Concerning Megiddo, the situation of tator from hesitating to say that the heaven-directed which determines that of the others, see the note on Josh. spire' itself has higher claim to his preference and admira
xii. 21. tion. The pictorial illustration supersedes the necessity 29. * Ahaziah.'—He was grand-nephew to king Joram, for written description. But we may observe generally,
and great-grandson to Ahab. This explains the friendly that the leading idea of nearly all these towers is that of a relation between the two kings, as well as Ahaziah's parround shaft, variously crowned, and always surrounded at ticipation in the doom of Ahab's house. various elevations by one or more galleries, from which very extensive views are generally commanded, and
30. . She painted her face.'— Painted ber eyes' is the which sometimes serve as watch-stations, although their
correct reading, as given in the margin and read in the common and proper use is to furnish a station to the
Septuagint and Vulgate. This custom, which our transmuezzin or crier, whose duty it is to proclaim the hours of
lators do not appear to have comprehended, is universal prayer; bells not being used for such purposes in the
among the women of the East, and sometimes is also East.
adopted by the men. The eyelid is tinged with a metallic 25. His captain'-cnicab for inimene, or rather for black powder, which is called surmeh by the Turks and
Persians, and kohol by the Egyptians. It is rather a delihvisti), literally · his third,' which, compared with other
cate operation, which is thus performed :- The eye is texts (Exod. xiv. 7; xv. 4; 2 Kings xv. 25; Ezek. xxiii. closed, and a small ebony rod smeared with composition is 12-23, etc.), seems to intimate that the Hebrew army, as squeezed between the lids, so as to tinge their edges with well as that of the Egyptians and Assyrians, was divided the colour. This is considered to add greatly to the brilinto three principal divisions, corresponding, probably, to liancy and power of the eye, and to deepen the effect of the centre and the right and left wings; and that the the long black eye-lashes of which the Orientals are proud. commander of each division was distinguished by this The same drug is employed on the eye-brows: used thus, title; the king, or the captain of the host,' when there it is intended to elongate, not to elevate, the arc, so that the was one, being the commander in chief. It seems that inner extremities are usually represented as meeting beJehu was one of these generals of division, and Bidkar tween the eyes. To a European the effect produced is another.
seldom, at first, pleasing; but it soon becomes so. The 27. Gur ... Ibleam ... Megiddo:-Gur seems to have Egyptian monuments confirm the intimation which the been an obscure place near Ibleam, which is mentioned in present text affords of the antiquity of the custom. Eyes
PAINTED EYE, WITH VESSEL AND PROBE. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN.
35. · They found no more of her than the scull, and the feet, and the palms of her hands.'-It appears from the context that the dogs had eaten all but these portions of the body of Jezebel. An East Indian correspondent of The Times (Aug. 12, 1841) furnishes a striking illustration of this circumstance. In March last, as I was repairing to the native village of Bustom to survey a bridge which was thrown across the road, on my route from the station of Jellasore, on crossing the Soubunreekâ river, my attention was attracted to a number of human skeletons which lay scattered in various directions upon the white sands adjacent to the course of the stream. Upon inquiry I learned that these unfortunate relics were the remains of pilgrims, who were on their road to the great pagoda at Juggernaut, and had been drowned two evenings before by means of a ferryboat sinking with them during a violent north-wester. On my approaching several of these sad vestiges of mortality, 1 perceived that the flesh had been completely devoured from the bones by Pariah dogs, vultures, and other obscene animals. The only portion of the several corpses I noticed that remained entire and untouched were the bottoms of the feet and the insides of the hands; and this extraordinary circumstance immediately brought to my mind that remarkable passage recorded in the second book of Kings, relating to the death and ultimate fate of Jezebel, who was, as to her body, eaten of dogs, and nothing remained of her but the “ palms of her hands and the soles of her feet.” The former narrative may afford a corroborative proof of the rooted antipathy that the dog has to prey upon the human hands and feet. Why such should be the case remains a mystery.'
PAINTED Eyes. thus adorned are depicted in the mural tablets, and pots containing the drug and the instruments for its application have been found. We do not find it mentioned by the early Greek writers, but it was adopted from the East by the ladies and fops of Rome, who, between them, seem to have possessed all, and more than all, the modern arts of personal adornment. It is among the follies lashed by Juvenal. (Sat. ii.)
PAINTED EYE. MODERN ORIENTAL.
your master's sons, and set him on his father's
throne, and fight for your master's house. 1 Jehu, by his letters, causeth seventy of Ahab's child. ren to be beheaded. 8 He excuseth the fact by the
4 But they were exceedingly afraid, and prophecy of Elijah. 12 At the shearing house he said, Behold, two kings stood not before him : slayeth two and forty of Ahaziah's brethren. 15 He how then shall we stand ? taketh Jehonadab into his company. 18 By subtilty 5 And he that was over the house, and he he destroyeth all the worshippers of Baal. 29 Jehu
that was over the city, the elders also, and followeth Jeroboam's sins. 32 Hazael oppresseth Israel. 35 Jehouhat succeedeth Jehu.
the bringers up of the children, sent to Jehu,
saying, We are thy servants, and will do all AND Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. that thou shalt bid us; we will not make any And Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, king: do thou that which is good in thine eyes. unto the rulers of Jezreel, to the elders, and 6 Then he wrote a letter the second time to 'them that brought up Ahab's children, to them, saying, If ye be mine, and if ye will saying,
hearken unto my voice, take ye the heads of 2 Now as soon as this letter cometh to the men your master's sons, and come to me you, seeing your master's sons are with you, to Jezreel by to morrow this time. Now the and there are with you chariots and horses, a king's sons, being seventy persons, were with fenced city also, and armour ;
the great men of the city, which brought 3 Look even out the best and meetest of them up. i Heb, nourishers.
2 lieb. for me.
7 And it came to pass, when the letter | phets of Baal, all his servants, and all his came to them, that they took the king's sons, priests ; let none be wanting: for I have a and slew seventy persons, and put their heads great sacrifice to do to Baal, whosoever shall in baskets, and sent him them to Jezreel. be wanting, he shall not live. But Jehu did
8 9 And there came'a messenger, and told it in subtilty, to the intent that he might dehim, saying, They have brought the heads of stroy the worshippers of Baal. the king's sons. And he said, Lay ye them 20 And Jehu said, "Proclaim a solemn in two heaps at the entering in of the gate assembly for Baal. And they proclaimed it. until the morning.
21 And Jehu sent through all Israel: and 9 And it came to pass in the morning, that all the worshippers of Baal came, so that he went out, and stood, and said to all the there was not a man left that came not. And people, Ye be righteous: behold, I conspired they came into the house of Baal; and the against my master, and slew him: but who house of Baal was ''full from one end to slew all these?
another. 10 Know now that there shall fall unto the 22 And he said unto him that was over the earth nothing of the word of the Lorn, which vestry, Bring forth vestments for all the worthe LORD spake concerning the house of shippers of Baal. And he brought them forth Ahab: for the Lord hath done that which he vestments. spake * *by his servant Elijah.
23 And Jehu went, and Jehonadab the son 11 So Jehu slew all that remained of the of Rechab, into the house of Baal, and said house of Ahab in Jezreel, and all his great unto the worshippers of Baal, Search, and men, and his 'kinsfolks, and liis priests, until look that there be here with you none of the he left him none remaining.
servants of the Lord, but the worshippers of 12 And he arose and departed, and came
Baal only. to Samaria. And as he was at the 'shearing 24 And when they went in to offer sacri. house in the way,
fices and burnt offerings, Jehu appointed 13 Jehu 'met with the brethren of Aha- fourscore men without, and said, If any of ziah king of Judah, and said, Who are ye? the men whom I have brought into your And they answered, We are the brethren of hands escape, he that letteth him go, his life Ahaziah; and we go down to salute the shall be for the life of him. children of the king and the children of the 25 And it came to pass, as soon as he had queen.
made an end of offering the burnt offering, 14 And he said, Take them alive. And that Jelu said to the guard and to the capthey took them alive, and slew them at the tains, Go in, and slay them; let none come pit of the shearing house, even two and forty forth. And they smote them with the edge men; neither left he any of them.
of the sword ; and the guard and the captains 15 | And when he was departed thence, cast them out, and went to the city of the he 'lighted on Jehonadab the son of Rechab house of Baal. coming to meet him: and he ''saluted him, 26 And they brought forth the images and said to him, Is thine heart right, as my out of the house of Baal, and burned them. heart is with thy heart? And Jehonadab 27 And they brake down the image of answered, It is. If it be, give me thine hand. Baal, and brake down the house of Baal, and And he gave him his hand ; and he took him made it a draught house unto this day. up to him into the chariot.
28 Thus Jehu destroyed Baal out of Israel. 16 And he said, Come with me, and see 29 4 Howbeit from the sins of Jeroboam my zeal for the LORD. So they made him the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, ride in his chariot.
Jehu departed not from after them, to wit, the 17 And when he came to Samaria, he slew golden calves that were in Beth-el, and that all that remained unto Ahab in Samaria, till
were in Dan. he had destroyed him, according to the saying 30 And the Lord said unto Jehu, Because of the Lord, which he spake to Elijah. thou hast done well in executing that which is
18 1 And Jehu gathered all the people right in mine eyes, and hast done unto the together, and said unto them, Ahab served | house of Ahab according to all that was in Baal a little ; but Jehu shall serve him much. mine heart, thy children of the fourth gene- •
19 Now therefore call unto me all the pro- ration shall sit on the throne of Israel. 3 1 Kings 21. 29. 4 Heb. by the hand of. 5 Or, acquaintance. 6 Heb. house of shepherds binding sheep. 7 'Ileb. found. B Ueb. to the peace of, &c. 9" Heb. found.
11 Heb. sanctify. 12° Or, so full, that they stood mouth to mouth.
10 Heb. Wessed. 13 Hleb, the mouth.
1 Heb. stutues.