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31 But Jehu Stook no heed to walk in the 34 T Now the rest of the acts of Jehu, and law of the Lord God of Israel with all his all that he did, and all his might, are they heart: for he departed not from the sins of not written in the book of the chronicles of Jeroboain, which made Israel to sin.

the kings of Israel? 32 1 In those days the Lord began to 35 And Jehu slept with his fathers : and cut Israel short : and Hazael smote them in they buried him in Samaria. And Jehoahaz all the coasts of Israel;

his son reigned in his stead. 33 From Jordan 'Yeastward, all the land 36 And "the time that Jehu reigned over of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, Israel in Samaria was twenty and eight and the Manassites, from Aroer, which is by years. the river Arnon, 'even Gilead and Bashan.

16 tleb, to cut of the ends. 17 IIeb. toward the rising of the sun. 18 Or, even to Gilead and Bashan.

19 lleb. the days were.

15 Heb. observed not.

not.

Verse C. · The king's sons. . . . were with the great men of assist him in ascending the chariot; but for a far more the city, which brought then up.'- It was a custom in some significant and important purpose. Three meanings may of the ancient Oriental nations, which is retained in some be assigned to the act, as illustrated by the current usages of the modern, for the king's sons to be consigned to the of the East. 1. The joining of hands is a token of amity, care of the principal nobles, who were bound to see them as with us. The shaking of hands has precisely the same properly brought up and educated. In some countries meaning as we assign to it; but it is not frequently used where this is not quite the regular custom, the king, per- in common intercourse, perhaps because the Orientals haps to relieve his own purse when his children are have other acts of greeting and salutation which we have numerous, forces on some of his nobles this mark of his 2. To confirm what has been said, or to complete royal favour. The serious expense involved makes many an agreement. We also have something of this use; but unwilling to undertake such charges; but they are obliged the implied idea is stronger in the East, since the act of to appear delighted with the distinction: and often they joining hands is employed in giving all the solemnity and really are so, in contemplation of the ultimate advantages inviolability of an oath to declarations, promises, and they may derive from the connection.

covenants. Perhaps it was in this sense-ihat is, for Je8. Lay them in two heaps at the entering in of the gate.' honadab thus to confirm the declaration of his sanction -Heads are always regarded as the best trophies of vic- and concurrence--that Jehu desired to take his hand. 3. tory in the East. The heads of enemies slaiu in battle, of But there is still a third sense, which is at least equally to robbers, and of persons who have been put to death by the purpose: this is, that to give the hand to a new king the royal order, are presented to the king, and afterwards is an act of homage to him-an act by which his sovereign deposited at his palace-gate. If there is but one head, or character is recognized and fidelity to him is pledged. only a few, they are fixed at soine conspicuous part of the We incline to the opinion that this was the sense in which gate: and at the grand entrance to the sultan's palace Jehu desired to receive the hand of Jehonadab; as it is (seraglio) at Constantinople there are niches appropriated easy to see of what importance it must have been to him to this purpose. When they are more numerous, they are that such a man as the son of Rechab should set the exheaped up on each side of the gate, and to swell such bar- ample of recognition and of pledged allegiance. There barous monuments of the monarch's victories or vengeance, is no doubt as to the existence of the custom, although it has sometimes been known that prisoners have been slain there may be some as to its application to the present inin cold blood, and innocent persons murdered. These stance. 'It appears, that whenever a competition arose horrid usages prevail throughout Asia, but are more re- among the successors of Mohammed for the Khalifat, he voltingly displayed, we believe, in Persia than elsewhere. on whom the preference. fell, received the hands of the It has there, not seldom, been known that the king has principal persons as a pledge of their fealty. At the first expressed his anger at some town or village, by demanding election, the hot contest for the succession was terminated from it a pyramid of heads of given dimensions; and Sir by Omar, who gave his hand to Abubekr, and promised John Malcolm states, that the executioners are so indif- him his allegiance; and his influential example was folferent to the distresses of others, that they will select a lowed by the rest. (Ockley's Conquest of Syria, p. 4.) head of peculiar appearance and long beard to grace the On the death of Abubekr, Omar succeeded quietly; and summit of the pyramid. Sometimes the Oriental con- we then hear of no offering or receiving of hands. But querors desire to form such heads into permanent monu- when Omar died there was another contest; and Ali ments of the transaction; and this is usually done by having declined the conditions which Othman accepted, erecting pillars for the purpose and inlaying them with the principal persons gave their hands to the latter, and the heads of the slain. There are several of these savage Ali, after some demur, following the example, extended monuments in Persia and Turkey. The most recent his hand and acknowledged Othman as khalif. (D'Herknown to us are the two pillars which were erected about belot, s. v. • Biat' and OTHMAN.') When Othman was a quarter of a century since on each side of the way, near dead, several of the principal persons came to Ali and one of the gates of Bagdad, and which are inlaid with the offered him their hands; but he declined receiving this heads of two hundred Khezail Arabs, slain or captured in customary act of recognition till the example should be au engagement with the troops of the pasha.

set by Thaleha and Zobeir, two persons of great influence, 15. Jehonadab the son of Rechab.'-From the state- who were then absent. They were sent for, and on their ment in the text to which we refer, we can collect that arrival offered him their hands; and he told them, if they Jehonadab was a person whose piety and manner of life gave him their hands, to do it in good earnest, as otherprocured him such respect and influence as must have wise he would himself prefer giving his own hand to rendered his countenance and assistance of the utmost either of them that would accept the government. This consequence to Jehu, by, quieting the minds of the people they refused; and he then received their hands. At a under the measures of violence which were at this time in subsequent period, when the above named Thaleha was progress. See the note on Jer. xxxv. 6.

dying of a wound at Basrah, he sent for a man belonging Give me thy hand.'—We are not to understand that tó Ali, and said, Give me your hand, that I may put mine Jehu desired Jehonadab to give him his hand merely to in it, and by this act renew the oath of fidelity which I

353

VOL. II.

have already taken to Ali.' (Ockley's History of the Sara- of Jehovah, before the ,symbolic calves, which Jeroboam cens ; D'Herbelot, s. v. * Ali.') These instances are con- had established, and which all his successors had mainclusive as to the custom, and give great probability to the tained. The vital root of corruption therefore remained inferences we have stated.

in the ground, although the branches had been lopped off. 29. ' Howbeit from the sins of Jeroboam....Jehu de- It also appeared, ere long, that the foreign idolatries of parted not.' – There was a point beyond which Jehu was Ahab and Jezebel had acquired too much prevalence to be not prepared to go in his boasted zeal for Jehovah. He entirely extirpated by any coercive reformation. As soon was ready to punish and discountenance all foreign as the heat of that reformation had cooled, such idolatries worship; but it was no part of his policy to heal the again gradually stole into use, although no longer with schism between Judah and Israel, by abolishing the sepa- the sanction or favour of government. rate and highly irregular establishment, for the worship [344_36. APPENDIX, No. 43.]

CHAPTER XI.

according to all things that Jehoiada the 1 Jehoash, being saved by Jehosheba his aunt from

priest commanded : and they took every man Athaliah's massacre of the seed royal, is hid six years

his men that were to come in on the sabbath, in the house of God. 4 Jehoiada, giving order to with them that should go out on the sabbath, the captains, in the seventh year anointeth him king. and came to Jehoiada the priest. 13 Athaliah is slain. 17 Jehoiada restoreth the 10 And to the captains over hundreds did worship of God.

the priest give king David's spears and And when 'Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah shields, that were in the temple of the LORD. saw that her son was dead, she arose and de- 11 And the guard stood, every man with stroyed all the seed royal.

his weapons in his hand, round about the 2 But Jehosheba, the daughter of king king, from the right 'corner of the temple to Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash the son the left corner of the temple, along by the of Ahaziah, and stole him from among the altar and the temple. king's sons which were slain ; and they hid 12 And he brought forth the king's son, him, even him and his nurse, in the bedcham- and put the crown upon him, and gave him ber from Athaliah, so that he was not slain. the testimony; and they made him king, and

3 And he was with her hid in the house of anointed him; and they clapped their hands, the Lord six years. And Athaliah did-reign and said, "God save the king. over the land.

13 | And when Athaliah heard the noise 4 9 And 'the seventh year Jehoiada sent of the guard and of the people, she came to and fetched the rulers over hundreds, with the people into the temple of the Lord. the captains and the guard, and brought them 14 And when she looked, behold, the king to him into the house of the Lord, and made stood by a pillar, as the manner was, and the a covenant with them, and took an oath of princes and the trumpeters by the king, and them in the house of the Lord, and shewed all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew them the king's son.

with trumpets: and Athaliah rent her clothes, 5 And he commanded them, saying, This and cried, Treason, Treason. is the thing that ye shall do; A third part of 15 But Jehoiada the priest commanded you that enter in on the sabbath shall even be the captains of the hundreds, the officers of keepers of the watch of the king's house ; the host, and said unto them, Have her forth

6 And a third part shall be at the gate of without the ranges: and him that followeth Sur ; and a third part at the gate behind the her kill with the sword. For the priest had guard : so shall ye keep the watch of the said, Let her not be slain in the house of the house, 'that it be not broken down.

LORD. 7 And two parts of all you that go forth 16 And they laid hands on her; and she on the sabbath, even they shall keep the went by the way by the which the horses watch of the house of the LORD about the came into the king's house : and there was king.

she slain. 8 And ye shall compass the king round 17 | And Jehoiada made a covenant beabout, every man with his weapons in his tween the Lord and the king and the people, hand : and he that cometh within the ranges, that they should be the Lord's people; belet him be slain : and be ye with the king as tween the king also and the people. he goeth out and as he cometh in.

18 And all the people of the land went 9 And the captains over the hundreds did into the house of Baal, and brake it down ; his altars and his images brake they in pieces the king's house. And he sat on the throne thoroughly, and slew Mattan the priest of of the kings. Baal before the altars. And the priest ap- 20 And all the people of the land rejoiced, pointed 'officers over the house of the LORD. and the city was inquiet: and they slew

1 2 Chron. 22. 10.
2 Heb. seed of the kingdom.

3 2 Chron. 23. 1.
6 Heb. hands.

7 Heb. shoulder.

• Or, from breaking up. 5 Or, companies.

8 Feb. Let ihe king live.

19 And he took the rulers over hundreds, Athaliah with the sword beside the king's and the captains, and the guard, and all the house. people the land ; and they brought down 21 Seven years old was Jehoash when he the king from the house of the LORD, and began to reign. came by the way of the gate of the guard to

. Heb. offices.

CHAP. XI.— The history in this chapter is repeated, with additions, in 2 Chron. xxii. 10-12, and the whole of xxiii., where the necessary notes will be given.

Verse 2. In the bedchamber.'-In the east a bedchamber does not, as with us, mean a sleeping-room, but a room in which the mattresses and other bedding in use at night are stowed away during the day. We have already had occasion to explain that bedsteads are not, under particular

circumstances, unknown, especially for sleeping in the open air. But ordinarily, the thick quilts and pillows, which form the sole bed and bedding, are spread out upon the floor or on the divans of the sitting-rooms at night for sleeping, and are in the morning taken away to the room appropriated for them. In such a room, as a place of concealment, Joash and his nurse were sheltered.

CHAPTER XII.

them, Why repair ye not the breaches of the

house ? now therefore receive no more money 1 Jehoash reigneth well all the days of Jehoiada. 4

He giveth order for the repair of the temple. 17 of your acquaintance, but deliver it for the the hallowed treasures on 19 Sehoash being" stain by & And the priests consented to receive no his servants, Amaziah succeedeth him.

more money of the people, neither to repair In 'the seventh year of Jehu Jehoash began the breaches of the house. to reign; and forty years reigned he in Jeru- 9 But Jehoiada the priest took a chest, salem. And his mother's name was Zibiah and bored a hole in the lid of it, and set it of Beer-sheba.

beside the altar, on the right side as one 2 And Jehoash did that which was right in cometh into the house of the LORD: and the the sight of the Lord all his days wherein priests that kept the "door put therein all the Jehoiada the priest instructed him.

money that was brought into the house of the 3 But the high places were not taken LORD. away: the people still sacrificed and burnt 10 And it was so, when they saw that there incense in the high places.

was much money in the chest, that the king's 4 1 And Jehoash said to the priests, All *scribe and the high priest came up, and they the money of the * *dedicated things that is 'put up in bags, and told the money brought into the house of the LORD, even the found in the house of the LORD. money of every one that passeth the account, 11 And they gave the money, being told, the

money that every man is set at, and all into the hands of them that did the work, that the money that 'cometh into any man's heart had the oversight of the house of the LORD: to bring into the house of the LORD,

and they laid it out to the carpenters and 5 Let the priests take it to them, every builders, that wrought upon the house of the man of his acquaintance: and let them re- LORD, pair the breaches of the house, wheresoever 12 And to masons, and hewers of stone, any breach shall be found.

and to buy timber and hewed stone to repair 6 But it was so, that in the three and the breaches of the house of the Lord, and twentieth year of king Jehoash the priests for all that "was laid out for the house to had not repaired the breaches of the house. repair it.

7 Then king Jehoash called for Jehoiada 13 Howbeit there were not made for the the priest, and the other priests, and said unto | house of the LORD bowls of silver, snuffers, 2 Or, holy things.

+ Hleb, the money of the souls of his estimation. 5 Heb. ascendeth upon the heart of a man. 6 Heb. in the twentieth year and third year.

8 Or, secretary 9 Heb. bound up.

that was

10 Heb. brought it forth.

I 2 Chron. 24. 1.

3 Heb, holinesses.

7 Heb, threshold,
11 Heb, went forth.

basons, trumpets, any vessels of gold, or ves- Judah, had dedicated, and his own hallowed sels of silver, of the money that was brought things, and all the gold that was found in the into the house of the LORD:

treasures of the house of the Lord, and in 14 But they gave that to the workmen, the king's house, and sent it to Hazael king and repaired therewith the house of the LORD. of Syria : and he "kwent

of Syria : and he went away from Jerusalem. 15 Moreover they reckoned not with the 19 And the rest of the acts of Joash, men, into whose hand they delivered the and all that he did, are they not written in money to be bestowed on workmen : for they the book of the chronicles of the kings of dealt faithfully.

Judah ? 16 The trespass money and sin money was 20 And his servants arose, and made a not brought into the house of the LORD: it conspiracy, and slew Joash in the house of was the priests'.

Millo, which goeth down to Silla. 17 9 Then Hazael king of Syria went up, 21 For Jozachar the son of Shimeath, and and fought against Gath, and took it: and Jehozabad the son of Shomer, his servants, Hazael set his face to go up to Jerusalem. smote him, and he died; and they buried him

18 And Jehoash king of Judah took all with his fathers in the city of David: and the hallowed things that Jehoshaphat, and Amaziah his son reigned in his stead. Jehoram, and Ahaziah, his fathers, kings of

13 Or, Both-millo.

12 Heb, ivent up.

CHAP. X11.—This chapter is substantially repeated in 2 Chron. xxiv., but with larger additions and greater dif. ference of words than in the text parallel to the preceding chapter.

Verse 10. ^ They put up in bags, and told the money.'This is the earliest indication of a still subsisting Eastern custom, under which, to save the trouble of repeated countivg, a certain sum is put up in a bag, which, being sealed and properly labelled, passes current in Turkey under the name of a purse") for the amount it contains. It is the authority of the seal which gives the bag cur. rency; for the seal is that of a public officer or of a person of known responsibility ; and if, when at length opened, any deficiency should appear, he is bound to make it good if the claimant can prove that the bag was previously free from any marks of violence, and that the seal remained unbroken. In Col. Capper's Observations on the Passage to India, 1783, we meet with an interesting anecdote bearing on this matter. It refers to the conclusion of his journey

from Aleppo to Graine (near Basrah), and to his agree. ment with the Arab sheikh who had conducted him across the desert. “It will be remembered that by our written agreement at Aleppo I was to give him five hundred dollars on the road, and eight hundred more on our arrival at Graine: the former sum, therefore, I kept ready to be paid to his order; but the latter I counted and sealed up in a bag to prevent any of them being lost or mislaid. When this bag was brought, as I was going to open it, the sheikh stopped me, asking if it had been counted and sealed up in my presence; and when I answered in the affirmative he, with a careless, unaffected air, bespeaking no merit from the action, threw it over his shoulder, and ordered his servant to put it into his trunk. A man shewing such confidence in another could not be guilty of any baseness himself, in which, also, he had the more merit froin our situation; for had I deceived him, he durst not have fol. lowed me to Bassora to have demanded redress.'

CHAPTER XIII,

3 And the anger of the LORD was

kindled against Israel, and he delivered them | Jehoahaz’s wicked reign. 3 Jehoahaz, oppressed into the hand of Hazael king of Syria, and by Hazael, is relieved by prayer. 8 Joash suc

into the hand of Ben-hadad the son of Haceedeth him. 10 His wicked reign. 12 Jeroboam succeedeth, him. 14 Elisha dying prophesieth to

zael, all their days. Joash three victories over the Syrians. 20 The 4 And Jehoahaz besought the LORD, and Moabites invading the land, Elisha's bones raise up

the LORD hearkened unto him : for he saw a dead man. 22 Hazael dying, Joash getteth three victories over Ben-hadad.

the oppression of Israel, because the king of Syria oppressed them.

5 son of Ahaziah king of Judah Jehoahaz the so that they went out from under the hand of son of Jehu began to reign over Israel in the Syrians: and the children of Israel dwelt Samaria, and reigned seventeen years.

in their tents, -as beforetime. 2 And he did that which was evil in the 6 Nevertheless they departed not from the sight of the LORD, and followed the sins of sins of the house of Jeroboam, who made Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which made Israel sin, but *walked therein: and there Israel to sin ; he departed not therefrom. fremained the grove also in Samaria.) 1 Heb. the twentieth year and third year. 2 IIeb, walked after. 3 Heb, as yesterday and third day.

4 Ileb, he wall d.

5 IIeb, stood,

7 Neither did he leave of the people to 17 And he said, Open the window eastJehoahaz but fifty horsemen, and ten chariots, ward. And he opened it. Then Elisha said, and ten thousand footmen; for the king of Shoot. And he shot. And he said, The Syria had destroyed them, and had made arrow of the Lord's deliverance, and the them like the dust by threshing.

arrow of deliverance from Syria : for thou 8 | Now the rest of the acts of Jehoahaz, shalt smite the Syrians in Aphek, till thou and all that he did, and his might, are they have consumed them. not written in the book of the chronicles of 18 And he said, Take the arrows. And the kings of Israel?

he took them. And he said unto the king of 9 And Jehoahaz slept with his fathers; Israel, Smite upon the ground. And he and they buried him in Samaria : and Joash smote thrice, and stayed. his son reigned in his stead.

19 And the man of God was wroth with 10 ? In the thirty and seventh year of him, and said, Thou shouldest have smitten Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the son five or six times; then hadst thou smitten of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria, Syria till thou hadst consumed it: whereas and reigned sixteen years.

now thou shalt smite Syria but thrice. 11 And he did that which was evil in the 20 And Elisha died, and they sight of the LORD; he departed not from all him. And the bands of the Moabites inthe sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who vaded the land at the coming in of the year. made Israel sin: but he walked therein.

21 And it came to pass, as they were bury• 12 And the rest of the acts of Joash, and ing a man, that, behold, they spied a band of all that he did, and his might wherewith he men; and they cast the man into the sepulfought against Amaziah king of Judah, are chre of Elisha : and when the man was let they not written in the book of the chronicles down, and touched the bones of Elisha, he of the kings of Israel ?

revived, and stood up on his feet. 13 And Joash slept with his fathers; and 22 But Hazael king of Syria oppressed Jeroboam sat upon his throne: and Joash Israel all the days of Jehoahaz. was buried in Samaria with the kings of 23 And the LORD was gracious unto them, Israel.

and had compassion on them, and had respect 14 | Now Elisha was fallen sick of his unto them, because of his covenant with Abrasickness whereof he died. And Joash the ham, Isaac, and Jacob, and would not destroy king of Israel came down unto him, and wept them, neither cast he them from his 'presence over his face, and said, O my father, my as yet. father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen 24 So Hazael king of Syria died; and thereof.

Ben-hadad his son reigned in his stead. 15 And Elisha said unto him, Take bow 25 And Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz and arrows.

And he took unto him bow and ''took again out of the hand of Ben-hadad arrows.

the son of Hazael the cities, which he had 16 And he said to the king of Israel, 'Put taken out of the hand of Jehoahaz his father thine hand upon the bow. And he put his by war. Three times did Joash beat him, hand upon it: and Elisha put his hands upon and recovered the cities of Israel. the king's hands.

9 Heb. facc.

10 Heb. returned and tok.

6 Heb, Make thine hand to ride.

7 Ileb, went down.

8 Ecclus. 48. 14.

Verse 7. Made them like the dust by threshing.'—At particles of broken straw lie mingled with the small dust present in the East, as in the times to which the Scriptures of the threshing-floor. These circumstances render the refer, the threshing-floor is in the open air, and is the figure of the text very vivid and distinct to an Eastern most level and the hardest piece of ground which can be imagination. It occurs repeatedly in the phonetic inscripfound near the harvest-field. The top of the hill is pre- tions recording the victories of the Egyptian kings. ferred when it can be obtained, for the advantage of the 14. 'O my father, my father, the churiot of Israel, and subsequent winnowing: For use, as the regular threshing- the horsemen thereof.' –This expression was first used by floor of the estate, this spot is often prepared by the re- Elisha when Elijah was taken up by the chariot and horses moval of about six inches' depth of the soil, and filling up of fire, and might then be supposed to refer to that event; the vacancy with a firm compost of cow-dung and clay. but their repetition now, when nothing of the kind occurs, Still, with all this care to prevent the intermixture of appears to indicate that the phrase was proverbially apgravel and earthy particles, much very fine dust from the plicable to one who was considered the principal guard surface of the threshing-floor is produced by the act of and defence of his country. The Targum takes this view, threshing, and remains when the corn and straw are re- understanding the expression as equivalent to. My father, moved. Add to this, that the straw itself is much crushed my father, who art better to Israel than chariots and horse and broken by the treading of the cattle, so that small men.'

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