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are written in the book of the chronicles of the 27 In the two and fiftieth year of Azakings of Israel.
riah king of Judah Pekah the son of Remaliah 16 9 Then Menahem smote Tiphsah, and began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and all that were therein, and the coasts thereof reigned twenty years. from Tirzah : because they opened not to him, 28 And he did that which was evil in the therefore he smote it; and all the women sight of the LORD: he departed not from the therein that were with child he ripped up. sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made
17 In the nine and thirtieth year of Aza- Israel to sin. riah king of Judah began Menahem the son of 29 4 In the days of Pekah king of Israel Gadi to reign over Israel, and reigned ten came Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and took years in Samaria.
Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah, and Janoah, 18 And he did that which was evil in the and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and sight of the LORD: he departed not all his Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried days from the sins of Jeroboam the son of them captive to Assyria. Nebat, who made Israel to sin.
30 T And Hoshea the son of Elah made a 19 1 And 'Pul the king of Assyria came conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, against the land : and Menahem gave Pul a and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in thousand talents of silver, that his hand might his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the be with him to confirm the kingdom in his son of Uzziah. hand.
31 And the rest of the acts of Pekah, 20 And Menahem 'exacted the money of and all that he did, behold, they are written Israel, even of all the mighty men of wealth, in the book of the chronicles of the kings of of each man fifty shekels of silver, to give to Israel. the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria 32 | In the second year of Pekah the son turned back, and stayed not there in the of Remaliah king of Israel began “Jotham the land.
son of Uzziah king of Judah to reign. 21 | And the rest of the acts of Menahem, 33 Five and twenty years old was he when and all that he did, are they not written in the he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel ? years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name
22 And Menahem slept with his fathers; was Jerusha, the daughter of Zadok. and Pekahiah his son reigned in his stead. 34 And he did that which was right in the
23 | In the fiftieth year of Azariah king sight of the LORD: he did according to all of Judah Pekahiah the son of Menahem began that his father Uzziah had done. to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned 35 Howbeit the high places were not re
moved: the people sacrificed and burned 24 And he did that which was evil in the incense still in the high places. He built the sight of the LORD: he departed not from the higher gate of the house of the LORD. sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made 36 9 Now the rest of the acts of Jotham, Israel to sin.
and all that he did, are they not written in 25 But Pekah the son of Remaliah, a the book of the chronicles of the kings of captain of his, conspired against him, and Judah ? smote him in Samaria, in the palace of the 37 In those days the Lord began to send king's house, with Argob and Arieh, and with against Judah Rezin the king of Syria, and him fifty men of the Gileadites : and he killed Pekah the son of Remaliah. him, and reigned in his room.
38 And Jotham slept with his fathers, and 26 And the rest of the acts of Pekabiah, was buried with his fathers in the city of and all that he did, behold, they are written David his father : and Ahaz his son reigned in the book of the chronicles of the kings of in his stead. Israel.
5 lleb, caused to come forth.
4 1 Chron, 5. 26.
69 Chron. 27. 1.
Verse 19. · Pul the king of Assyria'-Here the empiré of Assyria first rises to our notice; not, however, first, chronologically, as the mission of Jonah to its capital took place about thirty years earlier. Of Nineveh, the capital of this empire, we shall speak in the books of Jonah and Nahum. Its foundation, as we have seen, is noticed in
the tenth chapter of Genesis, not as the metropolis of a kingdom, but as one, and not the most important, of several towns there mentioned. Its foundation as a metropolis and a great city must be attributed to Ninus II., whose reign began B.C. 1252, about the time of Jephthah, and who, from all that appears, was the first who made Assyria a powerful state. This is proved by the concurrent testimony of pileser; and the prefecture of Babylon to the younger, Herodotus, Appian, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, whose Nabonassar, from the date of whose reign or government united evidence has been ably analysed by Dr. Hales : so the celebrated era of that name took its rise, B.C. 747. The that the accounts of Ctesias, who places the beginning of cause of this incursion is given in the next chapter. The this great
g's reign B.C. 2127, that is, prior to the birth king of Judah, being close pressed by the kings of Israel of Abraham, evidently exemplifies the ingenious process by and Syria, bribed the Assyrian, with the spoils of the temple which nations contrived to assign a preposterous antiquity and the promise of vassalage, to come to his assistance. to their greatness. It is clear, by this account, that Ninus | Tiglath-pileser willingly availed himself of the opportunity II., the true founder of the Assyrian empire, is confounded of extending his own power westward: he slew the king with that mighty hunter' Nimrod, or Ninus I.- the vic- of Syria, and took Damascus, transporting its inhabitants tories and acts of the latter being assigned with much to Kir (Kurdistan), or Assyria Proper, and then proceeded exaggeration to the former, while, to countenance the to deal out the same bitter portion to Israel. The transstory, an imaginary dynasty of twenty-four kings is made Jordanic tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half-Manasseh, he to precede the real founder of the empire. If so mighty removed to Media, and also the other half of Manasseh an empire had existed from the time of Abraham, it is in- that was settled in Galilee. This was the first captivity: credible that no notice of it should have been found in all but some understand that the trans-Jordanic tribes were the Scripture. Indeed, the dynasty commencing with removed by Pul, and the inhabitants of Galilee only by his Ninus II. is not mentioned in the holy books till the mis- son: (compare this verse with 1 Chron. v. 26.) The king sion of Jonah ; when, however, it is clear that Nineveh, of Judah had small cause to congratulate himself on this that eminently great city,' was the capital of an important result, for, as Prideaux remarks, . Instead of two petty empire, which had not, however, until the period of the princes, whom he had afore for his neighbours, and with present text, extended its limits west of the Euphrates, and either of which he was well able to cope, he had now this thereby come into offensive contact with the Hebrew king- mighty king for his neighbour, against whom no power of doms. It is also only about this time that we begin to trace, the land was sufficient to make any resistance, and the ill with any distinctness, the historical notices of Assyria which effect whereof both Israel and Judah did afterwards suffiare to be found in the Greck authors. [APPENDIX, No. 44.) ciently feel. The name of Tiglath-pileser has had various
The Scripture dynasty of Assyrian kings begins with interpretations, some of them very absurd. Might not the that unnamed king of Nineveh' who repented at the pro- distinctive part of it— Tiglath,' be taken from the river phecy of Jonah. Dr. Hales thinks it probable that Pul Tigris, on which his capital stood, and which, to this day, was his son, and apparently the second Belus of the Greek bears the name of Diglath? D and T are letters continuhistorians, who built the temple of that name at Babylon, ally changed for each other. The name might then mean which was a chief city of the Assyrian empire. He is the 'great lord of the Tigris.' The title · lord of the river' first Assyrian sovereign whom we find west of the Eu- (Tigris) is now borne by an Arab sheikh who received it phrates, and this circumstance it was, probably, that drew from the pasha of Bagdad. [Appendix, No. 45.]. the attention of the Greeks towards him and his empire. - Janoah.'—A place of this name is mentioned in To avert the immediate danger of this invasion cost the Josh. xvi. 6, as in the tribe of Ephraim, and which Jerome king of Israel 375,0001. of our money, raised by a tax of describes as being in his time a village in Acrabatene, nearly six guineas each upon his more wealthy subjects. twelve miles to the east of Neapolis or Shechem. But
29. • Tiglath-pileser. – This conqueror seems to have Bonfrere thinks, not without reason, that the present text been the son of Pul. It is the probable conjecture of Sir requires the Janoah it mentions to be a distinct place in the Isaac Newton (admitted by Hales), that at Pul's death his tribe of Naphtali, in which all the other places here named dominions were divided between his two sons; when the were situated. sovereignty of Assyria was given to the elder, Tiglath
the high places, and on the hills, and under | Ahaz's wicked reign. 5 Ahaz, assailed by Rezin
every green tree. and Pekah, hireth Tiglath-pileser against them.
59 Then Rezin king of Syria and Pekah 10 Ahaz, sending a pattern of an altar from Da- son of Remaliah king of Israel came up to mascus to Urijah, diverteth the brasen altar to his Jerusalem to war : and they besieged Ahaz, own devotion. 17. He spoileth the temple. 19 He- but could not overcome him. zekiah succeedeth him.
6 At that time Rezin king of Syria reIn 'the seventeenth year of Pekah the son of covered Elath to Syria, and drave the Jews Remaliah Ahaz the son of Jotham king of from Elath: and the Syrians came to Elath, Judah began to reign.
and dwelt there unto this day. 2 Twenty years old was Ahaz when he ñ q So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglatlıbegan to reign, and reigned sixteen years in pileser king of Assyria, saying, I am thy serJerusalem, and did not that which was right in vant and thy son : come up, and save me out the sight of the LORD his God, like David his of the hand of the king of Syria, and out of father.
the hand of the king of Israel, which rise up 3 But he walked in the way of the kings of against me. Israel, yea, and made his son to pass through 8 And Ahaz took the silver and gold that the fire, according to the abomination of the was found in the house of the LORD, and in heathen, whom the Lord cast out from before the treasures of the king's house, and sent it the children of Israel.
for a present to the king of Assyria. 4 And he sacrificed and burnt incense in 9 And the king of Assyria hearkened unto
him : for the king of Assyria went up against priest, saying, Upon the great altar burn the *Damascus, and took it, and carried the people morning burnt offering, and the evening meat of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin.
offering, and the king's burnt sacrifice, and his 10 And king Ahaz went to Damascus to meat offering, with the burnt offering of all meet Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and saw the people of the land, and their meat offeran altar that was at Damascus : and king ing, and their drink offerings; and sprinkle Ahaz sent to Urijah the priest the fashion of upon it all the blood of the burnt offering, and the altar, and the pattern of it, according to all the blood of the sacrifice : and the brasen all the workmanship thereof.
altar shall be for me to enquire by. 11 And Urijah" the priest built an altar 16 Thus did Urijah the priest, according to according to all that king Abaz had sent from all that king Ahaz commanded. Damascus : so Urijah the priest made it 17 And king Ahaz cut off the borders against king Ahaz came from Damascus. of the bases, and removed the laver from off
12 And when the king was come from Da-them; and took down the sea from off the mascus, the king saw the altar: and the king brasen oxen that were under it, and put it approached to tlie altar, and offered thereon.
upon a pavement of stone3. 13 And he burnt his burnt offering and his 18 And the covert for the sabbath that they meat offering, and poured his drink offering, had built in the house, and the king's entry and sprinkled the blood of 'his peace offerings, without, turned he from the house of the upon the altar.
Lord for the king of Assyria. 14 And he brouglit also the brasen altar, 19 T Now the rest of the acts of Alaz which was before the LORD, from the fore- which he did, are they not written in the book front of the house, from between the altar and of the chronicles of the kings of Judah ? the house of the Lord, and put it on the north 20 And Ahaz slept with his fathers, and side of the altar.
was buried with his fathers in the city of Da15 And king Ahaz commanded Urijah the vid : and Hezekiah his son reigned in his stead.
Verse 10. ' The fashion of the altar.'— The altars of the plurality of idols; some forms, ornaments, and materials idolaters are frequently alluded to in Scripture; and the being considered more proper to particular gods. Hence, Hebrews are here and elsewhere severely rebuked for even among the heathen, some altars remained of the most erecting similar altars. Doubtless the Divine indignation simple character. We are told, for instance, that the altar is to be referred primarily to the idolatrous worship to of Jupiter Olympius was nothing but a heap of ashes. which these borrowed altars were often consecrated ; but There was scarcely any practicable material of which it is also to be remembered that the altars were in them- altars were not made. Some were hewn from single large selves unlawful, the materials, the situation, and even the blocks of stone, others were formed of squared stones, and form of the Lord's own altar haviug been specially defined, many of precious marbles; some were of brick, others of and all others being interdicted; and hence this new metal-brass, and even gold-being probably overlaid with fashioned altar, which Ahaz ventured to introduce into the metal, like the Hebrew brazen altar and the golden the very temple itself, with the design that it should su- altar of incense: others again are said to have been of wood, persede the ancient altar, was deeply objectionable. We even in Greece; but these were not commou, neither do have thought it might form an instructive illustration those appear to have been so which are described as having assemble in one engraving representations of the most been built with the horns of animals curiously interlaced. prevalent forms which the altars bore among different an- Moses mentions the horns of the altars,' but in a different cient nations—the Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and Ro- sense, meaning only the salient angles of its platform. mans--as furnishing probable examples of those which The shapes of altars were almost infinitely varied, as well were at different times adopted by the Jews.
as their dimensions; but the leading forms and proportions Altars were doubtless the first constructions which men will be seen by the figures in our engraving. We may devoted to the service of God. They found it inconvenient observe however that, to the best of our recollection, no to lay their offerings upon the ground, and at first there- native Oriental antiquities exhibit the round form which fore sought natural heaps or elevations for the purpose, and appears in one of our Grecian specimens, although they in mountainous countries the tops of the hills were favourite were probably brought into use by the Greeks of Asia. situations. But in plain countries, where such elevations Altars were generally about three feet high; but some could not easily be found, it was obvious to form them by art. were lower, and some higher, those dedicated to the celesThe altars were at first simple heaps of unhewn stones or tial gods being the highest. The fire altars of Persia were earth. But by degrees, when men became idolaters, and not intended for sacrifice, but for burning sacred fire: associated the power and presence of the object worshipped hence, perhaps, as the priests had little service to perform with the altar at which it was honoured, this patriarchal at them, they were often made of a height and size which simplicity was relinquished. To this however Moses re- would not have been convenient in an altar for sacrifice. stricted the Israelites (Exod. xx. 24, and the note); and Those grand altars which our engraving exhibits are cut his injunction sufficiently intimates that the change had out of the solid substance of a projecting mass of rock, and already taken place. Great diversity then arose in the stand upon a rocky platform twelve or fourteen feet above materials, forms, and ornaments of altars. Every nation the level ground. They grow narrow from the base seems to have had a great variety of altars, although in upward, as do many of the most ancient altars; so that, each one general form appears to have been more common although the base is a square of four feet six inches, the than any other, even when the details differed greatly. top is ten inches less. Some ancient altars were solid, This was not so much owing to difference of taste as to the others were hollow; and most of them had at the top an
GROUP OF ALTARS.
a, a, Babylonian ; b, Egyptian ; C, c, Persian ; d, d, Grecian; e, e, Roman. enclosing ledge to confine the fire and offerings: there tops of houses. Altars were not by any means confined to was also sometimes a hollow sunk in the platform, and temples: they abounded everywhere in and around idolaa hole pierced in the side, to receive and discharge trous towns—in the fields--the highways—the streets the libations and the blood of victims. There were pro- (particularly the cross streets)—and in every public place. perly three kinds of altars—that on which the victims But upon the hill-tops, in groves, and under conspicuous were consumed by fire—that on which unbloody offer- trees, were favourite situations for altars; and how grievings only were made—and that on which incense only qusly the Hebrews were addicted to the erection of unwas consumed. The Hebrews had two of these—the holy altars in such places, the present text and a great altar of burnt offerings, and the altar of incense; and number of other passages abundantly shew. We shall the table of shewbread in some respects answered to the only add that the altars were usually inscribed with the second. The tabernacle altars were portable, and the pa- name or symbols of the god to whom they were dedicated. gans also had portable altars, which were sometimes of Many of the altars were otherwise plain ; but others had stone, being formed of squared blocks which might be taken their sides ornamented with sculptures of gods and genij, asunder and joined together at pleasure. There were also or with festal figures of dancers and players on musical small private altars in almost every house, for the offerings instruments. To prevent such things, probably, the use to the household gods. To this there seems some allusion of iron tools was forbidden to those who constructed the in Scripture, where certainly we read of altars upon the Hebrew altars.
3 4 Against him came up Shalmaneser 1 Hoshea's wicked reign. 3 Being subdued by sial king of Assyria; and Hoshea became his maneser, he conspireth against him with So king of
servant, and 'gave him 'presents. Egypt..5 Samaria for their sins is captivated. 24 4 And the king of Assyria found conspiThe strange nations, which were transplanted in racy in Hoshea : for he had sent messengers Samaria, being plagued with lions, make a mixture
to So king of Egypt, and brought no present of religions.
to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Sa- up, and bound him in prison. maria over Israel nine years.
5 Then the king of Assyria came up 2 And he did that which was evil in the throughout all the land, and went up to Sasight of the LORD, but not as the kings of maria, and besieged it three years. Israel that were before him.
6 "In the ninth year of Hoshea the king green tree :
1 Heb. rendered.
3 Chap. 18. 10.
of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel 18 Therefore the LORD was very angry away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: and" in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in there was none left but the tribe- of Judah the cities of the Medes.
only. 7 For so it was, that the children of Israel 19 Also Judah kept not the commandments had sinned against the LORD their God, which of the LORD their God, but walked in the had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, statutes of Israel which they made. from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, 20 And the Lord rejected all the seed of and had feared other gods,
Israel, and afflicted them, and delivered them 8 And walked in the statutes of the heathen, into the hand of spoilers, until he had cast whom the Lord cast out from before the chil- them out of his sight. dren of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which 21 For he rent Israel from the house of they had made.
David ; and they made Jeroboam the son of ġ And the children of Israel did secretly Nebat king: and Jeroboam drave Israel from those things that were not right against the following the Lord, and made them sin a LORD their God, and they built them high great sin. places in all their cities, from the tower of the 22 For the children of Israel walked in all watchmen to the fenced city.
the sins of Jeroboam which he did ; they de10 And they set them up `images and parted not from them; groves in every high hill, and under every 23 Until the LORD removed Israel out of
his sight, as he had said by all his servants the 11 And there they burnt incense in all the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of high places, as did the heathen whom the their own land to Assyria unto this day. LORD carried away before them; and wrought 24 9 And the king of Assyria brought men wicked things to provoke the LORD to anger: from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from
12 For they served idols, whereof the LORD Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharhad said unto them, 'Ye shall not do this thing. vaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria
13 Yet the LORD testified against Israel, instead of the children of Israel : and they and against Judah, oby all the prophets, and possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities by all the şeers, saying, "Turn ye from your thereof. evil ways, and keep my commandments and 25 And so it was at the beginning of their my statutes, according to all the law which I dwelling there, that they feared not the LORD: commanded your fathers, and which I sent to therefore the LORD sent lions among them, you by my servants the prophets.
which slew some of them. 14 Notwithstanding they would not hear, 26 Wherefore they spake to the king of but hardened their necks, like to the neck of Assyria, saying, The nations which thou hast their fathers, that did not believe in the Lord removed, and placed in the cities of Samaria, their God.
know not the manner of the God of the land : 15 And they rejected his statutes, and his therefore he hath sent lions among them, and, covenant that he made with their fathers, and behold, they slay them, because they know not his testimonies which he testified against them; the manner of the God of the land. and they followed vanity, and became vain, 27 Then the king of Assyria commanded, and went after the heathen that were round saying, Carry thither one of the priests whom about them, concerning whom the LORD had ye brought from thence; and let them go charged them, that they should not do like and dwell there, and let him teach them the them.
manner of the God of the land. 16 And they left all the commandments of 28 Then one of the priests whom they had the LORD their God, and made them molten carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in images, even two calves, and made a grove, Beth-el, and taught them how they should and worshipped all the host of heaven, and fear the Lord. served Baal.
29 Howbeit every nation made gods of 17 And they caused their sons and their their own, and put them in the houses of the daughters to pass through the fire, and used high places which the Samaritans had made, divination and enchantments, and sold them- every nation in their cities wherein they selves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to dwelt. provoke him to anger.
30 And the men of Babylon made Succoth
4 lleb, statues.
5 Deut. 1. 19.
6 Heb. by the hand of all, 7. Jer. 18. 11, and 25. 3, and 35. 15.
y Exod. 22. 8. 1 Kings 12. 28.
8 Deut. 31. 27.