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movements—its rapid march, without those members of of Egypt. Or, fically, and which we think most proprogression with which other animals are gifted--and the bable, they, with a recollection of its origin, regarded it as vibrations of life preserved in the separated parts for some symbolizing the Divine healing power, and as such retime after the carcase has been cut in pieces,--are all cir sorted to it, and burned incense before it, when afficted cumstances well calculated to impress the idea, that the with diseases, much in the same manner that the classical serpent had a condition of life peculiar to itself, and that ancients resorted, on similar occasions, to the serpentthere was something supernatural in its being. The symbol of the healing god. way of a serpent upon a rock' is one of the four things 7. • Rebelled.'-He neglected to send the customary which even the wise Agur confessed to be too wonderful tribute or presents; and, in his expedition against the for him (Prov. xxx. 19).
Philistines, acted as an independent sovereign. This class of ideas, as well as the influence of example, 13. · Sennacherib,'—This prince was the son of Shalmamay have induced the Israelites to worship the brazen neser; and liis reign, according to Hales, extended from serpent. They might do this the more readily, because, 714 to 710 B.C. It appears that Hezekiah's revolt began whatever may be the general character of the serpent in in the reign of Shalmaneser, who however was too much the Bible, there was room for them to associate with the engaged in other affairs, perhaps the siege of Tyre, to particular brazen serpent the ideas of beneficence which take against him such strong measures as we see his son the heathen usually connected with that creature. In the now undertaking. It would seem, from the insinuation wilderness they had been directed to look upon it--and to in verse 24, that Hezekiah had been encouraged in his live: they did so, and they lived. And this direction revolt by some vague promises of assistance from Egypt, and its consequences, misundertood and perverted, may which were never fulfilled. We have several intimations have formed the foundation of the idolatry into which in this part of the history, of the great and just alarm they fell. How they worshipped, is not very clear. Per with which the Egyptians regarded the westward march haps, like the Egyptians, they regarded it as a symbol of of the Assyrian power; and it appears to have been their
the Good God;' and that Good God, to them, certainly policy to divert the attention of the Assyrians from themcould not have been other than their own JEHOVAH: and, selves, by giving them sufficient employment in confirming in this case, the worship of the serpent may have been a their authority over the intervening states, already rensort of mitigatea idolatry, not in principle unlike that of dered tributary. We have already seen them giving which the golden calf was the object. Or they may have similar encouragement to Hoshea, king of Israel, in his worshipped it as the symbol of some strange god, perhaps | disastrous attempt to shake off the Assyrian yoke.
69 And Isaiah said unto them, Thus
shall ye say to your master, Thus saith the 1 Hezekiah mourning sendeth to Isaiah to pray for
LORD, Be not afraid of the words which thou them. 6 Isaiah comforleth them. 8 Sennacherib, going to encounter Tirhahah, sendeth a blasphemous
hast heard, with which the servants of the letter to Hezekiah. 14 Hezekiah's prayer. 20 king of Assyria have blasphemed me. Isaiah's prophecy of the pride and destruction of 7 Behold, I will send a blast upon him, and Sennacherib, and the good of Zion. 35 An angel
he shall hear a rumour, and shall return to his sluyeth the Assyrians. 36 Sennacherib is slain at Nineveh by his own sons.
own land ; and I will cause him to fall by the
sword in his own land. AND 'it came to pass, when king Hezekiah 8 I So Rab-shakeh returned, and found heard it, that he rent his clothes, and covered the king of Assyria warring against Libnah : himself with sackcloth, and went into the house for he had heard that he was departed from of the Lord).
Lachish. 2 And he sent Eliakim, which was over the 9 And when he heard say of Tirhakah king houshold, and Shebna the scribe, and the of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight elders of the priests, covered with sackcloth, against thee: he sent messengers again unto to 'Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz. Hezekiah, saying,
3 And they said unto him, Thus saith 10 Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king Ilezekiah, This day is a day of trouble, and of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom of rebuke, and "blasphemy: for the children thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem are come to the birth, and there is not strength shall not be delivered into the hand of the to bring forth.
king of Assyria. 4 It may be the LORD thy God will hear | 11 Behold, thou hast heard what the kings all the words of Rab-shakeh, whom the king of Assyria have done to all lands, by destroyof Assyria his master hath sent to reproaching them utterly: and shalt thou be delithe living God; and will reprove the words vered ? which the LORD thy God hath heard: where 12 Have the gods of the nations delivered fore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that | them which my fathers have destroyed; as are *left.
Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the 5 So the servants of king Hezekiah came children of Eden which were in Thelasar ? to Isaiah.
13 Where is the king of Hamath, and the Isa. 37. 1. 2 Luke 3. 4, called Esaias.
3 Or, prorocation.
4 Heb. found.
king of Arpad, and the king of the city of thou shouldest be to lay waste fenced cities Sepharvaim, of Hena, and Ivah ?
into ruinous heaps. 14 | And Hezekiah received the letter of 26 Therefore their inhabitants were "of the hand of the messengers, and read it: and small power, they were dismayed and conHezekiah went up into the house of the LORD, founded; they were as the grass of the field, and spread it before the LORD.
and as the green herb, as the grass on the 15 And Hezekiah prayed before the LORD, I house tops, and as corn blasted before it be and said, O LORD God of Israel, which dwell grown up. est between the cherubims, thou art the God, 27 But I know thy "abode, and thy going even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the out, and thy coming in, and thy rage against me. earth; thou hast made heaven and earth. 28 Because thy, rage against me and thy
16 LORD, bow down thine ear, and hear : tumult is come up into mine ears, therefore I open, LORD, thine eyes, and see : and hear will put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle the words of Sennacherib, which hath sent in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the him to reproach the living God.
way by which thou camest. 17 Of a truth, LORD, the kings of Assyria | 29 And this shall be a sign unto thee, Ye have destroyed the nations and their lands, shall eat this year such things as grow of
18 And have 'cast their gods into the fire: themselves, and in the second year that which for they were no gods, but the work of men's springeth of the same ; and in the third year hands, wood and stone: therefore they have sow ye, and reap, and plant vineyards, and eat destroyed them.
the fruits thereof. 19 Now therefore, O Lord our God, I 30 And 'the remnant that is escaped of beseech thee, save thou us out of his hand, the house of Judah shall yet again take root that all the kingdoms of the earth may know downward, and bear fruit upward. that thou art the LORD God, even thou only. 31 For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a
20 4 Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent to remnant, and they that escape out of mount Hezekiah, saying, Thus saith the LORD God Zion : the zeal of the LORD of hosts shall do of Israel, That which thou hast prayed to me this. against Sennacherib king of Assyria I have 32 Therefore thus saith the Lord concernheard..
ing the king of Assyria, He shall not come 21 This is the word that the LORD hath into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor spoken concerning him ; The virgin the come before it with shield, nor cast a bank daughter of Zion hath despised thee, and against it. laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Je- 33 By the way that he came, by the same rusalem hath shaken her head at thee.
shall he return, and shall not come into this 22 Whom hast thou reproached and blas | city, saith the LORD. phemed ? and against whom hast thou exalted | 34 For I will defend this city, to save it, for thy voice, and lifted up thine eyes on high? | mine own sake, and for my servant David's sake. even against the Holy One of Israel.
35 | And 'Sit came to pass that night, that 23 "By thy messengers thou hast reproached the angel of the LORD went out, and smote in the Lord, and hast said, With the multitude the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore of my chariots I am come up to the height of and five thousand : and when they arose early the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and in the morning, behold, they were all dead will cut down "the tall cedar trees thereof,
corpses. and the choice fir trees thereof: and I will 36 So Sennacherib king of Assyria deenter into the lodgings of his borders, and into parted, and went and returned, and dwelt at the forest of his Carmel.
Nineveh. 24 I have digged and drunk strange waters, 37 And it came to pass, as he was worshipand with the sole of my feet have I dried up | ping in the house of Nisroch his god, that all the rivers of obesieged places.
Adrammelech and Sharezer 19 his sons smote 25 °Hast thou not heard long ago how I him with the sword : and they escaped into have done it, and of ancient times that I have the land of '?Armenia And Esarhaddon his formed it? now have I brought it to pass, that son reigned in his stead.'
5 Heb. given. 6 Heb. By the hand of. 7 Heb, the tallness, &c. 8 Or, the forest and his fruitful field. Or, fenced. 10 Or, Hast thou not heard, how I have made it long ago, and formed it of ancient times ? should I now bring it to be laid waste, and fenced cities to be ruinous heaps ! 11 Heb. short of hand,
19 Or, sitting.
18 Heb. the escaping of the house of Judah that remaineth. 14 Heb. the escaping. 15 Isa. 37. 36. Ecclus. 48. 21. Mac, 7.41. 2 Mac. 8. 19.
16 Tob. 1, 21.
17 Heb, Araras.
CHAP. xix.—This chapter is repeated with great exact that in the early part of his reign Sethos (or “So') divided ness in Isaiah xxxvii.; and some of its facts (corresponding the kingdom with him, and ruled in Lower Egypt, while to verses 10-14, and 35-37, of this chapter) are given, the Ethiopian monarch possessed the dominion of the with some variation, in 2 Chron. xxxii. 17-23.
upper country; and this would account for the absence of Verse 9. · Tirhakah.'—The rumour alluded to in the the name of Sethos upon the monuments of Thebes. text, by which Sennacherib was alarmed and interrupted, | Whether Tirhakah and Sabaco's claim to the throne of was no other than the report which spread abroad that Egypt was derived from any right acquired by intermar
Tirhakah, the Ethiopian king of Upper Egypt, was riage with the royal family of that country, and whether marching with an immense army to cut off his retreat. the dominion was at first confined to the Thebaïd, it is
difficult to determine: but the respect paid by their successors to the monuments they erected, argues the probability of their having succeeded to the throne by right rather than by usurpation or the force of arms. It should be added that at Medinet Abou are the figure and name of Tirhakah, and of the captives taken by him. The figure which we here give is from Rosellini. It will be observed that he wears the crown of Upper Egypt. The name of Sabaco is found at Abydus. [APPENDIX, No. 50.]
24. · With the sole of my foot have I dried up all the rivers, etc.- In the note to Deut. xi. 10, we have expressed an opinion that the passage respecting 'watering by the foot,' as used there, is best illustrated by the use of the water-wheel worked by the assistance of the foot. But it is no less clear to us that the present passage refers to the other custom of irrigation which is sometimes produced in illustration of that place, but which did not seem to us there so applicable; it seems to be in the present instance, in which the words have a double reference to that mode of wateriug, seeing that it describes not only the act of irrigation, but the drying up of rivers by the foot, an image most clearly derived from the channels for irrigation in Eastern gardens being habitually closed with the foot by the gardener. The water, being raised to the surface by any of the various processes known in the East, is distributed over the ground in the manner shewn in the annexed engraving. Grounds requiring to be artificially watered are divided into small squares by ridges of earth
or furrows: and the water flowing from the machine or TIRHAKAH.
from the cistern into a narrow gutter, is admitted into one • With Tirhakah,' says Wilkinson (Ancient Egyptians, square or furrow after another by the gardener, who is i. 1, 40), we are acquainted both from sacred and profane always ready, as occasion requires, to stop and direct the records, and his successful opposition to the power of torrent by turning the earth against it with his foot, at Assyria is noticed in the Bible (2 Kings xix. 9; Isa. the same time opening with his mattock a new trench to xxxvii. 9), may be traced in Herodotus (ii. 41), and is | receive it. The same process takes place when the ground recorded on the walls of a Theban temple. It is possible is divided for irrigation by indented channels instead of
ridges; for in these the gardener in the same manner, by 37. 'Nisroch:—This uame 1hD) is now generally supthe active and timely use of his foot and his mattock,
posed to mean great eagle, being coinpounded of the Semitic conducts the rills which flow in these channels wherever he pleases, suffering the water to overflow into every part
neser, 'eagle,' and the syllable och or ach, which in Persian
is intensive. This bird was held in great veneration by the that requires it, and closing the channels in which it is no
ancient Persians, and was also worshipped by the Arabs longer required to flow. This process of irrigation is not
before the time of Mohammed. [APPENDIX, No. 51.) contined to Egypt, but is followed in the gardens of Syria; and rice, which requires much water, is only sown in those
- His sons smote him with the sword.'-It appears, quarters where this mode of irrigation is practicable, as from the book of Tobit, that on his return home the As. in the valley or hollow which contains the lake Huleh, in syrian king, his temper being soured by the signal defeat the valley of Baalbek, and in the plain of Damascus. he had sustained, behaved with great severity, and even
35. • Behold, they were all dead corpses.'-Upon the cruelty, in his government; and particularly to the cap. agency which the Lord employed on this occasion, in de tive Israelites, numbers of whom he caused to be slain livering Judah, and in avenging the insulted honour of every day, and thrown into the streets. By which his own Great Name, we shall have occasion to remark savage humour having made himself so intolerable that under Isaiah xxxvii. At present, we wish to adduce the he could not be borne even by his own family, his two very remarkable and valuable coincident testimony
eldest sons conspired against him’ (Prideaux, i. 37). Some afforded by Herodotus, who mentions Sennacherib by think that he had made a vow to sacrifice these two sons, name, and recites his miraculous defeat in such a manner,
to appease his gods, and to incline them to bestir themselves that, although greatly distorted, we cannot fail to recog for the restoration of his affairs. But this conjecture rests nize the same event which the sacred writings record in on no authority. three different places. He says, that at this time there - Land of Armenia.'— The original is the land of reigned in Egypt a priest of Vulcan, named Sethon, who Ararat ;''but the term doubtless designates Armenia, and neglected and contemned the military establishment the text thus furnishes evidence that the Ararat of Scripwhich had been formed in Egypt; and, among other dis ture was in Armenia, which some have questioned. honours which he put upon the soldier caste, he withdrew -- · Esarhaddon.' – This king, the third son of Senthe allotment of twelve acres of land which, under former nacherib, is the great and noble Asnapper' of Ezra (iv. kings, had been allowed as the portion of every soldier. 10), the Sargon of Isaiah (xx. 1), the Sarchedon of Tobit After this, when Sennacherib invaded Egypt with a great (i. 21), and the Asaradin of Ptolemy. It seems that the army, not one of the military class came forward to his Babylonians, Medes, Armenians, and other tributary assistance. The royal priest, seeing no help before him, nations, took the opportunity offered by the prostration of withdrew to a temple, where, standing before the image, the Assyrian power, by the Lord's hand, to throw off the he deplored bitterly-the evils with which his kingdom yoke they had so long borne. Esarhaddon was therefore was threatened. As he wept, sleep overpowered him, actively engaged, during the first years of his reign, and he saw, in a vision, the god standing by and bidding in attempting to re-establish the broken affairs of the him be of good cheer, assuring him that no larm should empire to which he had succeeded. It was not until befall him if he marched out against the Assyrians, for the thirtieth year of his reign, however, that he rehe would himself send him assistance. Sethon took covered Babylon; and the Medes were never again courage from this vision, and, collecting a body of men, brought under the yoke. It appears, from Ezra iv. 10, entirely consisting of shopkeepers, artisans, and the dregs that it was this prince who transported the Cuthites, Baof the people—there not being one soldier among them bylonians, etc., into the waste cities of Samaria: and Hales he marched out, and formed his camp at Pelusium. The conjectures, with probability, that this was to punish them night after his arrival, myriads of field-mice infested the for their revolt. When this king had settled his affairs camp of the enemy, gnawing in pieces their quivers, their at home, he undertook an expedition against the states of bow-strings, and the straps of their shields; so that, in the Palestine, Phænicia, Egypt, and Ethiopia, to avenge his morning, finding themselves deprived of the use of their father's defeat, and to recover the revolted provinces west arms, they fled in great disorder, and many of them were of the Euphrates. For three years he ravaged these proslain. Herodotus adds, that in his time this event was vinces, and brought away many captives; as foretold by commemorated by a statue of the king standing in the Isaiah (xx. 3, 4). About two years after, he invaded and temple of Vulcan, and holding in his hand a mouse, with ravaged Judea ; and the captains of his host took Mathe inscription, "Whoever looks on me, let him be pious.' nasseh, the king, alive, and carried him away captive, • This is most evidently nothing more than an adaptation with many of the nobility and people, to Babylon. Hales to Egypt, to its king, and to its gods, of what belonged says, “Esarhaddon was a great and prosperous prince. to Judah, to Hezekiah, and to the power of Jehovah. It He seems not only to have recovered all the former prois the same narrative Egyptianized. We do not see any vinces of the Assyrian empire, except Media, but to have evidence that Sennacherib really invaded Egypt: and he added considerably thereto, if we may judge of the several certainly was not doing so at this time. But there can states which his grandson, Nabuchodonosor, sunimoned as be little doubt that his proceedings in Palestine were but his auxiliaries in the war with the Medes ; namely, Babypreparatory to the invasion of that country, and this ren lonia, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phænicia, Judea, dered the destruction of his army a deliverance not only Persia, Arabia, and Egypt (Judith i. 6-10; see Jackson, to the Hebrews but to the Egyptians also. Deeply inte i. 332). He is ranked by Ptolemy, in his Canon, among rested as the latter were in the event, we may easily see the Babylonian kings, probably because he made Babylon the inducement of their priests to relate this amazing his chief residence during the last thirteen years of his manifestation of Divine power, with such circumstances reign, to prevent another defection. The same learned as might make it appear to have been intended for the writer proves that this prince is the Sardanapalus of deliverance of their own country, and effected by the Diodorus and Justin, in whose reign happened the revolt power of their own gods. Altogether, this Egyptian nar of the Medes, 710 B.C.; and whom both of these historians rative, while it confirms that which we receive on an unskilfully confounded with the last king Sarac, who authority which needs no confirmation, furnishes one of perished in the overthrow of Nineveh, about a century the most curious instances of historical adaptation which afterwards, in 606 B.C. [APPENDIX, No. 52.] we have the means of distinctly authenticating.
[Vr. 17, 18. APPENDIX, No. 53.] 376
11 And Isaiah the prophet cried unto the
LORD: and he brought the shadow ten de1 Hezekiah, having received a message of death, by
grees backward, by which it had gone down prayer hath his life lengthened. 8 The sun gocth ten degrees backward for a sign of that promise.
in the dial of Ahaz. 12 Berodach-baladan sending to visit Hezekiah, 12T ?At that time Berodach-baladan, the because of the wonder, hath notice of his treasures. son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters 14 Isaial understanding thereof foretelleth the Ba.
and a present unto Hezekiah: for he had bylonian captivity. 20 Manasseh succeedeth Heze.
heard that Hezekiah had been sick.
13 And Hezekiah hearkened unto them, In 'those days was Hezekiah sick unto death. and shewed them all the house of his precious And the prophet Isaiah the son of Amoz came things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, to him, and said unto him, Thus saith the and the precious ointment, and all the house LORD, 'Set thine house in order ; for thou of his armour, and all that was found in his shalt die, and not live.
treasures : there was nothing in his house, nor 2 Then he turned his face to the wall, and in all his dominion, that Hezekiah shewed them prayed unto the Lond, saying,
not. 3 I beseech thee, O Lord, remember now | 14 | Then came Isaiah the prophet unto how I have walked before thee in truth and | king Hezekiah, and said unto him, What said with a perfect heart, and have done that which these men ? and from whence came they unto is good in thy sight. And Hezekiah wept 'sore. thee? And Hezekiah said, They are come
4 And it came to pass, afore Isaiah was from a far country, even from Babylon. gone out into the middle *court, that the word 15 And he said, What have they seen in of the Lord came to him, saying,
thine house? And Hezekiah answered, All 5 Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the cap- | the things that are in mine house have they tain of my people, Thus saith the LORD, the seen : there is nothing among my treasures God of David thy father, I have heard thy | that I have not shewed them. prayer, I have seen thy tears: behold, I will 16 And Isaiah said unto Hezekiah, Hear heal thee: on the third day thou shalt go up the word of the LORD. unto the house of the Lord.
17 Behold, the days come, that all that, 6 And I will add unto thy days fifteen is in thine house, and that which thy fathers years; and I will deliver thee and this city have laid up in store unto this day, 'shall be out of the hand of the king of Assyria ; and carried into Babylon : nothing shall be left, I will defend this city for mine own sake, and saith the Lord. for my servant David's sake.
18 And of thy sons that shall issue from 7 Ånd Isaiah said, Take a lump of figs. thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take And they took and laid it on the boil, and be away; and they shall be eunuchs in the palace recovered.
of the king of Babylon. 8 | And Hezekiah said unto Isaiah, What 19 Then said Hezekiah unto Isaiah, Good shall be the sign that the LORD will heal me, is the word of the LORD which thou hast spoken. and that I shall go up into the house of the And he said, "Is it not good, if peace and truth LORD the third day?
be in my days? 9 And Isaiah said, This sign shalt thou 1 20 9 And the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, have of the Lord, that the Lord will do the and all his might, and how he made a pool, thing that he hath spoken : shall the shadow go and a conduit, and brought water into the forward ten degrees, or go back ten degrees ? city, are they not written in the book of the
10 And Hezekiah answered, It is a light | chronicles of the kings of Judah ? thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees : 21 And Hezekiah slept with his fathers : nay, but let the shadow return backward ten and Manasseh his son reigned in his stead. degrees.
2 Chron. 32. 24. Isa, 38. 1.
2 Heb, Give charge concerning thine house. 5 Isa. 38. 8. Ecclus, 48, 23. 6 Heb. degrees. 7 Isa, 39, 1.
19 Heb. tessels. 11 Chap. 24. 13, and 23, 13. Jer. 27. 22.
12 Ór, Shail there not be peace and truth, &c.
CHAP. XX.--Some verses containing parallel facts may be found in 2 Chron. xxxiii.; but the parallel in Isaiah Xxxviii. and xxxix. is very exact and complete. The 38th of Isaiah also contains Hezekiah's song of thanksgiving for his recovery, which is not given in the present chapter.
Verse 11. · The dial of Ahuz.'_ This very remarkable passage naturally suggests an inquiry into the character of the instrument which was employed to demonstrate the miraculous effect which it pleased God to concede to the desire of Hezekiah. Yet it is less our intention to enter into any minute investigation in order to establish the