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22 1 When Abimelech had reigned three 35 And Gaal the son of Ebed went out, years over Israel,

and stood in the entering of the gate of the 23 Then God sent an evil spirit between city: and Abimelech rose up, and the people Abimelech and the men of Shechem; and the that were with him, from lying in wait. men of Shechem dealt treacherously with 36 And when Gaal saw the people, he said Abimelech :

to Zebul, Behold, there come people down 24 That the cruelty done to the threescore from the top of the mountains. And Zebul and ten sons of Jerubbaal might come, and said unto him, Thou seest the shadow of the their blood be laid upon Abimelech their mountains as if they were men. brother, which slew them; and upon

the men

37 And Gaal spake again and said, See of Shechem, which 'aided him in the killing there come people down by the middle of of his brethren.

the land, and another company come along 25 And the men of Shechem set liers in by the plain of 'Meonenim. wait for him in the top of the mountains, and 38 Then said Zebul unto him, Where is they robbed all that came along that way by now thy mouth, wherewith thou saidst, Who them : and it was told Abimelech.

is Abimelech, that we should serve him? is 26 And Gaal the son of Ebed came with not this the people that thou hast despised ? his brethren, and went over to Shechem: and go out, I pray now, and fight with them. the men of Shechem put their confidence in 39 And Gaal went out before the men of him.

Shechem, and fought with Abimelech. 27 And they went out into the fields, and 40 And Abimelech chased him, and he gathered their vineyards, and trode the grapes, fled before him, and many were overthrown and made ®merry, and went into the house of and wounded, even unto the entering of the their god, and did eat and drink, and cursed gate. Abimelech.

41 And Abimelech dwelt at Arumah : 28 And Gaal the son of Ebed said, Who and Zebul thrust out Gaal and his brethren, is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we that they should not dwell in Shechem. should serve him ? is not he the son of Jerub- 42 And it came to pass on the morrow, that baal ? and Zebul his officer ? serve the men the people went out into the field ; and they of Hamor the father of Shechem: for why | told Abimelech. should we serve him ?

43 And he took the people, and divided 29 And would to God this people were them into three companies, and laid wait in under my hand! then would I remove Abi- the field, and looked, and, behold, the people melech. And he said to Abimelech, Increase were come forth out of the city; and he rose thine army, and come out.

up against them, and smote them. 30 And when Zebul the ruler of the city 44 And Abimelech, and the company that heard the words of Gaal the son of Ebed, his was with him, rushed forward, and stood in anger was 'kindled.

the entering of the gate of the city: and the 31 And he sent messengers unto Abime- two other companies ran upon all the people lech ''privily, saying, Behold, Gaal the son of that were in the fields, and slew them. Ebed and his brethren be come to Shechem; 45 And Abimelech fought against the city and, behold, they fortify the city against thee. all that day; and he took the city, and slew

32 Now therefore up by night, thou and the people that was therein, and beat down the people that is with thee, and lie in wait the city, and sowed it with salt. in the field:

46 | And when all the men of the tower 33 And it shall be, that in the morning, as of Shechem heard that, they entered into an soon as the sun is up, thou shalt rise early, hold of the house of the god Berith. and set upon the city: and, behold, when he 47 And it was told Abimelech, that all and the people that is with him come out the men of the tower of Shechem were gaagainst thee, then mayest thou do to them thered together. as thou shalt find occasion.

48 And Abimelech gat him up to mount 34 9 And Abimelech rose up, and all the Zalmon, he and all the people that were with people that were with him, by night, and him ; and Abimelech took an ax in his hand, they laid wait against Shechem in four com- and cut down a bough from the trees, and panies.

took it, and laid it on his shoulder, and said 7 Heb, strengthened his hands to kill.

10 Heb. craftily, or, to Tormah. 11 Iteb, as thinc hand shall find.

13 Or, the regarders of times.

43

8 Or, songs.

9 Or, hot. 12 Heb. navel,

unto the people that were with him, What ye 53 And a certain woman 'cast a piece of have seen "me do, make haste, and do as I a millstone upon Abimelech's head, and all have done.

to brake his scull. 49 And all the people likewise cut down 54 Then he called hastily unto the young every man his bough, and followed Abime- man his armourbearer, and said unto him, lech, and put them to the hold, and set the Draw thy sword, and slay me, that men say hold on fire upon them ; so that all the men not of me, A woman slew him. And his of the tower of Shechem died also, about a young man thrust him through, and he died. thousand men and women.

55 And when the men of Israel saw that 50 | Then went Abimelech to Thebez, Abimelech was dead, they departed every and encamped it unto his place.

56 [ Thus God rendered the wickedness city, and thither fled all the men and women, of Abimelech, which he did unto his father, and all they of the city, and shut it to them, in slaying his seventy brethren : and up to the top of the tower.

57 And all the evil of the men of Shechem 52 And Abimelech came unto the tower, did God render upon their heads : and upon and fought against it, and went hard unto the them came the curse of Jotham the son of door of the tower to burn it with fire.

Jerubbaal.

gat them

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Verse 4. The house of Baal-berith.'—M. Henry, in his favour of the people towards them, might lead them to work, L'Egypte Pharaonique, strongly alleges that no form designs against his dignity or life. Thus, the comtemples, properly so called, existed at this time. He admits mencement of a new reign is signalized by the same horindeed that they had existed in Egypt, but thinks they had rible transaction as that of which we here read. In been destroyed by the shepherd-kings, who employed the Persia, where the same principle operates, the new moinaterials in the construction of their own characteristic narchs have rather sought to secure their own safety by erections; but this seems to us doubtful, as well as his putting out the eyes of their brothers, and others whose conclusion that there were no temples actually standing birth had, unhappily for them, put them in near connecin Egypt till a good while after the time of Moses. tion with the throne. An English lady was one day in the That they did not exist in the neighbouring countries he royal zenanah, when she observed one of the princes, a is still more assured, and in this we concur with him. boy ten years of age, with a handkerchief tied over his The contrary arguments which might be adduced from eyes, groping about the apartment. On inquiring wbat the present mention of the house of Baal-berith at She- he was doing, he said that, as he knew his eyes would be chem, ch. ix. 4, he thus answers : •We find in the Bible put out when the king his father died, he was now trying many places whose names begin with the word beth- how he should be able to do without them. The uncle Beth-Phegor, Beth-Shemesh, Beth-Berith, which have and predecessor of this lad's father secured the throne to been supposed to be temples raised to idols. These places the nephew whom he loved by Abimelech's process. “He were towns, and not temples (see Josh. xiii. 20 ; xv. 27). had,' he used to say, 'raised a royal palace, and cemented The word Beth in this sense means “abode,” and the name it with blood, that the boy Baba Khan (the name he always of the place, as abode of Phegor, abode of Shemesh, abode gave his nephew) might sleep within its walls in peace.' of Berith, that is to say, that these are towns consecrated Threescore and ten persons.'- Besides these seventy to those divinities who were considered to make their re- sons, Gideon had doubtless a proportionate number of sidence there. It was in this manner that Jacob himself daughters. Such enormous families are not unexampled gave the name of Beth-el, “abode of the Most High,” in the East. The king mentioned in the preceding note, to the place where during the night he had his miraculous Futteh Ali Shah, the nephew of the blood-spiller and vision. Solomon, too, gave the title of Beth to the temple father of the boy who expected to be blinded, had a much which he raised in imitation of those of the Egyptians, larger family than this. He also, like Gideon,'had many and it is from this that the word acquired with the Jews wives' (chap. viii, 30). To have many, is a piece of state the signification of temple.'

in Oriental kings and rulers : but it is not always attended This certainly substantiates the opinion that no temple with such numerous families. Solomon, who in this is indicated in this place; and if the taking forth of money respect was exceeded by no Oriental monarch, is not should seem to attach a more definite signification to the known to have had more than one son. word than this explanation supposes it to have, it quite 6. ` All the house of Millo. –The word nibo millo suffices to understand it of the place in which the treasure dedicated to Baal-berith was deposited. Even when there

means “a mound' or 'rampart,' so called (from the verb were no temples properly so called, there must have been desi mala, 'to fill') as being filled in with stones and some place in which the implements of service, the trea- earth; hence it also denotes a fortress or castle, which is sures of the establishment, and perhaps the vestments of the doubtless the sense here, so that the term must be taken priests were usually deposited: this seems, from v. 46, to to denote the fortress or citadel of Shechem. Accordingly, have been in the stronghold of the town. From all the Gesenius renders the clause: 'All the men of Shechen, circumstances of the story it appears that Shechem was at and all that dwelt in the castle. The same term is eventhis time in the hands of an idolatrous race; or at least tually applied to a part of the citadel of Jerusalem, prothat an idolatrous faction had the upper hand in the city. bably the rampart or entrenchment.

5. Slew his brethren.'--Here is the first indication * By the plain. — The marginal .oak' is right. In of a savage custom which is not yet extinct in Asia, and like manner English councils were formerly held under under which a new king deems it a measure of policy to put wide spreading oaks. Thus Augustine, the first Archto death his brothers, from fear that their ambition, or the bishop of Canterbury, met the British bishops under an oak in Worcestershire, which was therefore called, as Bede bition and arrogance of the wicked and turbulent Abimetells us, Augustine's Oak. And Barkshire bas its name, lech, represented by the bramble; inviting his new and as it were Bare-oak-shire, from a large dead oak, in the nobler subjects, the cedars of Lebanon, to put their trust in forest of Windsor, where they continued to hold provincial his pigmy shadow, which they did not want, and which councils near its trunk, as had been done more anciently he was unable to afford them; but threatening them imunder its extensive and flourishing branches. (Hody's periously, on their refusal, to send forth a fire from himself English Councils.)

to devour those cedars: whereas, the fire of the bramble 1. Stood in the top of mount Gerizim, and lifted up his was short and momentary even to a proverb, Ps. lviii. 9 ; voice.'—In some places the precipices of Gerizim secm Eccl. vii. 6.' to overhang the town, so that Jotham's voice floating over 9. Olive tree' (ni zailh, Olea Europea).— The olive the valley from one of the summits of Gerizim might easily be heard by a quiet audience eagerly listening in

seems to have been originally a native of Asia, whence it the plain below. See the note on 1 Sam. xxvi. 13.

was transplanted into Egypt and Barbary and the south of 8. The trees went forth on a time to anoint a king over

Europe. The wood is hard-grained and heavy, and not them,' etc.-Here we have the most ancient apologue ex

liable to be assailed by insects. Its colour is yellowish,

veined, and of an agreeable odour, while its texture rentant; and yet one so complete and beautiful as to shew that this pleasing form of conveying instruction had long

ders it susceptible of a fine polish. The appearance of

the olive-tree is not unlike that of our willows, as the before been known and practised. The Greeks claimed to be the inventors of the apologue; but this ancient

leaves are lance-shaped, or narrow, and hoary. The fruit,

when ripe, is like a damson to the eye, with a soft oleagiparable of Jotham would alone suffice to throw their claim

nous pulp, and a hard nut in the centre. Cultivation has to the ground, as its antiquity ascends far higher than the times to which their accounts would refer the origin of

produced several varieties of olive, which differ in their instructive fable. Indeed, modern researches, guided by a more intimate acquaintance with Oriental literature than Europe ever before possessed, tend to shew, that not only was the apologue of Oriental origin, but that the main stock of European fable may be traced to the East. There such little fictions continue to instruct those who would not listen to, or perhaps would not understand, abstract reasonings or direct address. It is probable that such a mode of instruction is about the most ancient of any. It is easy to trace its origin to the period when languages were poor in terms for the expression of ideas, and for discriminating the shades of sentiment and thought, which therefore obliged inen to reason from natural objects. And this custom, being once introduced, was retained, even when languages became more copious in abstract terms; because it was found that only in this veiled form could wholesome truths gain admittance to the ear of power, on the one hand, or be rendered acceptable or intelligible to the unreasoning multitude, on the other. Hence it has happened in the East-and not in the East only—that the sternest purposes of power have been averted, and lessons of justice where open remonstrance or rebuke would not have failed |(90) to give such offence, or to provoke such indignation, as would have ruined the incautious reprover. Instances are also recorded, in which even excited multitudes have been soothed, and have consented to receive, through a wellframed fable, lessons of moderation and prudence, which able reasoners and eloquent declaimers might have endeavoured vainly to instil. A short fable is also more easily remembered, and the moral' along with it, than the moral alone expressed in abstract terms; and hence it

OLIVE BRANCH, WITH I'RUIT. is that the apologue has so often been chosen as the vehicle through which to transmit wholesome general truths and fatness and savour. The olive was consecrated to Minerva important precepts for moral guidance, or for the inculca- by the Athenians, who regarded the culture and protection tion of doctrines. Fables thus variously intended, are all of the olive tree as a religious duty. In some parts of exemplified in the Sacred Scriptures. There we have France, the inhabitants eat the berries of the olive with them as employed to reprove kings, to admonish multitudes, their bread, and find them an agreeable and wholesome and to iostruci disciples. Our Lord himself did not dis- condiment. The olive in general requires a little preparadain to employ them. They are all perfect of their kind; tion in brine or hot water, to dissipate the bitter principle nearly all of them are very short; and in most instances, which it contains, though a variety, which is very uncomas in that now before us, the application is made by the mon in France, is so sweet that it may be eaten at once. speaker. We may regard them as specimens of a mode of It is probable that the olives of Judæa, when in its prosinstruction and admonishment which must obviously have perity, were of this character, and formed to the inhabitants been common among the Hebrews.

a pleasant accompaniment to the more substantial articles With respect to the present fable, we only need cite the of their daily food. The oil of the olive is pre-eminent following remarks of Dr. Hales : 'For their ingratitude among vegetable oils, and has not only always had an exto the house of Gideon, the Shechemites were indignantly tensive use in culinary purposes, but formed the menstruum upbraided by Jotham, in the oldest and most beautiful or vehicle for the most celebrated perfumes. apologue of antiquity extantthe trees choosing a king. 13. My wine, which cheereth God and man.'—Wine is With the mild and unassuming dispositions of his pious here expressed as cheering God, because it was used in the and honourable brethren, declining, like their father, we sacrifices and offerings made to him. In the same way may suppose, the crown, when offered to them perlaps we must explain verse 9, where God is said to be honoured successively, under the injagery of the olive-tree, the fig. by olive-oil, -it being used in sacrifices, and for other tree, and the vine, he pointedly contrasts the upstart am- purposes connected with his service.

14. ' Bramble' ('7px Atad ; Sept. páuvos ; Vulg. Rham- fore the place, when he would undertake to induce Gaal to nus).- This was probably a species of buckthorn, perhaps

march out against him. Accordingly, one morning, when the Zizyphus vulgaris, which is a native of Syria and Zebul and other principal persons were with Gaal at the Palestine, whence it migrated into Europe in the reign of gate of the city, armed men were seen descending the

hills. Augustus Cæsar. Many of the buckthorn family are re

Zebul amused Gaal till they came nearer, and markable for the length and abundance of their spines,

then, by reminding him of his recent boastings, compelled which are the transformed stipulæ. The fruit of the one

him to draw out his men to repel the advance of Abimebefore us is an edible drupe, a pulpy mass with a two

lech. They met, and no sooner did Gaal see a few of his seeded nut in the centre. Its comparative fruitfulness inen fall, than, with the rest, he fled hastily into the town. gave it a specious claim to be counted the king of trees,

Zebul availed himself of this palpable exhibition of imwhile the singularly combustible nature of its wood sug

potence, if not cowardice, to induce the people of Shechem gested the idea of that 'fire' which was to come forth and

to expel Gaal and his troop from the city. Abimelech, consume the disaffected.

who was staying at Arumah, a place not far off, was in21. Beer.'—The word Beer, whether alone or in com

formed of this the next morning, as well as that the inhapound names, denotes a well. The Beer of the present

bitants, although no longer guarded by Gaal, went out text is not named in any other place : it was in the tribe

daily to the labours of the field. He therefore laid amof Judah. Eusebius places it eight Roman miles north of

bushes in the neighbourhood; and when the men were Eleutheropolis. This is probably an error, as he also

come forth to their work in the vineyards, two of the amstates that it becomes visible at the seventh Roman mile bushed parties rose to destroy them, while a third hastened on the road from Nicopolis to Jerusalem, which cannot be

to the gates to prevent their return to the town. The true of a town situated as he indicates; but is true of a

city itself was then taken, and Abimelech caused all the place still bearing the corresponding dame el-Bireh,

buildings to be destroyed, and the ground to be strewn which, since Maundrell's time, has been identified with

with salt, as a symbol of the desolation to which his inBeer. Eusebius probably wrote • Eleutheropolis ' for Je

tention consigned it. The fortress, however, still rerusalem; for the place in question is nearly at the

mained, and a thousand men were in it. But they, fancyexpressed distance, northward, from the latter city. Bireh

ing that it was not tenable, withdrew to the stronghold, is mentioned, under the name of Bira, by Brocard, in

which had the advantage of standing in a more elevated whose time it was held by the Templars. By the Cru

and commanding position. On perceiving this, Abimelech saders and the later ecclesiastics it was erroneously con

cut down the hough of a tree with his battle-axe, and bore founded with the ancient Michmash. Bireh is situated

it upon his shoulder, directing all his men to do the same. on the ridge, running from east to west, which bounds the

The wood was deposited against the entrance and walls of northern prospect as beheld from Jerusalem and its

the fortress, and, when kindled, made a tremendous fire, vicinity, and may be seen from a great distance north and

in which the building and the thousand men it contained south. It is now a large village, with a population of 700

in it were destroyed. Moslems. The houses are low, and many of them half

45. Beat down the city, and sowed it with salt: — Virgil under ground. Many large stones and various substruc- is sometimes quoted in illustration of this practice :tions evince the antiquity of the site; and there are re- Salt earth and bitter are not fit to sow, mains of a fine old church of the time of the Crusades. 22. ' Abimelech ... reigned ... over Israel?It is pro

Nor will be turn'd or mended with the plough.' bable that his authority did not at first extend much be- It is no doubt true, as he says, that a naturally salt and yond the city of Shechem, which had mado him king : bitter soil is not productive: but merely strewing fertile but by gradual encroachments he seems to have extended land with salt is not calculated to make it unproductive. his authority over the neighbouring towns and territories, Besides, there would have been no meaning in strewing compelling them to acknowledge his power, as we find with salt a demolished city, with the view of rendering it him in v. 50 warring against Thebez, in the tribe of unproductive, because a town is not intended for culture, Ephraim, as a rebellious city, that seems to have refused but for building. As, however, lands have been rendered submission to him,

utterly sterile by saline admixture or incrustation, salt 23. God sent an evil spirit,' etc.—As the circumstances might well be taken to symbolize the desolation to which which follow are somewhat complicated and obscure, the the city was doomed. Or else, as salt was used in the following connected statement of this portion of the history confirmation of covenants, this act may possibly have been from our Pictorial History of Palestine will spare the need part of a ceremony by which the city was doomed to be of many separate annotations :

rebuilt no more, so far as the interdiction of the destroyer Abimelech reigned three years in Shechem, during could have effect. This ceremouy was not peculiar to the which he so disgusted the men by whom he had been Jews. When Hadrian levelled Jerusalem with the ground, raised to that bad eminence on which he stood, that they he caused salt to be strewed on the site it had occupied : expelled him from their city. In return, he, with the aid and when, at a period much more modern (1162), the emof the desperate fellows who remained with him, did his peror Frederic Barbarossa destroyed Milan, he not only utmost to distress the inhabitants, so that at the season of ploughed it up (another Hebrew practice), but strewed it vintage they were afraid to go out into their vineyards to with

salt, in memory of which, a street of the present city collect their fruits. Hearing of these transactions, one is called Contrado della Sala. Sigonius, De Regn. Ital. Gaal went over to Shechem with his armed followers and 1. 13, 14. kinsmen, to see how they might be turned to his advantage. 48. Mount Zalmon.'— The name means shady,' and We know not precisely who this person was, or whence from what follows it would appear to have derived it from he came; but there are circumstances in the original nar- being well clad with wood. It is perhaps another name rative which would suggest that he was a Canaanite, de- for Èbal or Gerizim, or possibly a collective name for both, scended from the former rulers of Shechem, and that his as there are no other high mountains in the neighbourhood people also were a remnant of the original Shechemites. of Shechem. He came so opportunely, that the people very gladly ac- 50. * Thebez!—This place was in the region of Shechem, cepted his protection during the vintage. In the feasts and Eusebius and Jerome describe it as thirteen Roman which followed the joyful labours of that season, Gaal, miles distant from the latter towards Scythopolis or Bethwho seems to have been a cowardly, boasting fellow, shean. In this quarter there still exists a village of the spoke contemptuously of Abimelech, and talked largely of name of Tubas, which may perhaps represent this ancient what he could and would do, if authority were vested in site.

51. ' A strong tower within the city.—This was doubtone of the principal magistrates of the city, who lost no less a sort of citadel, such as exists in most considerable time in secretly sending to apprise Abimelech how mat- towns of Western Asia, and which serves the people as a ters stood, and advised him to shew himself suddenly be- last retreat when the town is taken by an enemy, and where the people in authority shut themselves up on oc- with the rider millstone; which, let fall on the head of casions of popular tumult. In some parts we have seen Abimelech, would inevitably fracture his scull. such towers in the open country, where the neighbouring - And all to brake his scull.'-- According to the prepeasantry may deposit their more valuable property, or sent use of language this would seem rather to express themselves take refuge when the approach of an enemy or

intention than the result of action; but it does express the of a plundering tribe is expected.

latter, as the past tense (brake) of the verb to break’indi53. A piece of a millstone.—Literally 'the rider,' as cates. * All to,' in many of our old writers, means the upper millstone from its riding or revolving upon the 'altogether' or 'entirely, and is so used here. So the lover. The Eastern hand-mill consists of two flat round meaning is, and entirely brake his scull. Without stones, about two feet in diameter, which they rub one on understanding this, some copies of our version have the other by means of an upright pin infixed as a handle changed it, to indicate intention, by substituting 'break' near the edge of the upper stone. In the operation of for • brake.' The death of Pyrrhus at Argos, as told by

Plutarch, resembles, in many of its circumstances, this

account of the death of Gideon's unworthy son. The b

women in the East are often very active in throwing all sorts of missiles, such as bricks, tiles, and stones, from the walls of besieged places.

54. That men say not of me, A woman slew him.'—It was, in ancient times, accounted in the highest degree dishonourable for a warrior to die by the hands of a woman; and certainly, military men would not, even now, count it in any respect an honourable death. Burder quotes, in

illustration of this, Seneca the tragedian, who thus deplores 4, the hand-mill complete ; b, section of the upper millstone; c, the the death of Hercules :

"O turpe fatum ! fæmina Herculex necis grinding, the corn falls down on the under stone through

Auctor fertur.'-Herc. Etaus, v. 1177. a hole in the middle of the upper, which by its circular motion spreads it on the under stone, where it is bruised

*O dishonourable fate ! a woman is reported to have caused and reduced to flour; this flour working out of the rim of

the death of Hercules.' the millstones lights on a board set on purpose to receive Abimelech's device, to avoid this dishonourable fate, it. If, as is usual, a woman were working such a mill on availed hinn little ; for nearly three centuries afterwards the roof of the tower, she would naturally be prompted, in we find his death ascribed to the woman who threw the defence of herself and people, to run to the battlements piece of millstone from the wall. 2 Sam. xi, 21.

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lower millstone.

CHAPTER X.

hands of the Philistines, and into the hands | Tola judgeth Israel in Shamir. 3 Jair, whose

of the children of Ammon. thirty sons had thirty cities. 7 The Philistines and 8 And that year they vexed and 'oppressed Ammonites oppress Israel. 10 In their misery God the children of Israel eighteen years, all the sendeth them to their false gods. 15 Upon their children of Israel that were on the other side repentance he pitieth them.

Jordan in the land of the Amorites, which is And after Abimelech there arose to 'defend in Gilead.

, , a man of Issachar; and he dwelt in Shamir over Jordan to fight also against Judah, and in mount Ephraim.

against Benjamin, and against the house of 2 And he judged Israel twenty and three Ephraim ; so that Israel was sore distressed. years, and died, and was buried in Shamir. 10 | And the children of Israel cried unto

31 And after him arose Jair, a Gileadite, the LORD, saying, We have sinned against and judged Israel twenty and two years. thee, both because we have forsaken our God,

4 And he had thirty sons that rode on and also served Baalim. thirty ass colts, and they had thirty cities, 11 And the Lord said unto the children which are called "Havoth-jair unto this day, of Israel, Did not I deliver you from the which are in the land of Gilead.

Egyptians, and from the Amorites, from the 5 And Jair died, and was buried in Ca- children of Ammon, and from the Philistines? mon.

12 The Zidonians also, and the Amalek61 And the children of Israel did evilites, and the Maonites, did oppress you ; and again in the sight of the LORD, and served ye cried to me, and I delivered you out of Baalim, and 'Ashtaroth, and the gods of their hand. Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of 13 ‘Yet ye have forsaken me, and served Moab, and the gods of the children of Am- other gods: wherefore I will deliver you no mon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.

14 Go and cry unto the gods which ye 7 And the anger of the LORD was hot have chosen ; let them deliver you in the time against Israel, and he sold them into the of your tribulation. 1 Or, deliver. 2 Heb, sare. 3 Or, the villages of Jair. 4 Chap. 2. 11, and 3, 7, and 6. 1, and 4. 1, and 13. 1. 6 Chap. 2. 13.

more.

6 Heb. crushed.

7 Deut. 32, 15. Jerem. 2. 13.

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