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15 | And the children of Israel said unto gathered together, and encamped in Gilead. the LORD, We have sinned : do thou unto us | And the children of Israel assembled themwhatsoever éseemeth good unto thee ; deliver selves together, and encamped in Mizpeh. us only, we pray thee, this day.
18 And the people and princes of Gilead 16 And they put away the strange gods said one to another, What man is he that will from among them, and served the LORD: and begin to fight against the children of Ammon? his soul ''was grieved for the misery of Israel. he shall be head over all the inhabitants of
17 | Then the children of Ammon were | Gilead. o Heb. is good in thine eyes. Heb. gods of strangers. 10 Heb. was shortened. 1 Heb. cried together. 12 Chap. 11. 8.
Verse 4. • That rode on thirty ass colts, and they had thirty cities.'--It would seem from this that to ride on an ass's colt was the privilege of the goveruor of a city, and a mark of his authority. Horsley ingeniously conjectures that it perhaps became so because the word 'y signifies either an ass's colt or a city. Hence in the hieroglyphic system an ass's colt might be the symbol of a city.'
7. · The Philistines . . . . and the children of Ammon.' - The Philistines probably subdued the Israelites in the south of Canaan, west of the Jordan; and the Ammonites, the two tribes and a half to the east of that river. The spirit of conquest or of aggression, however, soon led the latter to cross the Jordan (v. 9). It seems probable that they rather harassed and distressed the trans-Jordanic tribes, than kept them in entire subjection; and afterwards extended their incursions to the west of the Jordan.
12. • Maonites.'—We have not before met with a people thus named ; and as the principal enemies of Israel are enumerated in this list, it is not improbable that we should, with the Alexandrian copy of the Septuagint, read • Midianites.' That they are intended, is also likely from its being improbable that they, from whom the Israelites had, at a comparatively recent period, suffered such grievous oppression, should be omitted in the notice
of the oppressors from whom Israel had been delivered. The Vulgate has • Canaanites.' There was a town called Maon in the mountainous region of Judea ; and another called Beth-Meou and Baal-Meon on the west of Jordan ; and some think that the old inhabitants of one of these districts are intended. This does not seem very probable.
17. · The children of Ammon were gathered together,' etc. --It would appear from the next chapter that, as we ex. plained above, the Ammonites had not brought the country under complete subjection; having contented themselves with incursions attended with slaughter and spoliation. But, from the claim made in the ensuing chapter, it seems clear that they were assembled, on the present occasion, with the view of completing their operations by the total expulsion of the Hebrews from the country east of the Jordan. It was probably this imminent danger which aroused the tribes to the repentance expressed in the preceding verses. Past experience then taught them to expect that the Lord would take pity upon them; and in this expectation, they appear to have been encouraged to assemble, in order to give the Ammonites battle. At any rate, the whole history shews that the Ammonites had not up to this time brought the trans-Jordanic tribes under servitude, in the full sense of the word.
Ammon made war against Israel, the elders
of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the 1 The covenant between Jephthah and the Gileadites, that he should be their head. 12 The treaty of peace
6 And they said unto Jephthah, Come, between him and the Ammonites is in vain. 29 Jeph. thah's vow. 32 His conquest of the Ammonites.
and be our captain, that we may fight with 39 He performeth his vow on his daughter,
the children of Ammon.
7 And Jephthah said unto the children of Now 'Jephthah the Gileadite was a mighty Gilead, Did not ye hate me, and expel me man of valour, and he was the son of an out of my father's house ? and why are ye harlot: and Gilead begat Jephthah.
come unto me now when ye are in distress ? 2 And Gilead's wife bare him sons; and 8 And the elders of Gilead said unto his wife's sons grew up, and they thrust out Jephthah, Therefore we turn again to thee Jephthah, and said unto him, Thou shalt not now, that thou mayest go with us, and fight inherit in our father's house ; for thou art against the children of Ammon, and be our the son of a strange woman.
head over all the inhabitants of Gilead. 3 Then Jephthiah fled from his brethren, 9 And Jephthah said unto the elders of and dwelt in the land of Tob: and there were | Gilead, If ye bring me home again to fight gathered vain men to Jephthah, and went out against the children of Ammon, and the with him.
Lord deliver them before me, shall I be your 4 9 And it came to pass 'in process of head ? time, that the children of Ammon made war 10 And the elders of Gilead said unto against Israel.
| Jephthah, The LORD 'be witness between us, 5 And it was so, that when the children of | if we do not so according to thy words.
i lleb. !1, 32, called Jephthae.
2 Heb. a woman an harlot. 3 Heb. from the face.
5 Heb, be the hearer between us.
1 Heb. after days.
kened mot him
11 Tlien Jephthah went with the elders | 23 So now the Lord God of Israel hath of Gilead, and the people made him head | dispossessed the Amorites from before his and captain over them: and Jephthah uttered people Israel, and shouldest thou possess it? all his words before the Lord in Mizpeh. 24 Wilt not thou possess that which Che
12 q And Jephthah sent messengers unto mosh thy god giveth thee to possess ? So the king of the children of Ammon, saying, whomsoever the LORD our God shall drive What hast thou to do with me, that thou art out from before us, them will we possess. come against me to fight in my land ?
25 "And now art thou any thing better 13 And the king of the children of Am- than Balak the son of Zippor king of Moab? mon answered unto the messengers of Jeph did he ever strive against Israel, or did he thah, "Because Israel took away my land, ever fight against them, when they came up out of Egypt, from Arnon 26 While Israel dwelt in Heshbon and even unto Jabbok, and unto Jordan : now | her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and therefore restore those lands again peace- | in all the cities that be along by the coasts ably.
of Arnon, three hundred years ? why there14 And Jephthah sent messengers again fore did ye not recover them within that unto the king of the children of Ammon:
time? 15 And said unto him, Thus saith Jeph- 27 Wherefore I have not sinned against thah, "Israel took not away the land of thee, but thou doest me wrong to war against Moab, nor the land of the children of Am-me: the LORD the Judge be judge this day mon:
between the children of Israel and the chil16 But when Israel came up from Egypt, dren of Ammon. 1 and walked through the wilderness unto the 28 IIowbeit the king of the children of Red sea, and came to Kadesh;
Ammon hearkened not unto the words of 17 Then ®Israel sent messengers unto the Jephthah which he sent him. king of Edom, saying, Let me, I pray thee, | 29 | Then the Spirit of the LORD came pass through thy land: but the king of Edom upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, would not hearken thereto. And in like | and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of manner they sent unto the king of Moab : | Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed but he would not consent : and Israel abode over unto the children of Ammon. in Kadesh.
30 And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the 18 Then they went along through the Lord, and said, If thou shalt without fail wilderness, and compassed the land of Edom, deliver the children of Ammon into mine and the land of Moab, and came by the east hands, side of the land of Moab, and pitched on the 31 Then it shall be, that 'swhatsoever other side of Arnon, 'but came not within the cometh forth of the doors of my house to horder of Moab: for Arnon was the border of meet me, when I return in peace from the Moab.
children of Ammon, shall surely be the 19 And Israel sent messengers unto Lord's, '*and I will offer it up for a burnt Sihon king of the Amorites, the king of offering. Heshbon; and Israel said unto him, Let us 32 T So Jephthah passed over unto the pass, we pray thee, through thy land into my children of Ammon to fight against them; place.
and the Lord delivered them into his hands. 20 But Sihon trusted not Israel to pass 33 And he smote them from Aroer, even through his coast : but Sihon gathered all his till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, people together, and pitched in Jahaz, and and unto "sthe plain of the vineyards, with a fought against Israel.
very great slaughter. Thus the children of 21 And the Lord God of Israel delivered Ammon were subdued before the children of Sihon and all his people into the hand of Israel. Israel, and they smote them: so Israel pos- 34 And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto sessed all the land of the Amorites, the in- | his house, and, behold, his daughter came out habitants of that country..
to meet him with timbrels and with dances : 22 And they possessed "all the coasts of and she was his only child ; 16 beside her he I the Amorites, from Amon even unto Jabbok, had neither son nor daughter. and from the wilderness even unto Jordan. I 35 And it came to pass, when he saw her,
Yum. 21. 13. 7 Dent. 2.9. 8 Num. 20. 14. 9 Num. 21. 13, and 22. 36. 10 Deut. 2. 26. 11 Dent. 2. 36.
19 Nam, 22. 2. Deut. 23. 4. Josh, 24. 9. 13 Heb. that which cometh forth, which shall come forth. 15 Or, Abel,
16 Or, he had not of his oren, either son or daughter. VOL. IL
14 Or, or I will offer it, &c 17 Heb, of himself.
that he rent liis clothes, and said, Alas, my | the mountains, and bewail my virginity, I and daughter! thou hast brought me very low, my fellows. and thou art one of them that trouble me: 38 And he said, Go. And he sent her for I have opened my mouth unto the LORD, away for two months : and she went with her and I cannot go back.
companions, and bewailed her virginity upon 36 And she said unto him, My father, if the mountains. thou hast opened thy mouth unto the LORD, 39 And it came to pass at the end of two do to me according to that which hath pro- | months, that she returned unto her father, who ceeded out of thy mouth; forasmuch as the did with her according to his vow which he LORD hath taken vengeance for thee of thine had vowed : and she knew no man. And it enemies, even of the children of Ammon. was a ''custom in Israel,
37 And she said unto her father, Let this 40 That the daughters of Israel went thing be done for me: let me alone two | 'yearly alto lament the daughter of Jephthah months, that I may go up and down upon the Gileadite four days in a year. 18 Heb. go and go down. 19 Or, ordinance.
20 Heb. from year to year. 21 Or, to talk with.
Verse 3. There were gathered vain men to Jephthah, and they considered it a laudable and glorious employment for went out with him.' The meaning of this obviously is that their youth, which procured them reputation, and preJephthah, being without any inheritance or family con served them from indolence and inaction, Some similar nections to afford him a subsistence, and being expelled feelings may be discovered in the border forays' which from his native place, became an adventurer; and his were carried on on the frontiers of England and Scotland, character having brought around him a number of brave | even at times when the two nations were at peace. Another but idle men, perhaps, similarly circumstanced, he, for source which contributed to enable these old German caphis own and their support, as well as to establish the repu tains to support their retinue, was found in the voluntary tation he had previously acquired, made predatory incur contributions of the people of the district which was prosions into the neighbouring countries. This is meant by tected by their valour. These contributions consisted * going out with him.' Probably they went out particu chiefly of corn and cattle; and were of the greatest serlarly into the land of the Ammonites, to retaliate the in vice in assisting them to furnish their troops with procursions which the latter made into Israel; and this would visions. The Hebrew leaders of the same class expected naturally lead the people to look to Jephthah, when they the same assistance; as we see by the instance of David, wanted a military leader. The mode of life here indi. who sent some of his men to Carmel to ask the rich Nabal cated is precisely that followed by David, when his repu to send him provisions, grounding the demand on the tation brought around him men of similar character to safety and protection which the shepherds had enjoyed these followers of Jephthah. This kind of predatory life while his troop had been in the neighbourhood. These is very far indeed from being considered dishonourable in details may assist us in understanding the position the East. On the contrary, the fame thus acquired is which Jephthah occupied before he was called to lead the thought as fair as any that can be obtained through any army against the Ammonites, and which David filled class of military operations. An Arab or a Tartar desires while the persecutions of Saul made him a wanderer. no higher or brighter fame than that which he may thus 13. • Because Israel took away my land.'-See the note acquire : and to make that fame unsullied, it is only neces on Deut. ii. 19. sary that his expedition should not be against his own 15. • Thus saith Jephthah.'—Jephthah's reply gives a nation or his own tribe. The associations formed by the fair and clear recital of the whole transaction which had Arabs and Tartars for such purposes are seldom of longer placed these lands in the possession of the Israelites, and he duration than the particular expedition; and we therefore refuses to surrender them on the following grounds :--1. think that the most striking illustration of the state of He denied that the Ammonites had any existing title to things here and elsewhere indicated, may be derived from the lands, for they had been driven out of these lands by the account which Tacitus gives of the manners of the the Amorites before the Hebrews appeared ; and that they ancient Germans. When a warrior had acquired reputa- (the Hebrews), in overcoming and driving out the Amortion for courage and conduct, young men became emulous ites without any assistance from or friendly understandof placing themselves under so distinguished a leader, and / ing with the Ammonites, became entitled to the territory resorted to him, forming a retinue of bold volunteers who which the conquered people occupied. 2. That the title of felt bound to do their chief honour by their exploits to the Israelites was confirmed by a prescription of above defend him with their lives, and not to survive him if three hundred years, during which none of Ammon or of slain. This band gave distinction and power to the chief Moab had even reclaimed these lands: and, 3. As an himself; and rendered him often so formidable, that argumentum ad hominem, he alleged that the God of neighbouring tribes and nations cultivated his favour by Israel was as well entitled to grant his people the lands embassies and presents, and obstinate and cruel wars were which they held as was their own god Chemosh, accordoften terminated by his interposition. All the retinue ing to their opinion, to grant to the Ammonites the lands lived at the expense of their leader, who provided a plain which they now occupied. This admirable and well reabut plentiful table for them; and also from time to time | soned statement concluded with an appeal to Heaven to made them valuable presents. This involved great ex decide the justice of the cause by the event of the battle pense; to support which he kept his troop almost continu which was now inevitable. ally engaged in invasions and plundering expeditions 17. ' In like manner they sent unto the king of Moab,'among the neighbouring nations or, in short, in the same Of this deputation to Moab, no account is given anywhere kind of military freebooting which Jephthah and David else; but the Jewish commentators observe that it is practised—and through which alone they could keep up clearly intimated by Moses himself, in Deut. ii. 29, · As the state of a general, and maintain a character for libe the children of Esau who dwelt in Seir, and the Moabites rality to their band. They, like the Orientals, did not which dwelt in Ar, did unto me;' which they, with reason, account the act of pillaging base, while carried on beyond interpret to mean that, as the children of Esau would not, the limits of their own tribe or nation : on the contrary, when applied to, suffer the Israelites to pass through their
land, so neither would the Moabites when the same request transaction, that this is the interpretation which we ought was made to them.
to adopt; Jephthah being, from his devout and judicious 30. Jephthah vowed a vow.'-—It was usual among most conduct at the commencement of the war, apparently inancient nations, at the commencement of a war or battle, capable of an intention so grossly repugnant to the law of to vow to some particular god that, if the undertaking God as that which the other explanation supposes. Withvere successful, large sacrifices should burn upon his altar, out committing ourselves to a final opinion, we must conor temples be erected in his honour. We have instances fess that we concur with those who do not see the validity of this as well in the histories of Greece and Rome, as in of this argument. It may be granted that the hero acted those of Oriental nations. Concerning the vow now before with the most devout intentions, without its being necesus many volumes have been written; the point of interest sary to concede that he was so well instructed in the law being to determine whether Jephthah really did sacrifice of God as to be incapable of making an unlawful vow. his daughter, or only devoted her to perpetual celibacy, as Who was Jephthah ?-a man who before his expulsion consecrated to Jehovah. We have anxiously considered seems to have led a bold, daring life, which obtained him this question; and feel so much difficulty in arriving at a the reputation of a mighty man of valour,' and which decided opinion, that we shall express none, except on one reputation enabled him, after he became a fugitive, to color two points which may be considered as established be lect a troop of vain men,' which he formed into a band yond dispute. For the rest, we shall give what we con of freebooters, and became their captain. Moreover, he ceive to be the strongest arguments on both sides of the was bred up beyond Jordan, where the connection with question, leaving the reader to form his own conclusions the tabernacle and its observances was very loosely, if at as to their comparative value. We may as well state all, maintained; where the ephod of Gideon had been a here, however, that the balance of authority, Jewish and snare to that hero, to his house, and to the people; and Christian, seems considerably to incline in favour of the where, after his death, the people had turned aside and common impression, which is, that Jephthah really did made Baal-berith their god. Under these circumstances, offer his daughter as a sacrifice to Jehovah, We must it is not too much to suppose that the law had become not, however, take the balance of authority for more than very imperfectly known in general, and least of all to a it is worth ; and need not hamper the question, by giving man leading the kind of life which the brave Gileadite undue preponderance to that conclusion which it seems had led. It is highly probable that the people, during rather to sanction.
their idolatry, had offered human sacrifices, in imitation 31. - Whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house of their heathen neighbours who certainly did so; and to meet me .... shall surely be the Lord's, and I will Jephthah's mind being familiarized to the notion that such offer it up for a burnt offering.'-By comparing this read sacrifices were acceptable to the gods, mingled with a mising with that in the margin, it will be seen that two very understood recollection (facts being better retained than different versions are given, through a very slight verbal precepts) of Abraham's intended sacrifice of Isaac by divine variation. The sense depends upon whether, at the com command-there is nothing very violent in the notion that mencement of the last clause, we shall render the prefix he may have contemplated the possibility of such a sacri1 as. and' conjunctive, or or' disjunctive. We may do fice in pronouncing his vow. One thing seems certain, either ; but' and is the most usual sense, perhaps because, that whatever he intended, he could not be unaware that in writing, the conjunctive' and' is more frequently re some human being might, quite as probably as an animal, quired than the disjunctive.or.' In most cases, the con be the first to come to meet him on his return home. Intext enables us to determine which is to be understood; deed, “coming to meet him,' seems to imply an act which but the present is one of the few instances in which the could scarcely be expected from any but a human being. context does not discriminate the particle, but the particle That this human being would be his daughter was within determines the meaning of the text. In this dilemma our the limits of possibility ; but we see from the result, that translation puts and in the text, and or in the margin. it was his secret hope that she might be spared. He did The reader will easily perceive the resulting difference in | not, however, make her an exception, because the prevathe meaning. If we take the and, it sanctions the opinion lent notion was, that the offering, whether for sacrifice or that Jephthah did sacrifice his daughter; because then his living consecration, was the more acceptable in the same VON only imports, that whatever came forth to meet him proportion that it was cherished and dear. should be the Lord's, by being offered up iu sacrifice to We have stated these considerations to shew that the Him, and does not imply any alternative. Whereas the unlawfulness of the vow, under the common interpretation, or does imply an alternative, and says, in effect, that what cannot be, all the circumstances considered, admitted as a ever came forth to meet him should be sacrificed as a burnt reason of such weight as to enable us to deny positively offering, if fit for sacrifice; but, if not, should be conse that Jephthah made such a vow. It does however enable crated to God.
us to deny, most decidedly, that such an offering could be Now there is no question that the latter form of the vow made upon God's altar, or by the high-priest, or by any contained nothing contrary to the law; but that the former regular and faithful member of the priesthood. It seems was most decidedly opposed to it. Jephthah could not but indeed almost superfluous to say that a human sacrifice be aware of the probability that he might be met by a could not take place at the Lord's proper altar, or be haman being, or by some animal declared by the law to offered by his proper priest; but perhaps it may not be be anclean and unfit for sacrifice. A vow which involved superfluous to shew from the text, that if Jephthah did such a contingency could not be lawful; particularly as offer his daughter, it could not be at the tabernacle. It human sacrifices are again and again interdicted with the will be remembered that the tabernacle was at Shiloh, in strongest expressions of abhorrence and reprobation. the tribe of Ephraim. Now at the beginning of the next But, on the other hand, it is alleged, that there was nothing chapter, and immediately after the conclusion of the war to prevent human beings from being consecrated to God with the Ammonites, we find Jephthah, who, from all we and the service of his tabernacle. Samuel was thus de. | know, had never till then, or even then, been west of the voted before his birth; and in the division of the spoils in Jordan, engaged in a bitter war with the Ephraimites, the first Midianitish war, we are told that the Lord's tri which renders it in the highest degree improbable that he bute from the whole number of captive virgins was “thirty-| should, in the very heat of the quarrel, have gone into the two persons.' These facts are said to explain the species heart of that tribe to offer such a sacrifice, even had it of devotement which it was lawful to make. Jephthah's been lawful. That such a sacrifice was not offered at Vow was therefore lawful, if we read the prefixed 1 as Shiloh, where only sacrifices to the Lord could legally be *or,' but unlawful if we must read it as “and. There is offered, does not however of itself prove that no such then an interpretation under which the vow of Jephthah sacrifice was offered. If this unhappy chief was so ignowas lawful, and did not involve the necessity or proba rant of the law as to think such a sacrifice acceptable to bility of human sacrifice. Such being the case, it is con God, he may well have been guilty of the other fault, tended by those who advocate the milder view of the then actually a common one, of making his offering beyond the Jordan, where he was himself master-particularly entertain her. We can only say, without reference to any as it would seem (see ch, viii. 27) that Gideon himself had particular theory, that the word means, in the general given his sanction to this practice, and formed an esta sense, 'to praise or celebrate,' and would therefore denote blishment for the purpose. In the course of the preceding that the daughters of Israel kept a four days' anniversary observations we have included the points we consider in to commemorate this transaction, whatever were its result. disputable, namely, that if such a sacrifice were made, it In a secondary sense, certainly, the word does mean to was contrary to the law of God- that it did not take place rehearse or relate ; but this results from the former interat the only lawful altar--and that it could not have had pretation, recital of the deed celebrated being part of the the sanction of the high-priest. [APPENDIX, No. 27.] act of celebration. To make this sense, which denotes
34. She was his only child.'-This circumstance is recital, to mean conversation, as in the margin, seems mentioned to point out a cause, besides paternal affection, rather forced. Recollecting the custom all over the East, for the poignancy of his distress. It has been observed for people to go once a year to lament over the graves of how intensely anxious the Hebrews were for posterity, I their deceased friends, this text seems rather to favour the and as Jephthah could only hope for descendants through idea that the daughter of Jephthah really died. his daughter, the sorrow he expressed is quite natural, We have thus gone over the subject, having no other even under the mild interpretation of his vow.
anxiety than to shew, that if such sacrifice were really 37. • And bewail my virginity,'— This is thought a strong consummated, it was most decidedly against the law of circumstance by those who take the milder view of Jeph God, and could not have been at his altar, or by his priest. thah's rash vow. If she was to die, that might be ex Further than this, the subject is perplexed with difficulties. pected to have been mentioned as the circumstance to be Several writers think that the story of the sacrifice, or hewailed; but the text itself rather refers the regret to intended sacrifice, of Iphigenia, was taken from that which the loss of that hope of becoming a mother in Israel, we have been considering. There is certainly a remarkwhich every Hebrew woman cherished with the force of a able analogy of name; Iphigenia being little different passion. This may nevertheless be referred to her death; | from Jephthigenia, or • Jephthah's daughter. Iphigenia since to die without having borne children, no less than was to have been sacrificed to propitiate Diana, by her to live without them, was the most lamentable fate which father's direction. This determination being opposed, could befal a woman; and on this circumstance she might the damsel herself decided the matter, by declaring her the rather be supposed to dwell if really doomed to be readiness to die for the welfare of Greece. But at the sacrificed ; because she may have thought it unbecoming moment of sacrifice she was saved by Diana, who substito allow herself to lament that which was to be an acknow tuted a hind in her room, and transported her to Tauris, ledgment of Israel's deliverance; but not at all so to be where she became a priestess of the goddess. This looks wail the involved extinction of that hope, which, to the like a combination of the present narrative with the result daughters of Israel, was dearer than life itself.
of Abraham's intended sacrifice of Isaac. This, however, 39. · Who did with her according to his row.'-It is not
is only one out of several versions of Iphigenia's story. The said what he did ; and that she is not said to have been
one given by Cicero is more strikingly analogous: Agasacrificed, is considered good negative evidence that she | memnon had vowed to sacrifice to Diana the most beauwas not. Neither view, however, can obtain much sup tiful object which should be born that year in his kingdom. port from this clause. It refers us back to the vow itself, Accordingly he sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia, because, the principal considerations connected with which we have in that year, nothing had been born which exceeded her already stated.
in beauty-a vow which he should rather not have per-- And she knew no man.'- If Jephthah's daughter formed than commit so cruel an action' (Offices, 1. iii. c. were sacrificed, it is alleged by those who think that she 25). A story still more strikingly illustrative is given by was not, that this remark would be frivolous. If she were, Servius in his note on the Æneid, iii. 121, in which he however, we do not see any puerility in directing our at explains the reason wliy tention to what would doubtless have been considered as
• Fierce Idomeneus, from Crete was fled, a most painful circumstance, namely, that the only child
Expellid and exiled.' of Jephthah had died without issue. 40. · The daughters of Israel went yearly to lament the
He was king of Crete; and being, on his return from daughter of Jephthali'--Much of the sense of the whole
Troy, overtaken by a storm, he vowed that, if he should narrative may be resolved into the interpretation of the
be saved, he would offer in sacrifice to the gods the first
object that should meet him on his arrival. Most unhapword nion? letannoth, here translated to lament.' It is
pily he was first met by his own son, and, according to therefore rendered differently, according to the different some accounts, he did with him according to his vow; but opinions which are entertained. Those who think that she others state, that a plague arose, which, being construed to was sacrificed, are satisfied with our version ; whereas denote the displeasure of the gods, the citizens not only others refer to that in the margin, to talk with'-meaning prevented the sacrifice, but expelled Idomeneus from his that the daughters of Israel went yearly to condole with and kingdom.
| Ammon, and didst not call us to go with
thee? we will burn thine house upon thee 1 The Ephraimnites, quarrelling with Jephthah, and with fire. discerned by Shibboleth, are slain by the Gileadites.
2 And Jephthah said unto them, I and 7 Jephthah dieth. 8 Ibzan, who had thirty sons and thirty daughters, 11 and Elon, 13 and Abdon,
my people were at great strife with the chilwho had forty sons and thirty nephews, judge Israel.
dren of Ammon; and when I called you, ye
delivered me not out of their hands. And the men of Ephraim 'gathered them 3 And when I saw that ye delivered me selves together, and went northward, and not, I put my life in my hands, and passed said unto Jephthal, Wherefore passedst over against the children of Ammon, and the thou over to fight against the children of Lord delivered them into my hand : where
| lleb. were called.