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10 1 And Judah went against the Canaan
ites that dwelt in Hebron : (now the name of 1 The acts of Judah and Simeon. 6 Adoni-bezek
Hebron before was 'Kirjath-arba :) and they justly requited. 8 Jerusalem taken. 10 Hebron taken. 13 Othniel hath Achsah to wife for taking
slew Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai. of Debir. 16 The Kenites dwell in Judah. 17 Hora
11 | And from thence he went against the mah, Gaza, Askelon, and Ekron taken. 21 The inhabitants of Debir: and the name of Debir acts of Benjamin. 22 of the house of Joseph, who before was Kirjath-sepher : take Beth-el. 27 Of Manasseh. 30 Of Zebulun. 31 Of Asher. 33 of Naphtali. 34 of Dan.
12 And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kir.
jath-sepher, and taketh it, to him will I give OW after the Achsah my daughter to wife. death of Joshua
13 And Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's it came to pass,
younger brother, took it: and he gave him that the child Achsah his daughter to wife. ren of Israel 14 And it came to pass, when she came to asked the Lord, him, that she moved him to ask of her father saying,
Who a field : and she lighted from off her ass : and shall go up
Caleb said unto her, What wilt thou ? for us against
15 And she said unto him, Give me the Canaanites blessing: for thou hast given me a south land; first, to fight give me also springs of water. And Caleb against them? gave her the upper springs and the nether
2 And the springs. LORD said,
16 And the children of the Kenite, Judah shall go
Moses' father in law, went up out of the city of
up: behold, I palm trees with the children of Judah into the have delivered the land into his hand.
wilderness of Judah, which lieth in the south 3 And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, of Arad; and they went and dwelt among Come up with me into my lot, that we may
people fight against the Canaanites; and I likewise 17 And Judah went with Simeon his browill go with thee into thy lot. So Simeon ther, and they slew the Canaanites that inwent with him.
habited Zephath, and utterly destroyed it. 4 And Judah went up; and the Lord de- And the name of the city was called 'Horlivered the Canaanites and the Perizzites into mah. their hand: and they slew of them in Bezek 18 Also Judah took Gaza with the coast ten thousand men.
thereof, and Askelon with the coast thereof, 5 And they found Adoni-bezek in Bezek : and Ekron with the coast thereof.
19 And the LORD was with Judah ; and and they fought against him, and they slew the Canaanites and the Perizzites.
"he drave out the inhabitants of the moun6 But Adoni-bezek fled; and they pur- tain; but could not drive out the inhabitants sued after him, and caught him, and cut off of the valley, because they had chariots of bis thumbs and his great toes.
iron. 7 And Adoni-bezek said, Threescore and 20 ®And they gave Hebron unto Caleb, as ten kings, having 'their thumbs and their great Moses said : and he expelled thence the three toes cut off, 'gathered their meat under my sons of Anak. table: as I have done, so God hath requited 21 | And the children of Benjamin did not
And they brought him to Jerusalem, drive out the Jebusites that inhabited Jeruand there he died.
salem ; but the Jebusites dwell with the 8 g Now the children of Judah had fought children of Benjamin in Jerusalem unto this against Jerusalem, and had taken it, and day. smitten it with the edge of the sword, and set 22 9 And the house of Joseph, they also the city on fire.
went up against Beth-el : and the LORD was 9 And afterward the children of Judah with them. went down to fight against the Canaanites, 23 And the house of Joseph sent to descry that dwelt in the mountain, and in the south, Beth-el. (Now the name of the city before and in the 'valley.
1 Heb. the thumbs of their hands and of their feet. 2 Or, gleaned. s Josh. 15. 13. 6 Num. 21. 3. 7 Or, he possessed the mountain.
3 Josh. 10, 36, and 11. 21, and 15. 13. 4 Or, low country.
24 And the spies saw a man come forth out inhabitants of Kitron, nor the inhabitants of of the city, and they said unto him, Shew us, Nahalol; but the Canaanites dwelt among we pray thee, the entrance into the city, and them, and became tributaries. 10 we will shew thee mercy.
31 T Neither did Asher drive out the in25 And when he shewed them the entrance habitants of Accho, nor the inhabitants of into the city, they smote the city with the Zidon, nor of Ahlab, nor of Achzib, nor of edge of the sword; but they let go the man Helbah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rehob: and all his family.
32 But the Asherites dwelt among the 26 And the man went into the land of the Can
Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land : for Hittites, and built a city, and called the name they did not drive them out. thereof Luz: which is the name thereof unto 33 | Neither did Naphtali drive out the this day.
inhabitants of Beth-shemesh, nor the inha27 Ý "Neither did Manasseh drive out the bitants of Beth-anath ; but he dwelt among inhabitants of Beth-shean and her towns, nor the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land : Taanach and her towns, nor the inhabitants of nevertheless the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh Dor and her towns, nor the inhabitants of and of Beth-anath became tributaries unto them. Ibleam and her towns, nor the inhabitants of 34 1 And the Amorites forced the children Megiddo and her towns : but the Canaanites of Dan into the mountain : for they would not would dwell in that land.
suffer them to come down to the valley : 28 And it came to pass, when Israel was 35 But the Amorites would dwell in mount strong, that they put the Canaanites to tri- Heres in Aijalon, and in Shaalbim : yet the bute, and did not utterly drive them out. hand of the house of Joseph ''prevailed, so
29 "Neither did - Ephraim drive out the that they became tributaries. Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer; but the 36 And the coast of the Amorites was from Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them. "the going up to Akrabbim, from the rock, 30 | Neither did Zebulun drive out the and upward. 11 Josh. 17. 11, 12.
13 Heb. was heavy.
14 Or, Maaleh-akrabbin.
10 Josh. 2. 14.
12 Josh. 16, 10.
Verse 6. 'Cut off his thumbs and his great toes.'— The feet and toes are much employed in almost all handicraft remarkable character of this mutilation, and its uniform operations throughout the East, and in many cases the loss infliction by Adoni-bezek himself upon his own captives, of the great toes would completely disqualify a man from lead us to suppose that there was some ulterior object earning his subsistence. Besides the many little active beyond mere gratuitous cruelty. Was it to disable them operations which they are tutored to execute, the artisans, from acting in future in a warlike capacity? In the hands as they work with their hands, seated on the ground, hold of a man without thumbs, few of the weapons of antiquity fast and manage all their work with their feet and toes, could be very effective; and the want of the great toes in which the great toes have a very prominent duty to would be a check upon agility in flight or action. Accord perform. ingly, we read of many instances of similar mutilation, in 7. • Threescore and ten kings.'— This extraordinary numancient history. Thus the Athenians cut off the thumb of ber of kings will not surprise the attentive reader of Scripthe right hands of the inhabitants of the island of Ægina, to ture, or of ancient history in general. The sacred history preclude them from managing the spear, and from disputing concurs with the profane in shewing that the earliest sovewith themselves the empire of the sea. The disabling effect reignties were of exceedingly confined extent, often conof such a mutilation, in a military point of view, appears sisting of no more than a single town, with a small suralso from the practice, among those Romans who disliked rounding district. In the time of Abraham there were not a military life, of cutting off their own thumbs, that they fewer than five kings in the vale of Sodom; that is, a king might render themselves incapable of serving in the army. to every city that is mentioned : and in Joshua xii. there Parents were known thus to disable their children for the is a list of thirty-one kings, whom the hero of that name same reason. This became so common a practice at last, overthrew in the small country of Canaan; and now we that the senate and the emperors found it necessary to come to a conqueror who, probably within the bounds of punish the act severely as a crime. Even at this day, in no very extensive territory, had overcome no less than some of those continental states where the army is recruited seventy kings. Small states of this sort have existed in the by a compulsory conscription, men are occasionally known early period of almost every nation, and their history has to cut off the thumb of the right hand, to prevent their been everywhere the same. One or more of such states being called to a service they dislike ; and even soldiers in acquired, in the course of time, such predominance as the army do the same, to ensure their discharge. It has enabled it to absorb the others gradually into its own body; therefore been necessary to render such an act a punish- or else foreign invaders conquered the several states in able offence. A trace of this practice exists in the word detail, and formed them into one kingdom. This has been poltron, which we and the French have adopted from the the usual process by which large states were originally Italian, which, while it immediately denotes, as with us, a formed, wherever we find them existing. Egypt itself was dastardly soldier who shrinks from his duty, etymologically at first divided into several states. So, in China and Japan, signifies cut-thumb, being formed from pollice, thumb;' the several provinces into which we see those nations diand trónco, cut off, maimed.' As to the loss of the great vided, were anciently so many independent sovereignties. toes-independently of the inconvenience occasioned in the It was the same in ancient Greece; and, in reading the act of walking or running, the disabling effect to an Iliad of Homer, the modern reader is astonished at the Oriental is infinitely greater than to a European. The vast number of kings sent by Greece and its islands to the Trojan war; which renders it evident that this small only spare his life when there are facilities for making a region was at least not inferior to Canaan in the number profit of him by selling him to those by whom his services of the little principalities into which it was divided. But may be needed, or when there is some equivalent prospect we need not go out of our own country for examples. We' of valuable ransom. Under this state of things, captive may conceive the number of kingdoms into which this kings and chiefs are generally exposed to a peculiar treatisland was divided, from the fact, mentioned by Cæsar, that ment, by reason of the active and leading part which their there were four kings in the single county of Kent. The position had obliged them to take against their present Silures, the Brigantes, and other small tribes, among whom conquerors. Sometimes we shall find that they are put to the country was portioned, had each their own king. The death, and that in cold blood, and with circumstances of Saxons did things on a large scale, when they divided ignominy, weeks or months after the conflict has been dethe country into so few as seven kingdoms. In the time of cided. Oftener they are subjected to some mutilation, and the Romans, Gaul, Spain, and Germany were, in like man- are obliged to render menial and ignominious services to ner, cut up into a countless number of small states and their conqueror. kingdoms. In more modern times, and even in our own, In a still more improved condition of society, where the we see a similar state of things subsisting in Africa, Ame- disadvantages of an act of warfare are generally less unequal rica, avd part of Asia, where we encounter a great number than in the savage or semi-civilized conditions, prisoners of sovereigns, or independent states, in a small extent of are taken on both sides; and as both consider that the country; each canton having its own king.
presence of their own citizens and soldiers is of more ad. As I have done, so God hath requited me.'—Had no vantage than the services of foreign slaves, an exchange of further explanation been given, the act of the Hebrew vic- prisoners is the result. If, under these circumstances, a tors, in cutting off the thumbs and great toes of their royal king or chief person should become a prisoner, he obtains captive, would have been cited (as other acts not similarly his liberty either for a high ransom, or by exchange explained have been) as a deed of motiveless and savage against one or more persons of the highest rank, or by the barbarity, attesting the innate cruelty of their nature. But cession of some advantage to the captors. The highest when the person thus treated himself lets us know that he state of civilization possible while war exists, seems to be regards it as an act of retributive justice,-and when, thus indicated by the liberation of officers (even of high rank) himself mutilated, the bitter remembrance comes before him acting under orders, upon their parole engagement, not of the threescore and ten kings who were similarly dealt again during the war to fight against their captors. with by him, and whom, with barbaric pride, he kept to The condition of society, as indicated by war, described gather their meat under his table,- the case as regards the in this last paragraph, is not to be found in any ancieut Israelites is greatly altered. So far from being a barbarity nation, although parts of it might be occasionally brought of their own invention, gratuitous and uncalled for, they de- out by some concurrence of circumstances. part from their ordinary practice to render it an act of retri- We have entered into this statement because the true butive justice, and thereby expressed in no equivocal terms question as to the war practices of the Hebrews is nothing their detestation of the manner in which this tyrannical more or less than this,-Whether their practices in war king had been wont to treat the illustrious persons who did or did not correspond with the progressive developments became captive to him.
of their national condition ? not,—Whether in the first stage In speaking about contemporary usages, however, it will of their social progression they had the war usages which be necessary to guard against one dangerous source of mis- are found only in the last ? conception. Except with reference to the times in which Now, in answer to this question, we have not the least we ourselves live, we are in the habit of practically for- hesitation in declaring our conviction that the practices of getting that contemporary nations are not necessarily in the Hebrews, as regards the treatment of prisoners, were not the same state of civilization ; and there are classes of only not worse, but not nearly as bad as those of other usages, especially such as are connected with war, which, nations in the same state of civilization. It would be as existing in any one nation, will be much better illus- almost unnecessary to state that in the long period over trated, or rather estimated, by the practices of any other which the history of the Hebrew people extends, they nations in a similar state with respect to civilization, in passed through various states of civilization ; that their whatever age existing, than by references to the usages of social condition was progressive, like that of all other na. contemporary or even neighbouring nations. The dimi- tions; and that, as time passed, many old customs were nution of the barbarities of war which advancing civiliza- relinquished, and many new ones came into use. tion produces, is perhaps less the effect of humane feeling During the time in which the Hebrews were engaged than of the interested considerations which civilization in the conquest of Canaan, and were well settled in that evolves. The barbarian has no interest in being merciful, country—that is, down to the time of King David-they and therefore-unless by a fortunate accident-he has no were in a condition very similar, as respects war, to that mercy. His war is one of extermination. His object is to which we have firstly described, while the settled nations injure or disable the enemy as much as possible, and he around them were for the most part in that condition which knows no way of doing this but by destroying as many as has been secondly indicated. And yet it will be found that possible of their number. His glory is to accumulate the during this period the usages of the Hebrews were far mortal trophies of those he has slain. He gives no quarter,
above those of the first condition; but were in many renor expects to receive any; and if he does take prisoners, spects equal to, and in some respects above those of the it is only that they may in some future day of triumphant second condition-and this through the correctives which festival taste with tenfold intensity all the bitterness of their religious system applied to the principles of warfare death. The reason of this is, that he has no use for their which naturally belonged to their condition. lives; and the only motive which prevents him from de- During the period of which we now write, the Hebrews stroying them on the spot is—that he may devour them had no interest in preserving the lives of their prisoners. at leisure, or that he may offer them in sacrifice to his The conquest of the country being incomplete, they were grim idols.
themselves rather pressed at times for room; and their Then, as a nation becomes settled, it finds that the labour operations in agriculture and pasturage were of too conof a man has such value as to make his life worth pre- tracted and simple a description to need more hands than serving. The captives are therefore spared to labour as every family with its natural dependants afforded. There slaves. Under this state of things, however, interest will was no market open to them in which they could sell their suggest the advantage of allowing the captive to be ran- prisoners for slaves, had they been so inclined. And as the somed by his friends, if communications can be opened nations with whom they warred were their near neighbours, with them, and if the sum which they can offer exceeds they could not employ them with any profit to themselves the value which the captor sets upon his services. A without affording them the means of escape. In short, it savage could not preserve his prisoner without encumber- was impossible that they could have kept them without ing himself with the charge of his subsistence, and he will incurring the cost of their maintenance, which no ancient nation ever did. Under such circumstances no prisoners That the Egyptians were, at this period, very far above were taken. Those who could, escaped ; and those who the Hebrews in all the arts of civil life, it would be very could not, were slain either on the field of battle or in the useless to dissemble or dispute. It has therefore occurred pursuit. In fact there were no surrenders or capitulations to as that we cannot better conclude this note than by of bodies of men, no laying down of arms, by which pri- shewing that in this comparatively advanced state of that soners are obtained in modern warfare. No prisoners were people, when captive labour had become valuable to them, ever reserved to be tortured and slain in cold blood on they still retained barbarous war-usages which were not some future occasion. It is true that one or two instances known to the Hebrews in their most barbarous state, much of prisoners being put to death after the act of warfare, do less in that more civilized condition which they afterwards occur-such as that of the Midianites (Num. xxxi. 13-17) attained. The illustration derivable from this source is the and of king Agag (1 Sam. xv. 32, 33): but these were not more important, inasmuch as, from their long residence in preserved with the view of their being subsequently de- Egypt, they could hardly be unacquainted with the warstroyed; but they were put to death because they had usages of that country, and the difference cannot well be without authority been spared by the military commanders, accounted for but by reference to the different circumalthough the nation had before the battle devoted them, by stances in which they were placed, and the entirely different a solemn and irrevocable ban, to destruction. In the case principles of their religion and government. of those kings who were taken in the course of the battle, An admirable representation of a battle-field is found on and were put to death on the same day, at its close, this the walls of the pronaos of the great temple at Medinet cannot be called cold blooded. It was a crowning act of Habou, and is thus described by Dr. Richardson : The triumph and vengeance, while the blood of the victors, south and part of the east wall is covered with a battlemaddened by the recent conflict, still boiled in their veins. scene, and the cruel punishment of the vanquished, by At the worst, this was the most barbarous practice of the cutting off their hands and maiming their bodies, which Hebrews in their most barbarous state; and was of far less atrocity than the acts towards their distinguished prisoners of nations far in advance of the Israelites of these times in general civilization-if indeed there be any true civilization by which the heart is not civilized. Thus the heathen attributed, to some extent, the victories which they achieved to the might and blessing of their gods: therefore, in acknowledging the obligation to these gods, prisoners were, by some of them, preserved to be offered to these gods in sacrifice, on some high holiday; but from this, and from a hundred other barbarities connected with or arising out of this form of acknowledgment, the Hebrews were precluded by the strict prohibition of human sacrifices, as a thing most abhorrent to Jehovah. Yet no nation was more perseveringly taught than the Hebrews that the glory of all their victories was to be ascribed to their Divine King; and this made the agents of these victories, the generals, judges, and kings, heedful that they might not seem to take too large a share of the glory to themselves, by ostentatious exhibitions of their triumphs. No royal and noble captives were dragged in chains at their chariot wheels; none were allowed to live on, to be paraded in distant cities to mark the triumph of the conqueror, and afterwards ignominiously
SCRIBE COUNTING ILANDS (CUT OFF). slain; none were ever blinded or mutilated by them, or is performed in the presence of the chief, who has seated exposed to mockery and insult; nor were any ever kept by himself in repose on the back part of his chariot to them to grind in the prison-house, or to gather meat under witness the execution of his horrid sentence.
Three their tables : not even Solomon in all his glory entertained heaps of amputated hands are counted over before him, the vulgar ambition of having dethroned kings among the and an equal number of scribes with scrolls in their menials of his house; and if kings' daughters were among hands are minuting down the account. As many rows of the honourable women' (see Ps. xlv. 9; attributed to Solo- prisoners stand behind, to undergo a similar mutilation in mon) of his Egyptian spouse, they were given to her by her their turn; their hands are tied behind their backs, or father rather than her husband ; and, after all; they were lashed over their heads, or thrust into eye-shaped manacles; honourable (not degraded) women. The custom among some of their heads are twisted completely round, some of the Hebrews of slaying the kings of a conquered people them are turned back to back, and their arms lashed togeupon the field of battle was, after all, of only momentary ther round the elbows; and thus they are marched up to duration. It had already so far declined in the time of punishment.' Now we are prepared to admit that RichardGideon, that he would have spared Zeba and Zalmunna son has here taken rather too strong a view of the case. had not they, by putting his brothers to death, rendered We believe with Wilkinson that the heaps of hands, the case one of blood-revenge. And although Agag was tongues, and other members, counted by the scribes in the put to death at a much later period, that was a peculiar presence of the king, are taken from the slain enemies, case, to which we have already adverted. And after having whose numbers they serve to authenticate. However, the relinquished this practice, they resorted to none of these particular manner in which the dead are mutilated for this intermediate barbarities of which we have spoken. Captive purpose does not say much for the humanity of idea among kings came to be treated with consideration and even kind- the Egyptians. There was no such practice among the ness; and for the most part, when not slain in battle, were Hebrews; and the not remarkably humane nation (the continued in the rule of their territories on the condition Turks), which has retained to our own day an analogous of paying tribute. The Hebrews also, within as short or practice, does not go further than to cut off the right ears a shorter time than any other people, ceased to wage ex- of the slain. The strained and torturing postures, painful terminative wars. With an enlarged territory and increased to behold, in which the prisoners are bound, seems to us, means of employment, it became their interest to take and
as it does to Richardson, a very unequivocal intimation of preserve captives for the sake of the services which they the inhuman manner in which the Eyptians treated their might render in the public works and in the fields. There captives. Wilkinson allows that, «l'o judge from the may be exceptions, and examples of gratuitous barbarities; mode of binding their prisoners, we might suppose they but what history is there, even modern history, in which treated them with unnecessary harshness, and even cruelty, such do not occur ?
at the moment of their capture and during their march
CAPTIVES BOUND. with the army'(Ancient Egyptians, i. 396). He also ad- As a conclusion to the whole of these scenes, the hero mits that the Egyptian hatred of foreigners might often slays with his club, in the presence of his gods, the prinlead the soldiers to commit acts of brutal severity, but cipal captives who have fallen into his hands. That the excuses them by reference to the incidental brutalities of mode of representation is in some respects symbolical, or the arınies of civilized Europe. This excuse is as good for rather conventional, must be admitted. ' For as the artists the Hebrews, and even better, as they were a less civilized' wanted space or ingenuity to intimate the number slain people. But, in fact, the brutalities of the Egyptians were before the gods in any other manner, the captives are renot incidents but usages. Nations do not perpetuate in presented as bound together in one mass, all on their knees, marble the memory of incidental barbarities which they with hands uplifted towards the inexorable hero, who, deplore; and that the Egyptians delighted in images of represented in colossal proportions, stands over them, human suffering and of tyrannic power over strangers, is grasping in one hand their united hair, while the other proved by the multiplication of such images in every pos- wields the uplifted club or battle-axe with which he seems sible form, not only in sculpture and painting, but as about to demolish them all with one blow. Scenes of this figured on their official dresses, and wrought in their orna- sort are repeated in every possible form. mental furniture. Scenes of immolation figure on their thrones; and their more splendid chairs present, as supporters of the seat, the gilt or golden images of captives, bound in the most painful postures, with ropes around their necks. To the thinking mind this last circumstance will appear much more conclusive than many facts of much greater intrinsic importance. The return after victory is represented in the continuation of the same historical piece to which the preceding observations refer :- The king returning victorious to Egypt, proceeds slowly in his
car, conducting in triumph the prisoners he has made, who walk (bound as above) beside and before it, three others being bound to the axle ..... He arrives at Thebes, and presents his captives to Amunre and Maut, the deities of the city, who compliment him, as usual, on the victory he has gained, and the overthrow of the enemy he has “trampled beneath his feet”' (Egypt and Thebes, 67). The victorious king trampling upon the bodies of his conquered foes frequently occurs in such scenes; and so fond were the Egyptians of the ideas and images connected with this act, that they were wont to have the figure of a slave or captive wrought upon their sandals, that they might thus tread it under feet. Sandals thus figured have been found. In some cases the king or chief alights from his chariot to bind with his own hand the chiefs he has conquered; and in others he holds
IMMOLATION OF CAPTIVES. himself the end of the rope around their necks whereby they are led, or rather driven, before his chariot in his Endeavours have of course been made to explain away triumphal march.
the obvious meaning of these groups. Mr. Hamilton thinks