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effect than an abstract doctrine; and so dangerous was accusation, thus definitely written, he would bear about the adoption of any symbolical object of worship, that publicly and conspicuously confute it; he would bear it as probably the mass of the people forgot altogether the an ornament, convinced it would, in the end, by his God that is above,' or remembered him but faintly, ren- triumphant disproval of it, redound to the still higher dering absolute adoration to the sun and to the fire. Be honour of his innocence. That the Hebrew sepher, book, this as it may, the cut we have introduced is an interesting may without violence be thus interpreted, is clear from illustration of the general subject. It is from the most Deut. xxiv. 1: “Let him write a bill of divorcement ancient sculptures in Persia, at Nakshi Rustam, supposed (sepher), and give it in her hand, and send her out of his to be not later than the age of Cyrus, and represents a house.” In the present connection it is tantamount to a priest or king-most probably the latter-worshipping bill of indictment.' towards the sun, having immediately before him an altar, 36. • I would-bind it as a crown to me?-This seems an on which the sacred fire is burning. It is altogether the allusion to some early custom of submissive reverence, best illustration that can be obtained, inasmuch as the similar to those which are still shewn in the East to the Persians did not make representations of the sun for wor- mandates of a sovereign. The account of Sir Thomas ship, and therefore the act represented is one of real wor- Roe's Embassy to the Great Mogul describes one of the ship of or towards that great body whose surpassing glory most reverent and most illustrative of these customs : first led astray the ancient mind, and brought it to honour • When the Mogul by letter sends his commands to any the creature more than the Creator.
of his governors, those papers are entertained with as much 27. . Or my mouth hath kissed my hand!—In the cut respect as if he himself were present; for the governor, the worshipper is represented with his right hand uplifted, having intelligence that such letters are come near him, and may have been kissing it or about to kiss it. The himself with other inferior officers ride forth to meet the act mentioned was probably one of salutation previously to messenger that brings them: and as soon as he sees those adoration, being itself also, in this application, an act of letters, he alights from his horse, falls down on the earth, adoration. We find traces of this ceremony in ancient then takes them from the messenger, and lays them on his writers: Minutius Felix ridicules Cecilius, who had kissed head whereon he binds them fast; then, returning to his place his hand as he passed the statue of Serapis; and, on the of public meeting, he reads and answers them.' other hand, Apuleius upbraids an impious person as having 39. ' If I have eaten the fruits thereof without money, or no respect for the gods, since he went by their temples caused the owners thereof to lose their life.'—It may be a without putting his hand to his mouth to salute them. question who are here designated as owners' of what Job 32. • I opened my doors to the traveller.”—This is one in the preceding verse calls
his own land. In point of fact, of many passages which illustrate the hospitality of those the word so translated is the general one for not only ownerancient times. Job appears to have been the semi-Bedouin ship, but mastership or presidence-usually translated sheikh of a village: and it may not be generally known lord,' that is to say, baal. In application to property it that it is still considered equally the privilege and duty of means ownership when the context does not require it to such sheikhs, as well as of those who dwell in tents, to mean simple mastership, which must be its meaning here. entertain travellers. Buckingham, travelling beyond Jor- Thus in Josh. xxiv. 11, Jud. ix. 2; 2 Sam. xxi. 12, the dan, writes, “A foot-passenger can make way at little or same word is used in the original to denote the inhabitants no expense, as travellers and wayfarers of every descrip- of a city, the citizens. Job therefore being the proprietor, tion halt at the sheikh's dwelling, where, whatever may be it is clear that the persons here indicated were the tenants, the rank or condition of the stranger, before any questions occupiers of the land. Great landowners in the east do not are asked him as to where he comes from, or whither he generally cultivate their own fields: they employ men who is going, coffee is served to him from a large pot always find all the labour, and have a certain part of the produce on the fire, and a meal of bread, milk, oil, honey, or for their remuneration. The cultivator, if defrauded, will butter, is set before him, for which no payment is ever say, “The furrows I have made bear witness against him: demanded or even expected by the lost, who, in this man- they complain.' Job therefore means, if the fields could ner, feeds at least twenty persons on an average, every day complain for want of proper culture, or if he had afflicted in the year, from his own purse: at least I could not learn the tiller, or eaten the produce without rewarding him for that he was remunerated in any way for his expenditure, bis toils, then, let thistles grow instead of wheat, and though it is considered as a necessary consequence of his cockles instead of barley. situation as chief of a community, that he should maintain 40. • Thistle.' — The original word is min khoach, which this ancient practice of hospitality to strangers.' 35. ' And that mine adversary had written a book.'
is also in 2 Kings xiv. 9, translated 'thistle ;' but in Job Professor Bush has a characteristic note here, which we
xli. 2, Prov. xxvi. 9, Isa. xxiv. 13, etc., by thorn.' All canuot but transcribe: “The business of book-making, it is
these passages suggest that the choach must have been come to be presumed, had made but little progress in the time of
useless plant, a weed of a thorny nature. The Septuagint Job, and it is not easy to see how such a performance, on
translates it by okavda, which signifies thorny plants in the part of Job's adversary, as the writing a book, could
general, and also by kvíon 'a nettle, but it is difficult, have afforded any particular gratification to the afflicted
in this as in other instances, to discover what particular man's feelings. In modern times, when such an enterprize
plant is intended, and hence the word has been variously is of all others the most hazardous, it might perhaps
translated. Professor Royle, from the analogy of the be a very appropriate expression of ill-will to wish that
Arabic, in which the corresponding word khookh is applied an adversary had engaged in any public speculation. But
to the peach, and bur khookh, whence we have “apricock, in the case of Job and his maligners, we must seek for a
to the apricot, thinks the word may be a general term for different explication ; for even had the trade of authorship
the plum tribe, some of which, as the sloe, are of a thorny been as common and as perilous in those days as it now is,
nature. But all these are perennial bushes, whereas the we cannot but consider Job too good a man to have given
choach is here described as growing among and instead of vent to so bad a wish. From the context, we learn that
corn, and therefore an annual plant, which is not the case the pious sufferer was aggrieved by the vagueness of the
with any thorny bush, but answers well to thistles or nettles, charges preferred against him by his harsh-judging com
which are great pests of the farmer. forters. They dealt in loose generalities, affording him Cockle: — una baasha. Some offensive weed seems no opportunity to vindicate himself by answering to a to have been intended, as the word implies a bad smell; specific accusation. In the words cited, he utters an earnest perhaps it was a species of poppy, which, like some of the wish that a definite form were given to the injurious im- rest, had a disagreeable smell, and sprung up in such proputations of his false friends. He would fain be sum. fusion as to disappoint the hopes of the cultivator. The moned to a formal trial; he would have the charges booked cockle' of this country is a pretty flower, growing among against him, that he might know what were the aspersions corn, but never in such quantities as to prove in the least which were to be wiped from his character. Such an detrimental to the crop.
11 Behold, I waited for your words; I | Elihu is angry with Job and his three friends. 6 gave ear to your 'reasons, whilst ye searched Because wisdom cometh not from age, he excuseth
out 'what to say. the boldness of his youth. 11 Hereproveth them for 12 Yea, I attended unto you, and, behold, not satisfying of Job. 16 His zeal to speak.
there was none of you that convinced Job, or So these three men ceased 'to answer Job, that answered his words: because he was righteous in his own eyes. 13 Lest ye should say, We have found
2 Then was kindled the wrath of Elihu out wisdom : God thrusteth him down, not the son of Barachel the Buzite, of the kindred man. of Ram : against Job was his wrath kindled, 14 Now he hath not directed his words because he justified "himself rather than God. against me: neither will I answer him with
3 Also against his three friends was his your speeches. wrath kindled, because they had found no an- 15 They were amazed, they answered no swer, and yet had condemned Job.
more: "they left off speaking. 4 Now Elihu had 'waited till Job had 16 When I had waited, (for they spake spoken, because they were *elder than he. not, but stood still, and answered no more ;)
5 When Elihu saw that there was no an- 17 I said, I will answer also my part, I also swer in the mouth of these three men, then his will shew mine opinion. wrath was kindled.
18 For I am full of "matter, the spirit 6 And Elihu the son of Barachel the Buz- within me constraineth me. ite answered and said, I am 'young, and ye 19 Behold, my belly is as wine which are very old ; wherefore I was afraid, and hath no vent; it is ready to burst like new durst not shew you mine opinion.
bottles. ? I said, Days should speak, and multi- 20 I will speak, 'Sthat I may be refreshed : tude of years should teach wisdom.
I will open my lips and answer. 8 But there is a spirit in man: and "the in- 21 Let me not, I pray you, accept any spiration of the Almighty giveth them under man's person, neither let me give flattering standing
titles unto man. 9 Great men are not always wise: neither 22 For I know not to give flattering titles; do the aged understand judgment.
in so doing my maker would soon take me 10 Therefore I said, Hearken to me; I away. also will shew mine opinion. 1 Heb. from answering.
3 Heb. expected Job in tvords.
4 Heb. elder for days. 5 Heb. few of days.
6 fleb. feared,
Dan. 1. 17, and 2. 21. 8 Heb. understandings.
11 Heb. they removed specches from themselees. 13 lieb. the spirit of my belly.
14 Heb. is not opened.
15 Heb, that I may breathe.
2 Hel. his soul.
Prov, 2. 6. Eccles. 2. 26.
9 Heb, words.
19 Or, ordered his words.
12 Ileb, words.
Verse 2. · Elihu. --There is something remarkable about This is still more likely, as we may easily conceive the this person. We have not hitherto been aware of his pre- family of the nephew residing in a town founded by the sence or existence. He comes before us abruptly, and dis- uncle Buz. Be this as it may, it appears to us that Elihu appears with equal abruptness. It is indeed rather less had been no particular acquaintance with either Job or remarkable that he should not have been mentioned before, his friends, but that he happened to be one of the bystanders than that his name should not re-occur in the concluding (of whom there may have been several), and, feeling inchapter of the book, where Job and his three friends are terested in the controversy, had paid attention to its proagain mentioned in connection with their previous dis- gress. At last, finding that the discussion was exhausted, courses. This circumstance, with some others, has given leaving the question in dispute unsettled, he took the occasion to some strange opinions concerning the person of opportunity to interpose, and, after apologizing for his Elihu, into which it is not necessary for us to enter. The intrusion, began to deliver his opinion. What the rather account of his parentage, given in verse 2, seems to supply leads us to this opinion is the exact conformity of this some information. His father Barachel we do not know; explanation with the existing manner of conducting such but he was a Buzite, a name probably derived from Buz, controversies in Arabia. Every one that pleases attends the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother: there was also a whenever a discussion is in progress. The bystanders do city called Buz iu the land of Edom, for Jeremiah (xx. | not attempt to interpose till the parties with whom the 23) mentions it along with Dedan, which we know was in discussion originated have expressed their views; but that country. We suspect that the term Buzite denotes then any one who thinks that erroneous opinions have been an inhabitant of that city, whether or not its name were expressed, or that the question has not been clearly stated, derived from Nahor's son, and therefore that it merely feels quite at liberty to declare his ideas on the subject, denotes the place of residence, the family being described and claims to be, and is, listened to with the same attention in the following clause of the kindred of Ram.' Who which he had himself been giving. That he was not an this Ram was is questioned. The Targum makes him to original party in the dispute, nor a particular friend of be Abraham, or rather Abram; and that the descent of either of the parties, seem to us sufficiently to explain how Elihu may have been from one of Abraham's sons by it happens that he has not been before, and is not subKeturah is not impossible: but others take him to be the sequently noticed. same with Aram the son of Kemuel, a brother of Buz. 19. • Ready to burst like new bottles.'-.Here is a very REPRESENTATION OF A WINE-CART, AND THE MANNER OF FILLING THE AMPHORA.
From a Painting found in Pompeii. clear reference to the custom of keeping and conveying backs of asses. The paintings at Herculaneum and wine in skins, which is still so general in the East, and Pompeii furnish some interesting illustrations of this cus. indeed in some of the wine-countries of southern Europe. tom as in use among the Romans. In one instance we The custom of conveying water in such skins has already see a girl pouring wine from the skin of a kid into a cup; been noticed; and those for containing wine are not in and we observe that the amphoræ or earthen wine-vessels general differently prepared. Goat-skins are commonly were made very much in the form of the skin-bottles. In employed; but those who have to store wine in large another painting we have a very curious example of the quantities employ ox-skins. Stores of wine are in general manner in which wine was conveyed to the consumer. A kept secret in Mohammedan countries, the liquor being large skin full of wine was mounted on a cart, well contrived unlawful. But at Tiflis, the capital of Georgia, where for the purpose, and drawn by horses to the door, where the Christian religion is professed, and where this restraint the liquor was drawn off into the amphoræ or earthen does not operate, the present writer seldom passed the open pitchers, and conveyed into the house. The manner ia wine-stores without pausing to look at the remarkable display which they offered, and which called to mind the various passages of Scripture in which a reference is contained to wine-bottles of skin. The wine was generally contained in large ox-skins, ranged around the store-room, and quite distended with liquor. The larger skins seemed to answer to casks, the smaller goat and kid-skins appearing as barrels and kegs in the comparison, to be chiefly used in conveying to customers the small quantities they required. Individuals rarely keep large stocks of wine in their houses, but get a small supply of a goat-skin or two from the wine-store. This seems also to have been the case among the ancient Jews; for Nehemiah, although holding the rank of governor, had no store of wine, for we read that he had a fresh supply every ten days. (Neh. v. 18.) The large skins, in the wine-stores we have mentioned, are supported above the floor upon frames of wood.
Skin-bottles were by no means confined to Asia. They were employed by the Greeks and Romans. Homer meritions goat-skins • Tumid with the vine's
A GIRL POURING WINE FROM A SKIN WINE-BOTTLE. All-cheering juice.”—11. iii. 247. Odys. vi. 78.
which the wine is drawn off through the neck or one of
the legs of the skin is exactly in the style in which wine, From a story told by Herodotus (Euterpe, 121), it seems water, and other liquids are still drawn from such skins that wine was in Egypt conveyed in skin-bottles on the in the East.
2 Behold, now I have opened my mouth, 1 Elihu offereth himself instead of God, with sincerity my tongue hath spoken 'in my mouth.
and meekness, to reason with Job. 8 He excuseth 3 My words shall be of the uprightness of God from giving man an account of his ways, by my heart: and my lips shall utter knowledge his greatness. 14 God calleth man to repentance by clearly. visions, 19 by afflictions, 23 and by his ministry,
4 The Spirit of God hath made me, and 31 He inciteth Job to attention.
the breath of the Almighty hath given me life. WHEREFORE, Job, I pray thee, hear my 5 If thou canst answer me, set thy words speeches, and hearken to all my words. in order before me, stand up.
i Heb. in my palate.
6 "Behold, I am Raccording to thy wish in 21 His flesh is consumed away, that it canGod's stead: I also am ‘formed out of the clay. | not be seen ; and his hones that were not seen
7 Behold, my terror shall not make thee stick out. afraid, neither shall my hand be heavy upon 22 Yea, his soul draweth near unto the thee.
grave, and his life to the destroyers. 8 Surely thou hast spoken 'in mine hearing, 23 If there be a messenger with him, an and I have heard the voice of thy words, say- interpreter, one among a thousand, to shew ing,
unto man his uprightness : 9 I am clean without transgression, I am 24 Then he is gracious unto him, and innocent; neither is there iniquity in me. saith, Deliver him from going down to the
10 Behold, he findeth occasions against me, pit: I have found a ransom. he counteth me for his enemy,
25 His flesh shall be fresher than a 11 He putteth my feet in the stocks, he child's: he shall return to the days of his marketh all my paths.
youth: 12 Behold, in this thou art not just: I will 26 He shall pray unto God, and he will be answer thee, that God is greater than man. favourable unto him: and he shall see his face
13 Why dost thou strive against him ? for with joy : for he will render unto man his She giveth not account of any of his matters. righteousness.
14 For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet 27 "He looketh upon men, and if any say, man perceiveth it not.
I have sinned, and perverted that which was 15 In a dream, in a vision of the night, right, and it profited me not ; when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slum- 28 "He will deliver his soul from going into berings upon the bed ;
the pit, and his life shall see the light. 16 Then 'he openeth the ears of men, and 29 Lo, all these things worketh God 'ofsealeth their instruction,
tentimes with man, 17 That he may withdraw man from his 30 To bring back his soul from the pit, to Spurpose, and hide pride from man.
be enlightened with the light of the living. 18 He keepeth back his soul from the pit, 31 Mark well, O Job, hearken unto me: and his life 'from perishing by the sword. hold thy peace, and I will speak.
19 He is chastened also with pain upon his 32 If thou hast any thing to say, answer bed, and the multitude of his bones with me : speak, for I desire to justify thee. strong pain :
33 If not, hearken unto me: hold thy 20 °So that his life abhorreth bread, and peace, and I shall teach thee wisdom. his soul "dainty meat. ! Chap. 9. 35, and 13. 20, 21. 3 IIeb. according to thy mouth. 4 Heb. cut out of the clay.
5 Heb. in mine ears. 7 Heb, he rerealeth, or, uncovereth.
9 feb. from passing by the sword. 11 Heb. meat of desire.
13 Heb. than childhood. 14 Or, he shall look upon men, and say, I have sinned, &c. 15 Or, he hath delivered my soul, &c., and my life. 16 Heb. twice and thrice.
6 Ileb. he answereth not.
10 Psal. 70. 19.
B Heb. work. 12 Or, an atonement.
Verse 18. • The pit.'— There are several allusions to the pit in this book and in the Psalms; and, as they do not occur in connection with passages which take their figures from hunting, it is probable that something different from the pitfalls in which beasts of prey were caught is intended. It is probable that it was customary to throw criminals and oppressed persons into pits. Joseph was cast into a piť by his cruel brethren. In some countries,
particular classes of criminals, condemned to capital punishment, have been thrown headlong into deep pits prepared for the purpose. There was such a pit at Athens -a deep and dark hole, the bottom of which was set with iron spikes, on which those fell who were thrown in. The mouth also had overhanging spikes to preclude the possibility of escape to those who might survive the fall.
3 'For the ear trieth words, as the 'mouth
tasteth meat. 1 Elihu accuseth Job for charging God with injustice.
4 Let us choose to us judgment: let us 10 God omnipotent cannot be unjust. 31 Man must humble himself unto God. 34 Ellu reproveth Job.
know among ourselves what is good.
5 For Job hath said, I am righteous : and FURTHERMORE Elihu answered and said, God hath taken away my judgment. 2 Hear my words, O ye wise men ; and
6 Should I lie against my right? "my give ear unto me, ye that have knowledge. wound is incurable without transgression. I Chap. 12. 11. 9 Heb. palate.
8 Heb, mine arrow.
7 What man is like Job, who drinketh up 23 For he will not lay upon man more than scorning like water?
right; that he should "senter into judgment 8 Which goeth in company with the with God. workers of iniquity, and walketh with wicked 24 He shall break in pieces mighty men men.
without number, and set others in their 9 For he hath said, It profiteth a man stead. nothing that he should delight himself with God. 25 Therefore he knoweth their works, and
10 Therefore hearken unto me, ye 'men he overturneth them in the night, so that they of understanding : "far be it from God, that are ''destroyed. he should do wickedness ; and from the Al- 26 He striketh them as wicked men in mighty, that he should commit iniquity.
open sight of others; 11 For the work of a man shall he render 27 Because they turned back from him, unto him, and cause every man to find accord- and would not consider any of his ways: ing to his ways.
28 So that they cause the cry
of the poor 12 Yea, surely God will not do wickedly, to come unto him, and he heareth the cry of neither will the Almighty pervert judgment. the afflicted.
13 Who hath given him a charge over the 29 When he giveth quietness, who then earth ? or who hath disposed the whole can make trouble? and when he liideth his world?
face, who then can behold him ? whether it 14 "If he set his heart 'upon man, if he be done against a nation, or against a man gather unto himself his spirit and his breath; only:
15 ''All flesh shall perish together, and 30 That the hypocrite reign not, lest the man shall turn again unto dust.
people be ensnared. 16 If now thou hast understanding, hear 31 Surely it is meet to be said unto God, this: hearken to the voice of my words. I have borne chastisement, I will not offend 17 Shall even he that hateth right "go
any more : vern ? and wilt thou condemn him that is most 32 That which I see not teach thou me: if just?
I have done iniquity, I will do no more. 18 Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art 33 Should it be according to thy mind? wicked ? and to princes, Ye are ungodly? he will recompense it, whether thou refuse, or
19 How much less to him that accepteth whether thou choose ; and not I: therefore not the persons of princes, nor regardeth the speak what thou knowest. rich more
than the poor?' for they all are the - 34 Let men " of understanding tell me, work of his hands.
and let a wise man hearken unto me. 20 In a moment shall they die, and the 35 Job hath spoken without knowledge, people shall be troubled at midnight, and and his words were without wisdom. pass away: and ''the mighty shall be taken 36 "My desire is that Job may be tried away without hand.
unto the end because of his answers for 21 "For his eyes are upon the ways of wicked men. man, and he seeth all his goings.
37 For he addeth rebellion unto his sin, 22 There is no darkness, nor shadow of he clappeth his hands among us, and multideath, where the workers of iniquity may hide plieth his words against God. themselves.
4 Heb. men of heart.
5 Deut. 32, 4. Chap. 8. 3, and 36. 23. Psal. 92. 15. Rom. 9. 14. e Psal. 62. 12. Prov. 24.12. Jerem. 32. 19. Ezek. 33. 20. Matt. 16. 27. Rom. 2, 6. 2 Chron. 6. 10. 1 Pet. 1, 17, Revel. 22. 19. 7 Heb, all of it. 8 Psal. 104. 29. 9 Heb. upon him. 10 Gen. 3. 19. Eccles, 12. 7.
11 leb. bind. 12 Deut. 16. 17. 2 Chron. 19, 7. Acts 10. 34. Rom. 2. 11. Gal. 2. 6. Ephes. 6. 9. Coloss. 3. 25. 1 Pet. 1. 17. 13 Tleh, they shall take away the mighty. 14 2 Chron. 16. 9. Chap. 31. 4. Prov, 5. 21, and 15. 3. Jer. 16. 17.
15 Heb. gs. 16 Hleb, without searching out. 17 lieb, crushed. 18 Heb. in the place of beholders. 19 Heb. from after him.
20 Heb. should it be from with theer 21 Heb. of heart. 22 Or, my father let Job be tried.
2 Thinkest thou this to be right, that thou CHAPTER XXXV.
saidst, My righteousness is more than God's? 1 Comparison is not to be made with God, because our 3 For thou saidst, What advantage will it
good or evil cannot ertend unto him. 9 Many cry
be unto thee? and, What profit shals I have, faith.
4 'I will answer thee, and thy companions ELIHU spake moreover, and said,
with thee. i Or, by it, more than by my sin.
2 Hch. I will return to thee words.