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5 Look unto the heavens, and see; and i 11 Who teacheth us more than the beasts behold the clouds which are higher than thou. of the earth, and maketh us wiser than the

6 If thou sinnest, what doest thou against fowls of heaven? him? or if thy transgressions be multiplied, 12 There they cry, but none givetlı answer, what doest thou unto him?

because of the pride of evil men. 7 'If thou be righteous, what givest thou 13 'Surely God will not hear vanity, neihim? or what receiveth he of thine hand ? ther will the Almighty regard it.

8 Thy wickedness may hurt a jnan as thou 14 Although thou sayest thou shalt not see art; and thy righteousness may profit the son him, yet judgment is before him ; therefore of man.

trust thou in him. 9 By reason of the multitude of oppressions 15 But now, because it is not so, 'he hath they make the oppressed to cry: they cry out visited in his anger; yet he knoweth it not in by reason of the arm of the mighty.

| great extremity : 10 But none saith, Where is God my 16 Therefore doth Job open his mouth in maker, who giveth songs in the night ; | vain ; he multiplieth words without knowledge. 3 Chap. 22. 3. Psal. 16. 2. Rom. 11. 35. Chap. 27. 9. Prov. 1. 29. Isa. 1. 13. Jer. 11. 11.

5 That is, God.

6 That is, Job.

CHAPTER XXXVI.

| 14 "They die in youth, and their life is

among the 'unclean. | Elihu shewch how God is just in his ways. 16 How Job's sins hinder God's blessings. 24 God's works

15 He delivereth the 'poor in his affliction, are to be magnified.

and openeth their ears in oppression.

16 Even so would he have removed thee Elmiu also proceeded, and said,

out of the strait into a broad place, where 2 Suffer me a little, and I will shew thee there is no straitness; and 'Othat which should 'that I have yet to speak on God's behalf. be set on thy table should be full of fatness.

3 I will fetch my knowledge from afar, | 17 But thou hast fulfilled the judgment of and will ascribe righteousness to my Maker. the wicked : "judgment and justice take hold

4 For truly my words shall not be false : he on thee. that is perfect in knowledge is with thee.

18 Because there is wrath, beware lest he 5 Behold, God is mighty, and despiseth take thee away with his stroke: then a great not any: he is mighty in strength and wis ransom cannot deliver thee. dom.

19 Will he esteem thy riches ? no, not 6 He preserveth not the life of the wicked : gold, nor all the forces of strength. but giveth right to the poor.

20 Desire not the night, when people are 7 He withdraweth not his eyes from the cut off in their place. righteous: but with kings are they on the 21 Take heed, regard not iniquity: for this throne; yea, he doth establish them for ever, hast thou chosen rather than affliction. and they are exalted.

22 Behold, God exalteth by his power : 8 And if they be bound in fetters, and be who teacheth like him? holden in cords of affliction ;

23 Who hath enjoined him his way? or 9 Then he sheweth them their work, and who can say, 'Thou hast wrought iniquity? their transgressions that they have exceeded. | 24 Remember that thou magnify his work,

10 He openeth also their ear to discipline, which men behold. and commandeth that they return from ini 25 Every man may see it; man may behold quity.

it afar off. 11 If they obey and serve him, they shall 26 Behold, God is great, and we know him spend their days in prosperity, and their years not, neither can the number of his years be in pleasures.

searched out. 12 But if they obey not, they shall perish 27 For he maketh small the drops of waby the sword, and they shall die without ter: they pour down rain according to the vaknowledge.

pour thereof: 13 But the hypocrites in heart heap up 28 Which the clouds do drop and distil wrath : they cry not when he bindeth them. | upon man abundantly. 1 Heb. that there are yet words for God. ?ileb. heart. 3 Or, afflicted. Psal. 34. 15. 5 Chap. 21. 13, 6 Heb, they shall pass away by the sword. 7 Heb. their soul dieth." 8 Or, sodomites.

Or, afflicted. 10 Heb. the rest of thy table. 11 Or, judgment and justice should uphold thee,

12 Heb. turn thee aside.

29 Also can any understand the spreadings | 32 With clouds he covereth the light; and of the clouds, or the noise of his tabernacle? commandeth it not to shine by the cloud that

30 Behold, he spreadeth his light upon it, cometh betwixt. and covereth '3the bottom of the sea.

33 The noise thereof sheweth concerning 31 For by them judgeth he the people ; he it, the cattle also concerning the vapour. giveth meat in abundance. 13 Heb. the roots.

14 Heb, that which goeth up.

Verse 27. · He maketh small the drops of water, etc.-The entire passage contained in the remainder of this chapter, and the first portion of the following, form a

| very accurate and picturesque delineation of the process

of vaporization, and the formation of rain, clouds, and tempests.

CHAPTER XXXVII.

commandeth them upon the face of the world

in the earth. 1 God is to be feared because of his great works. 15

| 13 He causeth it to come, whether for His wisdom is unsearchable in them.

'correction, or for his land, or for mercy. At this also my heart trembleth, and is moved | 14 Hearken unto this, O Job: stand still, out of his place.

and consider the wondrous works of God. 2 'Hear attentively the noise of his voice, 15 Dost thou know when God disposed and the sound that goeth out of his mouth. them, and caused the light of his cloud to

3 He directeth it under the whole heaven, / shine ? and his lightning unto the ends of the 16 Dost thou know the balancings of the earth.

clouds, the wondrous works of him which is 4 After it a voice roareth: he thundereth perfect in knowledge ? with the voice of his excellency; and he will 17 How thy garments are warm, when he not stay them when his voice is heard.

quieteth the earth by the south wind ? 5 God thundereth marvellously with his 18 Hast thou with him spread out the sky, voice; great things doeth he, which we can- which is strong, and as a molten looking glass? not comprehend.

19 Teach us what we shall say unto him ; 6 For 'he saith to the snow, Be thou on for we cannot order our speech by reason of the earth; 'likewise to the small rain, and to darkness. the great rain of his strength.

| 20 Shall it be told him that I speak? if a 7 He sealeth up the hand of every man; man speak, surely he shall be swallowed up. that all men may know his work.

21 And now men see not the bright light 8 Then the beasts go into dens, and remain | which is in the clouds : but the wind passeth, in their places.

and cleanseth them. 9 Out of the south cometh the whirlwind : [ 22 "Fair weather cometh out of the north: and cold out of the 'north.

with God is terrible majesty. 10 By the breath of God frost is given : 23 Touching the Almighty, we cannot find and the breadth of the waters is straitened. him out: he is excellent in power, and in

11 Also by watering he wearieth the thick judgment, and in plenty of justice: he will not cloud : he scattereth "his bright cloud :

afflict. 12 And it is turned round about by his 24 Men do therefore fear him: he recounsels : that they may do whatsoever he specteth not any that are wise of heart. i Heb. hear in hearing.

? Heb. light.
3 Heb. wings of the earth.

4 Psal. 147. 16, 17.
8 Heb. the cloud of his light.

* Psal. 147. 16, 17.

Heb. a rod. Tebe out of the chamber.

10 Heb.gold.

5 Heb, and to the shower of rain, and to the showers of rain of his strength.

6 Heb. out of the chamber.

7 Heb. scattering winds.

Verse 6. He saith to the snow, Be thou on the earth.'--Some | affects the whole coast from Tripoli to Sidon with a more readers, regarding Job and his friends as emirs of the re-l piercing cold than is known even in this northern climate. gion bordering on Palestine, will, from the ideas they form But the other maritime and inland places, whether to the of hot regions, be surprised at their familiarity with snow. north or south of these mountains, enjoy a much milder We collect the following notices from the History of the temperature, and a more regular change in the seasons. Months, in the Introduction (forming the Natural History) Le Bruyn, travelling along the maritime coast in January, of our own Pictorial History of Palestine. Under January | found the whole country around Tripoli covered with it is stated, — The mountains of Lebanon are covered all the deep snow. On the same coast, more to the south, bewinter with snow, which, when the winds are easterly, tween Tyre and Acre, on the 9th, Buckingham found the

cold great, and the thermometer at 45° in the open air, the steepness of the hill on which it stood, rose one above before sunrise. Brown takes notice of snow at Jaffa on another, like steps, presented a number of square and the 24th of this month. Major Skinner, who states that snow-like masses, like sheets exposed on the ground to he traversed the country in a season unusually severe, dry. The inhabitants, including men, women, and chil. speaks much of snow and cold. He mentions a village dren, were clothed in sheep-skin jackets, with the skin, under Mount Carmel, in which many houses had been looking like red leather, turned outside, and the wool destroyed by the great quantities of snow which had within : while the florid complexions and light-brown hair fallen. He spent a night in that village, and on the morn of the people gave to the whole an appearance of a scene ing of the 28th found the court-yard full of snow, which in the north of Europe, rather than one in the southern had fallen during the night. Śnow was then resting on part of so hot a region as Syria, and bordering too upon the ridge of Mount Carmel. Penetrating to the interior the parched deserts of Arabia-Petræa. Buckingham was of the country, the same traveller reached Nazareth on the detained at this place till the 28th by the weather, which 30th. The heights around the town, and many of the was reported to have caused great destruction among houses in it, were covered with snow, large heaps of which the flocks and herds of the surrounding country; and two were piled up in the court-yard of the convent. Many of persons were reported to have died on the night of the 27th the smaller houses had been destroyed by it; and, the from exposure to the cold at a short distance from the next day, he found that the deep snow in the streets ren town. In the country more to the east, about the moundered it impossible to quit the city, and difficult to move tains which bound the Hauran plain, the weather in this about in it. A thaw had, however, commenced. The month must be severe, judging from the series of daily snow falls thick and lies long on the mountains and high observations which Mr. Madox has given. He was de intervening plains and valleys of Jebel Hauran, which tained no less than nine days (10th-19th) at el-Hait, on may be said to bound eastward the country beyond Jordan. the lower slope of the Hauran mountains, by snow and Madox found it so at the end of this month. The same bad weather. From an analysis of the observations made traveller, on the 13th, found Damascus covered with snow by him in this quarter, and extending from near the beas well as the mountains and plain around it. From its ginning towards the end of this month, it appears that peculiarly low level and enclosed situation, the plain of there are often heavy falls of snow, chiefly by night, but Jericho, and indeed the whole valley of the Jordan, enjoys sometimes by day. The snow occasionally lies several feet a remarkably mild winter climate. Mariti adduces and deep on the ground in the morning. Sometimes, on the confirms the statement of Josephus, who reports that the same night, falls of snow alternate with showers of sleet winter of the plain of Jericho resembled spriug, and that and rain. Frost frequent, and sometimes very severe. the inhabitants were clothed in linen garments at the same Cold, sometimes intense, at night, when the north wind time that it snowed in other parts of Judæa. Correspond blows. The winds often blow strongly and keenly at ingly, Burckhardt takes notice that snow is almost un night, generally abate as the day grows, and sometimes known on the borders of the lake of Tiberias. It appears, rise again in the afternoon. The higher mountains coindeed, generally, that when the sun is not obscured the vered with thick snow. Snow in the plain around the day is often exceedingly warm when the night has been mountains also, till about the 19th; but not so much. frosty. The Scriptures allude to this, as do various tra Even on approaching Damascus (20th) this traveller had vellers. La Roque was much incommoded by the heat of often to make his way through water and ice. At the the sun when travelling near Tyre on the 29th of this same time the Lebanon mountains were impassable from month,'

snow, and the post from Damascus to Beirut had been In the same work it is stated, under February,- At obliged to return. It is right to add, that this winter the beginning of this month, dazzling snow on all sides (1825) appears to have been more than usually severe for met the view of Major Skinner in departing from Nazareth. snow and cold. Nevertheless in this month, and especially He saw the snow firm on the sides of Mount Tabor. But | in the latter half of it, the sun shines out brightly by day, after his return to the coast, he takes no further notice of and the air is mild and genial, especially in the country snow, which had so much engaged his attention before he west of the Jordan.' departed for the interior of the country. Snow usually 7. He scaleth up the hand of every man ; that all men falls this month in the southern parts of Palestine; and may know,' etc.-We remember to have seen this pasShaw reports that it is an observation at and near Jeru sage presumptuously cited in old books, as affording a salem that, provided a moderate quantity of snow falls in sanction to the fooleries of chiromancy. The obvious the beginning of February, whereby the fountains are meaning is no more or less than this: that during the deep made to overflow a little afterwards, there is the prospect snows and heavy rains, mentioned in the preceding verse, of a plentiful year; and that the inhabitants on such occa the hand of man is restrained from the usual labours of sions make similar rejoicings to those of the Egyptiaus the field. The effect is the same if, with Schultens and on cutting the dikes of the Nile. Southward, in the higher others, the restraint be understood to proceed from the region of the Sinai mountains, Thevenot met with snow, frosts of winter, rather than from rain. It is immediately and even with ice which no stick could break, in the be after said, that then the beasts go into dens, and remain ginning of February; and even at Suez, his inability to in their places ;' which well explains what is meant in the obtain admittance into the town gave him occasion to ex present text, and that .sealing up the hand' means an inperience that the night air was severely cold.

termission of customary pursuits. Beasts withdraw in this "As might be expected, the cold is this month more

manner when there are rain and snow, but not necessarily severe in the high country beyond Jordan, on the east,

in frosty weather: and this fact furnishes another explathan in the other parts of Palestine. As late as the 22nd,

nation, confirming the view already taken. Buckingham found the snow lying on the high range of

18. 'A molten looking-glass.'--See the note on Exod. hills at Gilead, called Jebel es-Szalt, which became thicker xxxviii. 8. the higher he ascended. On the summit the cold was ex

22. “Fair weather cometh out of the north.' ---This is an cessive, and the snow, presenting one unbroken mass, was explanation, not a translation. The original word, transhardened into solid ice. This is not surprising, if, as lated .fair weather,' is an zahab, 'gold;' which some, he thinks, by a comparative estimate, the height was as the Vulgate (ab aquilone aurum venit), understand 5000 feet above the level of the sea. The same day he literally, but which is more generally understood to exreached the town of Szalt. The whole of the town was press poetically the golden splendour of the firmament, filled with snow, the streets being in some places almost when the north wind has driven away the clouds and impassable; and the terraces of the houses, which, from 1 humid vapours by which it had been obscured.

671

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

bound thereof, and that thou shouldest know

the paths to the house thereof? | God challengeth Job to answer. 4 God, by his 21 Knowest thou it, because thou wast then mighty works, convinceth Job of ignorance, 31 and

born? or because the number of thy days is of imbecility.

great ? Then the Lord answered Job out of the 22 Hast thou entered into the treasures of whirlwind, and said,

the snow? or hast thou seen the treasures of 2 Who is this that darkeneth counsel by the hail, words without knowledge ?

| 23 Which I have reserved against the time 3 Gird up now thy loins like a man; for I of trouble, against the day of battle and war? will demand of thee, and 'answer thou me. I 24 By what way is the light parted, which

4 Where wast thou when I laid the scattereth the east wind upon the earth? foundations of the earth? declare, 'if thou 25 Who hath divided a watercourse for the hast understanding.

overflowing of waters, or a way for the liglit5 Who hath laid the measures thereof, if | ning of thunder ; thou knowest ? or who hath stretched the line 26 To cause it to rain on the earth, where upon it?

no man is; on the wilderness, wherein there is 6 Whereupon are the ‘foundations thereof no man; 5 fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; 27 To satisfy the desolate and waste

7 When the morning stars sang together, ground; and to cause the bud of the tender and all the sons of God shouted for joy? herb to spring forth ?

8 Or who shut up the sea with doors, 28 Hath the rain a father? or who hath when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of | begotten the drops of dew? the womb ?

| 29 Out of whose womb came the ice ? and 9 When I made the cloud the garment | the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered thereof, and thick darkness a swaddling-bandit ? for it,

30 The waters are hid as with a stone, and 10 And "brake up for it my decreed place, the face of the deep 'is frozen. and set bars and doors,

31 Canst thou bind the sweet influences of 11 And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but 12 13 Pleiades, or loose the bands of "Orion ? no further: and here shall 'thy proud waves 1 32 Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in be stayed ?

his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus 12 Hast thou commanded the morning with his sons ? since thy days; and caused the dayspring to 33 Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? know his place;

canst thou set the dominion thereof in the 13 That it might take hold of the 'ends of earth? the earth, that the wicked might be shaken 34 Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds, out of it?

that abundance of waters may cover thee? 14 It is turned as clay to the seal; and 35 Canst thou send lightnings, that they they stand as a garment.

may go, and say unto thee, "Here we are? 15 And from the wicked their light is with | 36°18 Who hath put wisdom in the inward holden, and the high arm shall be broken. parts? or who hath given understanding to the

16 Hast thou entered into the springs of heart? the sea ? or bast thou walked in the search of 37 Who can number the clouds in wisthe depth ?

dom? or ""who can stay the bottles of heaven, 17 Have the gates of death been opened 38 2°When the dust groweth into hardunto thee? or hast thou seen the doors of the ness, and the clods cleave fast together? shadow of death?

39 2?Wilt thou hunt the prey for the lion? 18 Hast thou perceived the breadth of the or fill 23 the appetite of the young lions, earth? declare if thou knowest it all.

| 40 When they couch in their dens, and 19 Where is the way where light dwelleth ? abide in the covert to lie in wait? and as for darkness, where is the place 41 ?*Who provideth for the raven his food? thereof,

when his young ones cry unto God, they wan20 That thou shouldest take it to the der for lack of meat.

TIeb, make ne know. 2 Psal. 104. 5. Prov. 30. 4. 3 Heb. if thou knowest understanding. Heb. sockets.

5 Heb. made to sink. 6 Psal. 104, 9, 7 Or, established my decree upon it. 8 Heb. the pride of thy wares.

Heb. songs. 10 Or, at. 11 Heb. is truken, 12 Or, the scren stars.

13 Heb. Cimah.

14 Heb. Cesil. 15 Or, the twelve signs.

16 Heb, guide them.

17 Heb. Bchold us.
17 Heb. Behold u

18 Chap. 32. 8. Eecles, 2. 26.
19 Feb. who can cause to lie down.
20 Or, when the dust is turned into mire.

21 Heb. is poured.
22 Psal, 104.21.
23 Feb, the life.

24 Psal. 147. 9, Matt. 6. 26.

Verse 14. It is turned as clay to the seal.'-Mr. Landseer, in his Sabwan Researches, has some curious speculations upon this passage. He understands that the seal alluded to was one of such cylinders, revolving upon an axis, which we have noticed under 1 Kings xxi. Then he apprehends that the turning' applies to the revolution of the cylindrical seal upon the clay that received the impression. Or, as the clay seems rather to be represented as turning to the seal, than the seal to the clay, he observes, that the whole verse might be explained by the operation of impressing one of these ancient cylindrical signets on clay, which bends as the cylinder revolves in delivering its impression, stands round it curvedly as a garment (till you flatten it while in a moist state), and renders conspicuous to view the dark contents of the intaglio engraving. This last explanation we can by no means admit, whatever be said of the other; for there can be no idea of any use for such impressions as it supposes. It is a useful observation, made by him, however, that of all the substances to which he had applied these cyline drical signets, he found clay to be the best adapted both for receiving and retaining the impression. We think the text certainly states that impressions were for some purposes made by seals (of whatever kind) upon clay; and can by no means agree with Dr. Good, that the idea is derived from the operations of the potter. Seals are still applied to clay in the East, probably for the same purposes as in the time of Job: this is for the sealing of doors. We have often, in Eastern caravanserais, been struck by observing this process as applied to apartments in which valuable property has been deposited. In such cases, the lock, which is easily picked, is considered an inadequate safeguard, a mass of clay is daubed over it, and

impressed with a wooden seal. This of course does not prevent robberies; but it serves at once to make the fact known if any one has contrived or forced an entrance by the door, through which alone access can be obtained. As to the general signification of the verse, we incline to understand that the word eann tithhappek (in conj. Hithp, from 9727) denotes change rather than literal revo. lution; and, consequently, that the passage compares the change which the day-spring produces on the face of nature, to that which the seal produced upon clay, impressing its blank and disagreeable mass with character and beauty. [APPENDIX, No. 60.]

22. · The treasures of the snow.'— This has not been clearly understood, nor do we profess to understand it. But the comparison of snow to treasure, might suggest a reference to the extremely diversified and very beautiful forms of the crystals of which the flakes of snow are composed. When the air is calm and the cold intense, as in the Arctic regions, these crystals are observed in the most extensive variety, and the most regular and beautiful forms; and as the extreme north was considered as the great storehouse, so to speak, of cold and of all the phenomena which cold produces, one might venture to suspect a reference to the polar regions as to the treasures of the snow.' Captain Scoresby, who gave much attention to this and other Arctic phenomena, has figured ninetysix varieties of these crystals, and we have caused part of his representation to be copied. He divides all the forms into five principal classes, for the description of which we may refer to his work. If we might venture to suppose that the Almighty referred Job to such things as affording evidence of His wisdom and power, we should perceive a

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