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peculiar beauty in such a reference, from the fact that the cisely in the colure of the vernal equinox 2136 years examination of these crystals conveyed exactly this im- before Christ. This was before the birth of Abraham, acpression to the mind of Captain Scoresby. He says, cording to the common chronology, and in his youth, *The extreme beauty and endless variety of the micro- according to the chronology of Dr. Hales; who, as we scopic objects perceived in the animal and vegetable have intimated in the Introduction to this book, employs kingdoms, are perhaps fully equalled if not surpassed, in a similar process, with respect to the star Aldebaran, to both particulars of beauty and variety, by the crystals of fix the trial of Job to the year 2337 B.C. Now the fault

The principal configurations are the stelliform and of this process is, that it fixes the trial to the year in hexagonal; though almost every variety of shape of which the constellation became the leader of the spring, which the generating angle of 60° and 120° are susceptible, whereas it might, with more probability, be in some much may, in the course of a few years' observation, be dis- later year-the time of Jacob, for instance-in which it covered. Some of the general varieties in the figures of continued to be such, and was well kuown to be such. the crystals may be referred to the temperature of the air; Goguet makes the same calculation, yet feels quite at but the particular and endless modification of similar liberty under it to fix Job as a contemporary of Jacob. classes of crystals can only be referred to the will and In fact, the Pleiades might serve, in the same latitude, pleasure of the First Great Cause, whose works, even the for many centuries as the cardinal constellation of spring. most minute and evanescent, and in regions the most On this subject there is a good observation of Mr. Land. remote from human observation, are altogether admirable.' seer's: 'Before the colure of the vernal equinox passed

No objection to the possibility of the reference here into the Ram, and after it had quitted Aldebaran and the suggested can arise in this place from the consideration Hyades, the Pleiades were for about seven or eight centhat Job could not have had any knowledge of such phe- turies, or perhaps longer, esteemed to be the leading stars nomena as these : for it will be observed that this, the of the Sabæan year. It is not meant that the vernal first series of questions, refers distinctly to matters which colure continued to pass exactly through this cluster of he had not seen, did not know, could not understand; and stars for the above space of time, but that there were no then gradually proceeds to phenomena, objects, instincts, other stars of the zodaic, between the Hyades and the first and circumstances, the aspects of which he might see and degree of Aries, sufficiently near to supersede them by beknow externally, but the regulating principles of which coming an astronomical mark.' (Sabæan Researches, p. 115.) he could not comprehend.

- Orion.”—The word is Supa chesil, which denotes 28. Hath the rain a father ? or who hath begotten the

'a fool;' but as this has no apparent application, we may drops of dew ??-Jablonski states that the Egyptians con

recur to the Arabic meaning, which is cold, inactivity, sidered the moon to be the parent of dew, which, taken

torpor,'-a very significant name, for it is evidently the in connection with the question asked in the text, may

name of a constellation, the appearance of which denoted suggest larger considerations than we have the means of

the approach of winter, as contrasted with the chimah, tracing. Moses also says in his song, “My doctrine shall

which announced the presence of spring. Most writers drop as the rain, my speech shall distil as the dew.' The

now follow the opinion of Aben Ezra that the word chesil same metaphor occurs again in the particular benediction

designates the Scorpion--a constellation opposed to the of the tribe of Joseph, and the collective one of Israel.

Pleiades by nearly the half of the heavens, and which David, in his 110th Psalm, ascribes to the Messiah the dew

announces the approach of winter when the other brings of a perpetual youth, which figure was retained by the

in the spring. The learned rabbi, indeed, fixes the denoprophets, who styled the Divine Presence 'a cloud of dew

mination particularly to the star Antares, or the Scorpion's in the heat of harvest,' etc. From the extension of these

Heart, and in this also may be followed. The reader will notions, the pagan Arabs addressed prayers to the source of the clouds and the conqueror of the winds (Antar, iv.

not fail to observe the beauty of the contrast evolved by

this explanation. Job is asked if he could hinder those 124), which we may naturally refer to local circumstances.

sweet influences' to which nature yields when chinak In countries parched with a perpetual heat, the rain and

announces the approach of spring; or whether he could the dew ranked among the most eminent indications of

loosen or retard that rigidity which contracts and birds Divine favour : hence, in the more florid parts of their

up her fertile bosom, when the approach of winter is made prosaic compositions, and in the manifold imagery of

known by chesil. their poetic style, these became frequent sources of simile and metaphor.

32. • Mazzaroth—The word is nine which is doubt31. · The Pleiades.'—Considerable difficulty has been

less the same, with the Syrian exchange of for 5, as the at all times felt in determining the precise meaning of the nikip mazzaloth, of 2 Kings xxiii. 5. There are two astronomical terms used in the book of Job and in other parts of the Hebrew Scriptures. Our version, in the

principal explanations. One of them makes the word to

denote Sirius, or the Dog-star; while the other surposes present chapter, follows the Septuagint, both in giving the synonymes of the Hebrew words, and in producing the

the signs of the zodiac to be intended. The former interoriginal words where that ancient version did so, from

pretation has been very extensively received; but the mass being unable to offer such synonymes. In the present

of instructed opinion is doubtless in favour of the latter i

alternative, in which we also concur. It seems to have instance the Hebrew word is open chimah, which is clearly evidently that meaning in 2 Kings xxiii. 9; and here it ! indicated as the constellation the heliacal rising of which well agrees with the context. The word is plural; and announced the return of spring. The word implies what- to bring forth Mazzaroth (each) in its season' more ever is desirable, delightful, or lovely; and therefore clearly refers to the zodiacal signs, which appear succesadmirably corresponds with that season of which it formed sively above the horizon, than to anything else. It also the cardinal constellation in the time of Job. That it comes in naturally after having spoken of two seasons of denotes the Pleiades is generally agreed, and is probably the year as announced by two different signs of the zodiac. the least doubtful of the determinations of the Septuagint. (See Goguet, Sur les Constellations de Job.) Dr. J. M. The Pleiades are well known to be a cluster of stars in Good supports this opinion by observing that “To this the constellation Taurus; and formed actually the leading term the Alcoran makes frequent allusions, hereby proving constellation of the year at the time in which we have that it is a proper Arabian image, and which has probably supposed Job to live; but we should greatly err in at- never ceased to be common to their poets from the date of tempting to fix a particular year on the data which this the book of Job. Thus, among other places, Sura xv.fact offers. It is well known that the ancients determined “We have placed the twelve signs in the heavens, and the seasons by the rising and setting of certain constella- have set them out in various figures, for the observation tions. Now, according to calculations formed on the of beholders."! We have of course understood the solar usual rate of the precession of the equinoxes, the star zodiac; but an idea was promulgated by Dr. John Hill, Taigette, the northernmost of this constellation, was pre- which has found support from Mr. Landseer, that the


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lunar zodiac is intended. It is certain that such a zodiac concerning what it denotes: one, that it is Arcturus, the formed part of a very ancient system of Arabian astro. principal star in the constellation Bootes; and the other, nomy; that is, as the sun was observed from month to that it is the constellation Ursa Major, or the Great Bear. month to pass from one house or sign to another, so the The difference is not very serious, being but that between moon was also said to change her mansion every night. the Bear and the Bear-keeper (Arcto-phylax), as Bootes, Both hypotheses imply the existence of the same con- from its position and proximity to the Bear, was somestellations; and we think either better than the alter- times called. The two explanations will easily coalesce if native of the Dog-star. The same explanation will also we suppose that Arcturus, as representing the constellation apply to both, namely, that Jehovah alone possessed the Bootes, represented also the Bear as associated therewith. power to bring forth Mazzaroth in its season ; that is to At any rate, that Ursa Major is intended may be well say, so to regulate or carry round the moon (or the sun), believed. Aben Ezra, in his commentary on Job, is or its mansions, that, the mysterious cycle being com- clearly of this opinion. He says, · Aish is a northern conpleted, the pristine order of procession shall be renewed. stellation composed of seven stars. Further on he ob.

Arcturus with his sons.'—The Hebrew word trans- serves, “The number of the northern constellations is lated Arcturus is w'y aish here, and WP ash in chap. ix. 9. twenty-one;' and afterwards, 'Aish and her sons are the The etymology is uncertain. There are two opinions

stars of the Great Bear.'



15 And forgetteth that the foot may crush

them, or that the wild beast may break them. 1 of the wild goats and hinds. 5 Of the wild ass.

16 She is hardened against her young 9 The unicorn. 13 The peacock, stork, and ostrich. 19 The horse. 26 The hawk. 27 The eagle. ones, as though they were not her's: her la

bour is in vain without fear; KNOWEST thou the time when the wild goats 17 Because God hath deprived her of wisof the rock bring forth ? or canst thou mark dom, neither hath he imparted to her underwhen the hinds do calve?

standing. 2 Canst thou number the months that they 18 What time she lifteth up herself on fulfil? or knowest thou the time when they high, she scorneth the horse and his rider. bring forth ?

19 Hast thou given the horse strength ? 3 They bow themselves, they bring forth hast thou clothed his neck with thunder? their

young ones, they cast out their sorrows. 20 Canst thou make him afraid as a grass4 Their young ones are in good liking, hopper? the glory of his nostrils is 'terrible. they grow up with corn; they go forth, and 21 'He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth return not unto them.

in his strength: he goeth on to meet the 5 Who hath sent out the wild ass free?

armed men. who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass ? 22 He mocketh at fear, and is not af

6 Whose house I have made the wilder- frighted; neither turneth he back from the ness, and the 'barren land his dwellings. sword.

7 He scorneth the multitude of the city, 23 The quiver rattleth against him, the neither regardeth he the crying 'of the driver. glittering spear and the shield.

8 The range of the mountains is his pas- 24 He swalloweth the ground with fierceture, and he searcheth after every green thing. ness and rage: neither believeth he that it is 9 Will the unicorn be willing to serve

the sound of the trumpet. thee, or abide by thy crib?

25 He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha ; 10 Canst thou bind the unicorn with his and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunband in the furrow? or will he harrow the der of the captains, and the shouting, valleys after thee?

26 Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and 11 Wilt thou trust him, because his stretch her wings toward the south ? strength is great ? or wilt thou leave thy la- 27 Doth the eagle mount up ‘at thy combour to him?

mand, and make her nest on high ? 12 Wilt thou believe him, that he will 28 She dwelleth and abideth on the rock, bring home thy seed, and gather it into thy upon the crag of the rock, and the strong barn?

place. 13 Gavest thou the goodly wings unto the 29 From thence she seeketh the prey, and peacocks? or 'wings and feathers unto the her eyes behold afar off. ostrich ?

30 Her young ones also suck up blood : 14 Which leaveth her eggs in the earth, and 'where the slain are, there is she. and warmeth them in dust,

2 Heb. salt places. 3 Heb. of the exactor. * Or, the feathers of the stork and ostrich.
6 Or, His feet dig.
8 Heb. by thy mouth.

1 Psal. 29. 9.

6 Heb, terrors. Matt. 24. 28. Luke 17. 37.

7 IIcb, the armour'.

Verse 5. • Who hath sent out the wild ass free? or who As the animals are of similar habits, and nothing in faet hath loosed the bands of the wild ass ?'— In this verse a is stated that is not common to both, the description is distinction is lost which appears in the original, where dif- probably intended for both, although the immediate anteferent words stand where • wild ass' equally appears in our cedent is the ORUD in the second line. Let us read the translation. And yet this is not altogether wrong, for it whole in a somewhat improved version, thus :would appear that only different kinds or species of the

• Who hath sent forth the PERE free? wild ass are represented by the two different words.

Or the bands of the ORUD who hath loosed ? Tyndale marked the distinction by rendering the last term

Whose house I have made the wilderness, not by “ass' but by mule,' and in this has been followed

And the barren land his dwelling. by Good, Lee, and others. The first of the two words

He scorneth the multitude of the city ; here is a pere. It is the same which occurs in Gen.

To the cry of the driver he attendeth not. xvi, 12, where it is rendered . wild,' as an epithet applied The range of the mountain is his pasture, to Ishmael ; in Job xxiv. 5, where, as here, it is rendered And he seeketh after every green thing.'

wild ass,' as it is also in Isa. xxxii. 14; Jer. ii. 24; xiv. 6; Hos. viii. 9; most of which places indicate by the con

The Scriptural intimations respecting the PERE, identitext that the animal led a wild life in the wilderness. The fied as the modern Ghur, should be regarded as materials other word is niny orud, which apparently occurs only

for its natural history. From the passage before us, it, as

well as the ORUD, appears to have been an animal of the here and in Dan. v. 21; but is perhaps also intended

desert and the mountain-perhaps changing from the one where we read way in Jer. xvii. 6; xlviii. 6, where, how- to the other with the season, and bounding, as if in exultaever, the translation is heath'-most erroneously, as no

tion at his freedom from the yoke man had imposed upgo heath exists in the wildernesses of Asia. We may take

his kind. It seems, also, that it was less an inmate of names thus discriminated to denote two varieties in race of

Palestine than of the bordering plains and mountains. The the wild ass known in Asia ; for nothing is clearer than intense wildness of the animal is implied in nearly all the that if the two words, as appears probable, denote different

allusions to it; hence its adoption as the symbol of a pervarieties, both of them are described as being wild. But verse and incorrigible character in man, in which sense it the difficulty only here begins, as the subject of the wild

occurs several times, as in Job xi. 12: · Vain man would asses of Asia is involved in great obscurity from the vary

be wise, though he be born a wild ass's colt.' The Arabs ing accounts and names of travellers, so that it is not easy

still describe as an “ass of the desert' an indocile and to determine the differences; and some incline to think contumacious person. The animal brayed not over his that all the wild asses under the different names of Koulon grass, that is, when his food abounded (Job vi. 5); and in in Northern Asia, of Djiggetai in Central Asia, of Ghur or times of excessive drought, and therefore of corresponding Ghurkud in South-Western Asia, etc., all apply to the same animal. Col. C. Hamilton Smith distinguishes them, though he seems to think that the ancient, and some modern writers, confounded the two former, if not all three, in their descriptions. But he shews that the Djiggetai is distinguished from the Koulon by its neigbing voice, and by the deficiency of two teeth in the jaws, and that it is distinguished from the Ghur among other distinctions by the fact that it does not bray (Art. Ass, in Kitto's Biblical Cyclopædia). Now, if two varieties of the wild ass are indicated in the present text, there can be little doubt they are the Ghur and the Djiggetai, putting the Koulon out of view. Then the question is, which of the two answers to the PERE, and which to the ORUD. Col. C. Hamilton Smith himself supposes that the word orud is derived from the braying voice of the animal; and as the Djiggetai does not bray, he concludes that the Ghur is the ORUD, and the Djiggetai the PERE. The same line of inference would, however, conduct us to the opposite conclusion. For, while we are unable to find any reference to braying in the word ORUD, it is clear, froin Job vi. 5, that the PERE was a braying animal, for this is the wild ass' of that text, which indeed is the only one in Scripture where the word 'bray' occurs. On this ground, therefore, the Ghur, and not the Djiggetaiwhich does not bray, should be the PERE of Scripture. The text in question

Doth the wild ass (PERE] bray when he hath grass ? or loweth the ox over his fodder?' shews that the PERE brayed when he had no grass, as much as the ox lowed when it had no fodder. Col. Smith's other reason for his conclusion, that the ORUD is in the present text described as untameable, whereas the Djiggetai is actually used at present as a domestic animal at Lucknow,

alimi seems to us the less convincing as the description exhibits the animal rather in an untamed condition than as absolutely untameable; and besides, Col. Smith himself holds that the common labouring ass of South-Western Asia is a domesticated race of the Ghur, which he regards as the

We therefore, with great submission to so high an authority, feel disposed to invert bis conclusion, and say

THE WILD Ass. that the PERE of Scripture, being the word most frequently used, is the Ghur of South-Western Asia; and that the scarcity of food to man and beast, The wild asses did more rare word ORUD represents the Djiggetai of Central stand in the high places, and snuffed up the wind like dra. Asia.

gons: their eyes did fail because there was no grass' (Jer,



xiv. 6). This is beautifully true to nature; for in its natural plains of Sharon. Burckhardt declares that the wild asses state the ass never seeks the woodlands, but upland pasture, are found in great numbers' in Arabia Petræa, near the and mountains and rocky retreats; and it is habituated to gulf of Akaba. •The Sherarat Arabs hunt them, and eat stand upon the brink of precipices (a practice not entirely their flesh, but not before strangers. They sell their skins obliterated in our own domestic races), whence, with pro- and hoofs to the pedlars of Damascus, and to the people of truded ears, it surveys the scene below, blowing and at the Hauran. The hoofs furnish materials for rings, last braying in extreme excitement.

which are worn by the peasants on their thumbs, or fastWe are also assured by an Apocryphal writer that the ened under the arm-pits, as amulets against rheumatism.' wild ass (Onager) was the prey of the lion in the wilder- In Persia the wild ass is a favourite object of chace, and its ness (Ecclus, xiii. 9).

flesh is esteemed much as we esteem venison; and as such The Ghur or proper Wild Ass stands much higher on is served up on high occasions at royal tables. its limbs than the common ass. Its legs are longer and It is doubtful, however, which of the two species or more slender, and it is altogether a more graceful and varieties is that which travellers in Persia and the Persian symmetrical animal, with a greater predominance of equi- historians notice, unless where they describe them; as it nine forms and qualities than the domestic ass exhibits, seems that both the Ghur, already noticed, and another and having therefore less resemblance to it than to a very called the Ghurkhud—which more approximates to, if it fine mule. The mane is composed of short erect hair, of a be not the very same with the Djiggetai-are found in that dusky hue, and rather woolly texture. The colour of the country, being, as it were, a common ground on the outbody is uniform silvery grey, with a broad coffee-coloured skirts of the respective habitats of both. With respect stripe extending down the back from the mane to the tail, to the Ghurkhud or Djiggetai, which we regard as the and crossed on the shoulder by the same transverse band ORUD of the text, it would seem to have been diswhich the domestic variety exhibits. The head of the tinguished from the other so early as the time of Job; but species west of the Euphrates is much finer than that of among the Greek writers they were confounded much later Persia and Central Asia, and it is altogether a considerably under the general name of Onager or Wild Ass. Aristotle handsomer animal. Indeed, we are informed by Colonel seems to have been the first to distinguish them ; and from Smith (to whom we are indebted for the figure we give), that time the species or variety have, among the Greeks, that not only is the Syrian wild ass larger and more hand- the name of Hermionos, or desert ass. Col. Hamilton some than the Ghurkhud of Persia (which is the same or Smith describes it as ' little inferior to the wild horse; in closely similar to the Djiggetai), but that the species im- shape it resembles a mule, in gracefulness a horse, and in proves west of the Euphrates, and is very fine in the Bahar colour it is silvery, with broad spaces of flaxen or bright el-Abiad, in Africa. These wild asses are often mentioned bay on the thigh, flank, shoulder, neck, and head; the ears by ancient writers. The notice of Xenophon, whose de- are wide like the zebra's, and the neck is clothed with a scription refers to the same desert on the skirts of which vertical dark mane, prolonged in a line to the tuft of the Job resided, is particularly interesting from its correspond tail. The company of this animal is liked by horses, and ence with the Scriptural intimations. After describing when domesticated it is gentle; it is now found wild from the march of the army of the younger Cyrus through Syria, the deserts of the Oxus and Jaxartes to China and Central he proceeds: They then proceeded through Arabia, India. In Cutch it is never known to drink, and in whole still keeping the Euphrates on their right hand; and, in districts which it frequents water is not to be found ; and, five days, made, through a desert, a distance of thirty-five though the natives talk of the fine flavour of the flesh, and parasangs. This country appeared to the eye a complete the Ğhur in Persia is the food of heroes, to an European flat, and as smooth as the sea. It abounded in absinthium ; its smell is abominable.' and whatever herb or shrub grew there had an aromatic scent: but no trees whatever appeared. Of wild creatures,

9. Unicorn.'— The original is here O'n, usually DX?, the most numerous were, wild asses, with plenty of REEM, which the Septuagint has in this place and elsewhere ostriches, besides bustards and roe-deer, which afforded rendered by povokepws, one-horned'-equivalent to our sport to our horsemen. The wild ass, however, being 'unicorn. No one now seeks for it in the heraldic animal swifter of foot than our horses, would, on gaining ground that passes under the name, and which never had any but upon them, stand still and look around; and when their an imaginary existence. There is nothing in the Hebrew pursuers got nearly up to them, they would start off, and word to imply that the reem was one-horned; it is indeed repeat the same trick ; so that there remained to the hunt- mentioned as horned ; and on referring to the passages in ers no other method of taking them, but by dividing them

which the term is introduced, the only one which is quite selves into dispersed parties which succeeded each other in distinct on this point seems clearly to intimate that the the chace. The flesh of the wild asses taken in this man- animal had two horns. That passage is Deut. xxxiii, 17: ner was found to be like that of the red-deer, but more His horns are like the horns of the “reem;"' the word tender' (Anabasis, 1. 1). This is a very correct account,

here is singular, not plural, and should have been “unicorn,' not only of the animal, but of the desert region it inhabits. not 'unicorns,' as in our version ; but it would have been The method of hunting it is the same as here described ; inconsistent to have said the horns of the unicorn'-the and the manner in which it repeatedly stops to give the one-horned, and so the word was rendered in the plural. pursuer an opportunity of approaching, and then starts off The second passage is Ps. xxii. 21 : • The horus of the again, is a striking indication of an exulting and even a unicorns, which affords no information. The third is Ps. derisive consciousness of its own superior speed.

xcii. 10 (??2 D'X? omni rattarem ki-reem karni), liteWe know not on what authority it is usually affirmed

rally, ‘But thou wilt exalt, as the reem, my horn.' If that the wild ass has withdrawn beyond the Euphrates, and

horn' be supplied in the parallel, as in our version-as no longer exists in Asia west or south of that river. The

the horn of the unicorn,' then there would be nearly the facts we have just stated evince the contrary. Rauwolff,

same evidence for concluding the reem had one horn, as travelling from Tripoli to Aleppo, says, “In these countries

the first-cited text affords for its having two; but we should are a great many wild asses, called Onagri,' and pro

even then have to consider that it is usual, poetically or in ceeds to describe the use made of its skin in forming the

common discourse, to speak of the horn' of an animal that scabbards of swords and daggers; and Nau affirms that he

has actually two horns; but never of the horns' of a saw gazelles and wild asses among the wild animals in the

creature that has but one. And as this text now stands,

requiring an addition to make the assigned sense distinct, * They had crossed the Euphrates, and were therefore in its authority for giving the animal one horn is not equal Mesopotamia ; but the desert part of this region is of pre

to that of Deut. xxxiii. 17, for giving it two. cisely the same character as to the west of the river; and As we are thus exonerated from the necessity of finding was, properly enough, considered part of Arabia Déserta a one-horned animal to suit the Hebrew REEM, we may by the ancients.

with the more advantage read the highly-coloured and truly poetical description of the animal which the present erroneously, seeing that it belongs not to the bovine, but to text offers

the antilopine family of animals. REEM (high) seems to

be its poetical name, for there is reason to think that its "Will the REEM submit to serve thee;

common name was Yachmur, translated, most erroneously, Will he go to rest at thy stall;

* fallow-deer' in Deut. xiv. 5, under which text a figure of Canst thou make the harness bind him in thy furrow;

it is given; and it is important to remark that rim or teen Will he plough up the valleys after thee?

is one of the names which the species bears in Arabie. Wilt thou rely upon him because his strength is great;

This animal is still found in the wilder regions of Syria
Wilt thou leave thy labours to him?
Wilt thou trust to him to carry out thy seed

and Arabia ; and that it was so anciently, and was a

favourite object of the chace, is shewn by the paintings in And to bring home thy threshed grain ?'

the Egyptian tombs. It is, for one of this genus, a large Here the horn is not at all mentioned, and the attention and powerful animal, exceedingly swift in flight, and of an is chiefly directed to the wildness of the animal, to its unusually vicious and savage nature, and seems to answer swiftness, and to its strength.

all the conditions required by the Hebrew REEN. It may The notion which has seemed in most translations to recommend this explanation that, although we cannot allow give the sanction of Holy Scripture to a known fable, ap- that the REEM of Scripture has any necessary connection pears to have originated with the Septuagint, which renders with the notions about unicorns, it is highly probable that the Hebrew word by Monoceros (uovokeows), whence the these notions were founded upon this very animal, which Latin Unicornis, and thence the English Unicorn.

we are disposed to identify with the Hebrew reem: and, if so, it is easily to be understood how the Seventy came to translate the word by monoceros, in which translation all the discussion about Biblical unicorns has originated. A slight view of the figure of the oryx will indicate a striking resemblance to the fabled unicorn. From the form of its head, and from the manner in which the horns spring close to each other from the middle of the forehead, it is clear that if one of the horns were broken off near the root, and the fracture covered by the white hair which grows around it, most unscientific observers would suppose that they beheld an animal naturally one-horned. It is indeed a curious fact that this animal is usually so figured as to shev but one horn in the Egyptian monuments, but it is not agreed whether these figures intend to represent the animal a from accident or design one-horned, or that the artist merely proposed to intimate that the further horn was concealed by the nearer in the profile view of the animal.

In speaking of its wildness, we must be understood with some limitation, for, although the strength of the animal

could not be subdued to any useful service, it was so far RHINOCEROS Sraus.

tamed by the Egyptians that large numbers of them were

kept in the preserves of their villas. There has been a very general disposition to identify the 10. "Will he harrow the valleys after thee?'—It is interestREEM of Scripture with the rhinoceros, and obviously on the ing to find anything like a harrow mentioned so early as ground that this is the only animal that has a single horn, the patriarchal age of Job. It seems more than likely, which, as we have seen, is by no means required for the however, that the passage alludes to a practice mentioned Hebrew REEM. Pemuant, proceeding on this ground, is in the subjoined extract from Wilkinson's Ancient Egype very confident that the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros In- tians (v. 39); and this probability is strengthened by the dicus) is the unicorn' of Scripture, chiefly, as it appears, mention of valleys as the scene of the operation :- When because this species has but one horn, whereas that of the levels were low, and the water had continued long Africa has two. But since his time an African species has upon the land, they often dispensed with the plough, and been found with a horn much longer, and more tapering, probably, like their successors, broke up the ground with shapely, and erect than that of the Asiatic species, and hoes, or simply dragged the moist mud with bushes, afler much resembling that which is popularly ascribed to the the seed had been thrown upon the surface; and then merely unicorn. This species is called the Rhinoceros simus, and drove a number of cattle, asses, pigs, sheep, or goats into belongs to Southern Africa. The species has become very the field, to tread in the grain. This simple process of

A head was brought to this country by the Rev. tillage without the plough is probably alluded to in Deut. John Campbell, the missionary, and the whole animal has xi. 10, where the Israelites are reminded of the land of since been described and figured with great exactness by Egypt, in which they sowed their seed as in a garden of Dr. Smith.

herbs.' There seems, however, an insuperable objection to identi- 13. Gavest thou the goodly wings,' etc.-The words fying any rhinoceros with the Scriptural reem, whether the Gavest thou' are not in the original, which is so difficult fables of the unicorn did or did not originate with that of construction in this instance, that the Greek translators animal. It is very certain that the rhinoceroes does not, of the Septuagint seem to have confessed their ignorance and never did, within historical memory, inhabit Western by writing the Hebrew words in Greek characters, an exAsia, and could not be known to the Scriptural writers so pedient often resorted to when they were at a loss about the familiarly as the REEM evidently was. Sensible of this, meaning of the text. The following seems to come near to some writers have proposed to substitute the buffalo, which their import. "The wings of the ostrich vibrate and flutter, is certainly known in Western Asia. But this animal, so but are they like the pinions of the stork and the hawk?' far from possessing the untameable wildness ascribed to the The ostrich is remarkable for the shortuess of its wings, reem, is, and has been immemorially, domesticated in all which, instead of fanning the air with that magnificent the countries where it is known, and trained to the very sweep observed in the pennons of the hawk and the stork. Jabours for which the book of Job describes the reem as beat it in rapid flutter like the pulsations of a sounding.

board. And yet reared upon its tall legs it will oar itself The reem was manifestly a wild animal, and, of all the along with so much speed as to outstrip the fleetest greywild animals known in the Biblical region, it is difficult to hound, so easily can the Almighty compensate any real fix on any with so much of confidence and probability as on or apparent defects, which seem the ground of the chalthe Oryč leucoryx, commonly called the wild ox, but very | lenge here given. A passage in Dr. Shaw's Travels illus

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