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trates the propriety of thus connecting the terms '97 this bird in its native condition is not yet so fully known 'ostrich,' and 7073 vibrating' like a musical instru
as might be desired; but what has been ascertained tends ment, or fluttering or clapping,' as the wings of a bird :
to illustrate the present description, which ought to be reI had several opportunities of amusing myself, it is
ceived as authority, deciding those points which other said, ' with the actions and behaviour of the ostrich. It
sources of information leave doubtful. was very diverting to observe with what dexterity and
There are two varieties, if not species, of the ostrich ; equipoise of body it would play and frisk about on all
one never attaining seven feet in height, and covered occasions. In the heat of the day, particularly, it would
chiefly with grey and dingy feathers; the other somestrut along the sunny side of the house with great majesty.
times growing to more than ten feet, and of a glossy black It would be perpetually fanning and priding itself with its
plumage; the males in both having the great feathers of quivering wings; '-—'even at other times it would continue
the wings and tail white, but the females the tail only of these vibrating motions.' We see, then, with what de
that colour. These dimensions render them both the scriptive accuracy a vibrating wing is, in the present text,
largest animals of the feathered creation now existing. bestowed upon the ostrich.
They appear promiscuously in Asia and Africa, but the - ‘Peacock.'—The original is here the same which is
troops or coveys of each are always separate: the grey elsewhere rightly rendered the “stork,' for a figure and
is more common in the south of the equator, while the
black predominates to the north. The common-sized description of which see Lev. xi. 19. - Ostrich.' -- There are two names by which this bird
ostrich weighs about eighty pounds, but examples much is mentioned in Scripture-O'?? renonim, as in the present
heavier sometimes occur.
These birds are gregarious, from families consisting of text, and frequently by the poetical designation of my na a male with one or several female birds, and perhaps a bath-yaanah, the daughter of vociferation, or of loud brood or two of young, up to troops of near a hundred. moaning,' wbich has usually been rendered .owl' in our It is not yet finally decided whether the ostrich is polyversion. This designation doubtless arose from the noises gamous, though current testimony seems to leave no doubt made by the female ostrich in her native deserts, and which of the fact; there is, however, no uncertainty respecting have been particularly noticed by various travellers. The the nest, which is merely a circular basin scraped out of bird is called in the Greek Gypov okéundos, the camel the soil, with a slight elevation at the border, and suffibird ;' a name borrowed also by the Romans (Struthio ciently large to contain a great number of eggs; for from camelus), and adopted by Linnæus. It is to this day called twelve to sixty have been found in them, exclusive of a
the camel-bird in the East, owing this name, it would certain number always observed to be outlying, or placed seem, to the very considerable resemblance to the camel beyond the raised border of the nest, and amounting which its outline and structure exhibit. The history of apparently to near one-third of the whole. These are
supposed to feed the young brood when first hatched, | devour lizards, snakes, and young birds that fall in their either in their fresh state or in a corrupted form, when way. This indiscriminate mode of feeding is probably the the substance in them has produced worms. These eggs reason that the law pronounces the fiesh of this bird to are of different periods of laying, like those within, and be unclean (Lev. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. 15). Colonel Hamilthe birds hatched form only a part of the contents of a ton Smith suggests that there may also have been an nest, until the breeding season closes. The eggs are of intention 'to lay a restriction upon the Israelites tending different sizes, some attaining to seven inches in their to wean them from a nomade life, which hunting in the longer diameter, and others less.
desert would have fostered. For ostriches must be sought Beyond the tropics, one or more females usually sit in the barren plains, where they are not accessible except constantly, and the male bird takes the duty himself after by stratagem.' The bird is to this day hunted by no olje the sun is set. But within the tropics, the nests are kept except on horseback; and such is its speed, that it easily sufficiently warm in the daytime not to require incuba scorneth the horse and its rider,' and is only at last overtion; and this is so much the case in the Arabian plains, come by its disposition to take a winding route, which which are subject to almost tropical heat in summer, that gives the hunter an opportunity of crossing its track, and the birds venture to leave the nest during part of the day, of thus giving him a chance to hit her with his gun or a fact to which there is here an evident allusion. The javelin. Ostriches do not exist in Palestine; but they are fact was formerly disputed, but is now well substantiated still found in the great Syrian desert, especially in the by more accurate observation; and popular opinion would plains extending from the Hauran towards the Jebul ou this ground subject the bird to a charge of carelessness Shammar and Nejed. Some are found in the Hauran, of its nest, which brings it into apparent contrast with the and a few are taken almost every year within two days' stork, whose very name in Hebrew means kindness,' journey of Damascus. The Arabs here seldom hunt them, and which, having its nest in situations where the heat is but take them by stratagem. This being at the extreme naturally less concentrated, is obliged to manifest more northward limit of their habitat, they do not at any time uninterrupted attention to its nest. The strong assertions leave their eggs, the warmth being there insufficient to of some naturalists, founded on partial observation, that hatch them so early in the year; but that they do so gaythe ostrich never did leave its nest, gave much pain to where is sufficient for the indication of the present text. some expositors, who strove to elicit from the words of The Arabs who inhabit this quarter reckon the eggs delithe text a meaning in accordance with that assertion. cious food, and sell them for about a shilling each to the But the text is now, in this respect, corroborated not only townspeople, who hang up the shells as ornaments in their by more discriminating observation, but by the unvarying rooms. Ostrich feathers are sold by the Arabs at Aleppo testimony of the Arabian writers, who had ample oppor and Damascus, principally at the latter city. The Shertunities of knowing the bird, and who scarcely ever men arat Arabs often sell the whole skin with the feathers on tion it without some allusion to its apparent indifference for about two Spanish dollars, or 8s. 4d.; but the finest to or neglect of its nest, to which large birds usually pay | feathers sell singly at one or two shillings each. the most sedulous attention.
19. ' Hast thou given the horse strength ?' etc.- Here The food of ostriches is chiefly seeds and vegetables; we arrive at one of the most glorious descriptions in the but as their organs of taste are very obtuse, they swallow book of Job-a description which no translation has been with little or no discrimination all kinds of substances, able to disfigure, and which in all translations has been not excepting even stones. It is also probable that they | admired. It is unnecessary to explain the figures em
ployed, the force and beauty of which will be felt by turned upon celebrated horses, one said of Dahis,He every reader. There is a well-known description of the startles every one that looks at him; he is the antidote of horse in Virgil, which is unquestionably the finest in clas grief to every one that beholds him; and he is a strong sical antiquity. It is exceedingly noble, but is not com. tower to every one that mounts him. Again, . He is a parable to that which the sacred text offers. The following horse, when a night of dust sheds its obscurity, you may is Sotheby's trarislation:
see his hoofs like a firebrand:' and, finally, in a race be“ But at the clash of arms, his ear afar
tween this and another,— They started forth like lightDrinks the deep sound and vibrates to the war:
ning, when it blasts the sight with its flash ; or a gust of Flames from each nostril roll in gather'd stream ;
wind, when it becomes a hurricane in its course.... When His quivering limbs with restless motion gleam;
they came to the mead, Dahis launched forth like a giant O'er his right shoulder, floating full and fair,
when he stretches himself out, and he left his dust behind. Sweeps his thick mane and spreads his pomp of hair :
He appeared as if without legs or feet; and in the twinkSwift works his double spine; and earth around
ling of an eye he was ahead of Ghabra.' Rings to the solid hoof that wears the ground.'
21. · He goeth on to meet the armed men.' - Michaelis is
quite of opinion that none but a military man, who h: To this we will add a few descriptive touches from
observed the war-horse in battle, can fully appreciate the Antar, which will be particularly appropriate, because the
force of this part of the description. He says, I have book of Job conducts us to Arabia or its vicinity, and be
myself perhaps rode more than many who have become cause the Arabians do so passionately admire this noble authors and illustrators of the Bible; but one part of the animal that they have exhausted all the wealth of their description, namely, the behaviour of the horse on the fine language and rich imaginations in descriptions of its attack of a hostile army, I only understand rightly from beauty, spirit, and pride. The mare' of Shedad, called
what old officers have related to me: and as to the proper Jirwet, is thus mentioned :- Shedad's mare was called
meaning of the two lines—“ Hast thou clothed his neck Jirwet, whose like was unknown. Kings negotiated with with ire?” [“ with thunder ?” in our version, verse 19), him for her, but he would not part with her, and would
and “ The grandeur of his neighing is terror" [" The accept no offer or bribe for her; and thus he used to talk
glory of his nostrils is terrible,” verse 20]—it had escaped of her in his verses : “ Seek not to purchase my horse, for me; indeed the latter I had not understood, until a person Jirwet is not to be bought or borrowed. I am a strong
who had had an opportunity of seeing several stallions castle on her back; and in her bound are glory and great.
together instructed me; and then I recollected that, in my ness. I would not part with her were strings of camels to eighteenth year, I had seen their bristled-up necks, and come to me, with their drivers following them. She flies heard their fierce cries, when rushing to attack each with the wind without wings, and tears up the waste and other.' the desert. I will keep her for the day of calamities, and she will rescue me when the battle dust rises."! There
26. · Doth the hawk fly,' etc. - This is the ? netz, are many touches, in a similar spirit, in the history of the mentioned in the note to Lev. xi. 16, where we have taken horse Dahis, which was the occasion of a war among the the sparrow-hawk as its representative. It is probable, Arab tribes. At a great feast, where the conversation | however, that it is used generally to denote various species
The lev'ret 'scapes not hid in thickest shades,
Il. xvii. 674. CowPER. Most poets in all nations have, in like manner, amplified upon or drawn images from the power of the eagle's vision,
of the falcon family. Of these, many are birds of passage, winging their way southward into warmer climates at the approach of winter, and returning northward in the spring. To this the present text distinctly alludes; and the meaning of the question clearly is, • Ís it by thy wisdom that the hawk knoweth the due season for migrating to the warm south ?' There are more precise references to the migrations of birds in Jer. viii. 7, where the reader will find such observations as this interesting subject requires.
27. · The eagle.'-See the notes on Deut. xxxii. 11; see
The field exploring, with an eye
12 Look on every one that is proud, and 3 Job humbleth himself to God. 6 God stirreth him
bring him low; and tread down the wicked in up to shew his righteousness, power, and wisdom.
their place. 15 Of the behemoth.
13 Hide them in the dust together; and
bind their faces in secret. MOREOVER the Lord answered Job, and said, 14 Then will I also confess unto thee that
2 Shall he that contendeth with the Al- | thine own right hand can save thee. mighty instruct him? he that reproveth God, 15 T Behold now behemoth, which I made let him answer it.
with thee; he eateth grass as an ox. 3 | Then Job answered the LORD, and 16 Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and said,
his force is in the navel of his belly. 4 Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer 17 'He moveth his tail like a cedar: the thee? I will lay inine hand upon my mouth. sinews of his stones are wrapped together.
5 Once have I spoken ; but I will not 18 His bones are as strong pieces of brass ; answer : yea, twice; but I will proceed no his bones are like bars of iron. further.
19 He is the chief of the ways of God: he 6 | Then answered the LORD unto Job that made him can make his sword to approach out of the whirlwind, and said,
into him. 7 'Gird up thy loins now like a man: 1 20 Surely the mountains bring him forth will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me. food, where all the beasts of the field play.
8 Wilt thou also disannul my judgment ? 1 21 He lieth under the shady trees, in the wilt thou condemn me, that thou mayest be covert of the reed, and fens. righteous ?
1. 22 The shady trees cover him with their 9 Hast thou an arm like God? or canst shadow; the willows of the brook compass him thou thunder with a voice like him?
| about. 10 Deck thyself now with majesty and 23 Behold, he drinketh up a river, and excellency; and array thyself with glory and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up beauty.
Jordan into his mouth. 11 Cast abroad the rage of thy wrath : 24 "He taketh it with his eyes: his nose and behold every one that is proud, and abase pierceth through snares.
3 Psal. 104. 1. Or, the elephant, as some think.. 301, he setteth up. 7 Or, Will any take him in his sight, or, bore his nose with a ginn.
Verse 4. · Behold I am vile; what shall I answer thee? | pachydermata, but in respect to the hippopotamus it I will lay mine hand upon my mouth.' - To lay the hand would perhaps be a special matter of attention that this upon the mouth is still in the East a token of submission, animal, living so much in the water, and being in fact an silence, and respect. In this case the hand is laid upon aquatic creature, should yet eat grass as an ox. the mouth in a line with the nose.
16. ^ His strength is in his loins, and his force is in the 15. · Behemoth,' niona.-Not the least remarkable
navel of his belly.—This agrees with the hippopotamus, thing about the Behemoih is its name. The word is
and not with the elephant, in which the belly is the plural, and yet denotes one animal, whereas the singular
weakest and most penetrable part. In the river-horse the of the same word (i9na behemah) is a noun of multi
skin of the belly is as thick as in other parts, and is indeed
rendered in some degree callous by being dragged over tude, properly rendered by cattle,' or 'beasts.' The
the rough stones at the bottom of the rivers. plural form is usually supposed to be here applied to one
17. · He moveth his tail like a cedar.'-It is doubtful animal to express its pre-eminence. What animal this is has occasioned no small amount of discussion. All the
that the word here used does mean the tail. Supposing alternatives which have been suggested are limited to the
it does, it may be remarked that this appendage in all the
pachydermata is inconsiderable in proportion to the bulk animals which Cuvier has put in one class, which he calls
of the animal; but it is thicker and firmer in the riverpachydermata, on account of the thickness of their skins. To this class equally belong the elephant, the hippopo
horse than in the elephant, and therefore, in regard to
mere appearance, admits of a better comparison to the tamus (or river-horse), and some extinct species of enormous animals, as the mastodon or mammoth, and others.
cedar. But the reference is rather to the action than to Now in all these the Behemoth has been sought. And
the appearance of the tail; and it may be observed that
the river-horse, no less than the elephant, has a perfect the probability seems to be that the word in this plural shape is to be taken as a poetical personification of the
command over it, moving and twisting it at pleasure, great pachydermata generally. It is confessedly difficult
which seems to be here mentioned as an evidence of to make all the details correspond to any one in particular,
strength. but we can discover that the idea of the hippopotamus, or
18. His bones,' etc.—This verse, with reference to the river-horse, predominates in the description, although
bones, is applicable figuratively to all the pachydermata. there are details which answer better to the elephant. I 19. He that made him can make his sword to approach
19. He that made him can make his This explanation solves the difficulty which Dr. J. M. unto him.'- This is obscure. •He that made him gave Good could only get over by supposing that the Behemoth
him his sword' is more in accordance with the general was some extinct species of mastodon, in which the cha
idea which interpreters have evolved from the text. The racteristics of the elephant and of the hippopotamus were
| sword of the animal is its weapon, and may apply to the
sword of the animal is its weapon, united. That the characteristics of the latter predomi- sharp-pointed and projecting tusks either of the river-horse nate is explained by the fact that, although the elephant | or the elephant, and does probably apply to both. may have been known to the ancients from report and 20. · The mountains bring him forth food, where all the description, they were likely to be better acquainted with beasts of the field play.'— Unless this applies by contrast the hippopotamus, which abounded in the river Nile. as singular attributes of an aquatic animal worthy of Let us trace the details.
special note, it would be more applicable to the elephant - He eateth grass as an ox.'—This is true of all the than to the river-horse, which is never seen upon the