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Shaving the Head .
Persian Mansion.

16
Supporting Pillars of Eastern Buildings 16
Slings .
Egyptian Slingers

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Initial Letter
Scribe counting Hands (cut off) .
Captives bound . .
Immolation of Captives .
Ancient War-chariot. From an Egyp-

tian Bas-relief . .
Ancient Persian Chariot. From a Per-
sepolitan Bas-relief

19 Summer Parlour on the Nile Ox-goad . . . . 3 15 Mount Tabor . Large Egyptian Shield . The Testudo. From the Trajan Column 5 Egyptian and Round Shields. From a

Sculpture at Thebes . . 5 Roman Combat. From a Bas-relief at

Pompeii . . . . 5 Modern Oriental Shields and Spears 5 Ancient Persian Shields and Spears..

From Sculptures at Persepolis . 5
Roman Attack with a Spear. From an

antique gem . .
Ancient Egyptian Javelin.
White Asses
Eastern Lattice .

5
Egyptian Pitchers.
Olive Branch, with Fruit .
Hand-mill. .
Lion of Western Asia

. 14 Askelon

. 14 59 Jackals : Gaza

. 16 64 Wild Elephants, captured by means of

Decoy Female Elephants, and bound with green withes

. 16 Hindoo Weavers . . . 16 66

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RUTH.
Initial Letter .
Egyptian Harvest Scene .
Eastern Veil .
Egyptian Sandals .
Ancient Shoes and Sandals
Grecian and Roman Sandals

FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL.
Initial Letter .
Horn Head-dresses
Sacrificial Hook

. . 2 Ancient Egyptian Seats. Medal of Dagon . Short-tailed field-mouse. Ethiopian Car drawn by Oxen . Indian Car drawn by Oxen . 6 Turkish Arabah drawn by Oxen. 6 Runners attending a Chariot. Ancient

Egyptian . . . 8 King Anointed. Ancient Egyptian 10 Eastern Grindstone

. 13 Monumental Trophy . . 15 Ancient Helmets. . . 17 Mailed Horse and Rider. From Bas

relief at Tackt-i-Bostan . . 17 Ancient Cuirasses.

• . 17 Coat of Ringed Mail-Phrygian. 17 Scale Armour-Mounted Dacian. 17 Corslets and Helmets of Roman

common Soldiers. From Trajan's Column.

. . 17

101 101 105 106 109 110 111 111

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CHAP. PAGE
Egyptian Windows

.

6 273
Egyptian Temple .

273
Egyptian Doors .

• 6 274
Metal Door-pins ...

274

. 6 274
Ground-plan of the King's Palace
Obelisks in Front of a Temple
Fountain of the Lions .
Sycamore Fig-tree
Interior of Haram

. 11 290
Shishak, King of Egypt.

11 291
Egyptian representation of Sudah
Captive

11 291
Lion seizing a Man . . 13 296
Samaria . .

303
Coin of Baal, or Melkart

305
Ancient Figures of Baal ..

305
Coin of Baal, or Tyrian Hercules .

305
Mount Carmel . . .

310
Knives and Lancets of Egypt . 312
Girded Loins .

313
• Juniper Tree' (Spanish Broom)

314
Ropes on Necks . . . 20 318
Seal-ring. From Pompeii

320
Babylonian Seals.

320
Tail-piece. . . . 22 324

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ᎬᏃᎡᎪ. Initial Letter Persian King enthroned . Persian King walking . Sculpture of the Captivity Record Chamber. Ancient Persian Soldiers. Persian Horsemen Caravan . Caravan attacked Arabian Horde coming to a halt Shekel of Silver . Coin of Simon . Demi-shekel, Copper Quarter-shekel, Copper . Tomb of Ezra Tail-piece.

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SECOND BOOK OF CHRONICLES. Initial Letter . . Horseman. From an Egyptian Sculpture 1 - 444 Capitals of Egyptian Columns 2 447 Snuffers . . . . . 4 449 Pincers . ..

449 Palmyra. General View of Ruins Palmyra. View of a portion of Ruins . .

456 Hittite, in Civil Dress

457 Hittite, in War Dress

457 Amorite .

. Le

. . . 8 458 Jebusite . .

458 Journey of an Abyssinian Queen

461 Algum Trees (Pinus deodara)

462 Egyptian Thrones. .

9463 Throne with Steps.

463 Apes. Species of Simiadæ, represented in Egyptian Monuments

469 Tribute-bearers . .

471 Ancient Form of Ashtaroth

480 Astarte : one of her Forms at Tyre

480 Head of Astarte . . . 16

480 Astarte in a Car

. 16 480 Jewish Physician. Modern Oriental 16 482 Sepulchre of the Kings . . 24 493 Castle near Teheran . : 26 498 Detached Tower or Fort. Ancient Egyptian

498 Balista ,

498 Catapulta .

498 Head of the Catapulta

499 Scorpion for discharging Arrows

499 The Aggle-stone .

502 Fenced City, Babylon in Egypt Walls and Towers ..

510 Walls and Towers-Memphis 32 510 Wall and Tower's manned . . 32 510 Fortress with Fosse and Double Wall 510 Fortress with Double Fosse

511 Fortress attacked : Testudo, &c. . 32 511 Fortress attacked : Testudo, &c. Fortress attacked . . . 32 512 Fortress . . . . 32 512 Fortress of Akaba, with the Arrival

of a Caravan of Pilgrims : 32 513

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ESTHER. Initial Letter

584 Ground-plan of part of the Ruins at

Persepolis . . . 1 585 Royal Palace at Ispahan.

586 Council. From a Sculpture at Nakshi Rustam .

587 Oriental Palace Gate .. Eunuch of the Turkish Seraglio 4 594 King on his Throne. Modern Persia 4 595 Royal Levee. Modern Oriental . 5 597 Ceremony of investing a Persian with

a Dress of Honour . . 6 599 Dress of Honour .

6 The King's Horse

6 600 Crown of Nadir Shah, King of Persia 6 601 Crown of Futteh Ali Shah, King of

Persia . . Procession of Honour-The Start 6 001 Procession of Honour-Progress. 6 602 Procession of Honour-Return . Turkish Courier . . . 8 604 Chinese Courier .

. 8 605 Tomb of Mordecai and Esther . 10 · 608

600

601

511

602

JOB.

CHAP. PAGE Tail-piece .

613 Initial Letter

614 Tomb at Petra

621 Interior of a Tomb at Petra

621 Treasure Finding .

622 The Dying Lion .

624 Lioness and Whelps

624 Irish Mud-cabin .

625 A Dry Valley in Edom

629 Web of Geometric Spider.

632 Eagle on Wing ..

634 Indian Stocks .

638 Chinese Wooden Collar

638 Group illustrating the use of the Style 19 Engraved Rocks in the Wady Mokatteb 19 645 Viper

. . 20 647 Nest of Brown-tailed Moth .

654 Pendulous Leaf-nests of Caterpillars 27 655 Nest of Lilac-leaf Roller

. 27 655 Nest of Osier-leaves . . 27 655

CHAP. PAGE Booth

27 655 Griffon Vultures.

28 657 Head of Griffon Vulture.

657 Coral

. . . 28 658 Gate of the City.

659 Fire-worshipper .

31 663 Wine-cart, and Manner of filling the

Amphora. From Pompeii . 32 666 A Girl pouring Wine from a Skin Wine-bottle .

666 Crystals of Snow.

673 Wild Ass.

. . : 39 676 Rhinoceros Sinus

. 39 678 Ostrich

679 Horse's Head. From the Elgin Marbles.

.

. 39 680 Syro-Arabian War-horse.

681 Head of White-headed Eagle

682 Hippopotamus . Asiatic Elephant.

684 Crocodile .

685 Egyptian Tumbler

686

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MAPS AND STEEL PLATE.

Map of the Countries mentioned in the Bible. (Facing Title-page.) · Map of Canaan, as divided by Joshua among the Twelve Tribes of Israel

a among the Twelve Tribes of Israel The Captivity :

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The Hebrew title of the seventh book of the Scriptures is d'opivi Shophetim, which the Septuagint renders by KPITAI, and the Vulgate by Judices. Our word JUDGES is a correct and yet an insufficient interpretation of the original. “Judges,' with us, simply designates those who administer justice; the Hebrew word SHOPHETIM denotes also the administration of justice, but instead of being confined to that function, it comprehends much more. Governors,' or Rulers,' would be a more sufficient interpretation of the Hebrew title, because that is the office really denoted, to which the name of Judges' is given merely because in those times to dispense justice in the last resort, or in cases of high public interest, was a prominent and signal part of the duty of any king, prince, governor, or civil magistrate. In the present book the term designates those occasional leaders and chief magistrates of the Israelites who led out the people in war against their enemies, and after having delivered them from the oppression of the neighbouring nations, exercised each, during peace, the office of chief magistrate and judge in Israel. Nor was it only by the Hebrews that this term was applied as a title of distinction to non-regal governors or magistrates. The Carthaginians, who were descended from the Tyrians, and spoke the Hebrew language, called their chief magistrates by the same name; but the Latins, whose language does not possess the sh of the ancient Hebrews and Carthaginians, wrote the word with a sharp s, and adding a Latin termination, denominated them Suffetes.

The date and authorship of the book cannot with positive certainty be determined. Some ascribe it to Samuel, some to Hezekiah, some to Ezra ; but the tradition which assigns the anonymous books of Scripture to some eminent historical personage is like that which leads the natives of Syria to ascribe all great anonymous ruins to Solomon. When no internal evidence for determining the question exists, it is much wiser to leave the matter unembarrassed by such vague conjectures. In Israel there were many high servants of God who take no place in history, and many prophets whose names have not descended to us. It has been urged that the book must have been written after the establishment of regal authority among the Hebrews, in consequence of the frequently recurring phrase, in apology for the disorders of the times, “In those days there was no king in Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes.' But those who produce this argument overlook the fact that this remarkable phrase occurs only in the supplementary chapters (xvii. 6; xviii. 1; xix. 1 ; xxi. 25), which form a perfectly separable portion of the book, composing in fact two appendices, which may have been written, and probably were written, subsequently to the continuous history of which the book is mainly composed. Whatever weight, therefore, belongs to this argument pertains only to this portion, and may not be extended to the entire book. That the sub. stantial history of the book could not have been written later-however much earlier-than the expulsion of the Jebusites from Jerusalem, towards the beginning of David's reign (2 Sam. v. 6), is shewn by the fact that the author expressly describes Jerusalem as being, at the time he wrote, in the possession of the Jebusites. (ch. i. 21.) So also in 2 Sam. xi. 21, there is a distinct reference to a fact recorded in Judges ix. 53, shewing that the book must have been in existence when the second book of Samuel was produced. Upon the whole, therefore, it would appear that the first portion of Judges could not have been written later than the reign of Saul, or the seven first years of that of David ; and as the history itself reaches down to the time of Eli, it cannot be taken back earlier than that, so that the resulting probability would confine the range of the history to the governments of Samuel and Saul-most probably in that of Saul, as the change of the form of government by the election of a king, would supply a motive for the composition of the history of the antecedent circumstances, which had occurred since the death of Joshua and of the elders who outlived him, and the knowledge of which had been preserved in unconnected memorials, registers, poems, and traditions. As Samuel is VOL. II.

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