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and more attractive character. The following is at him: this is the use to which he turned the mis. once interesting and informing.
sionary. It was a trying day to the sick of all the vessels.
Immediately on our arrival, he came on board to A fiercely burning sun, the air close and sultry, pay his respects, and said that the king had been with the thermometer 90° at noon, in the shade, very kind to him. It did not appear that he had and scarcely below 850 even at night, raised the made any beginning in his pastoral duties; for the fever to its height; and it seemed with several, that king, anxious to derive as much advantage as poswithout continued artificial ventilation by fans and sible from his civilized countryman, had conferred frequent cold spongings, they would have expired upon him the dignity of chief tailor, thus showing under the oppression of breathing and heat of skin. a determination to begin by reforming his outward Many of those not yet entered on the sick-list were man. evidently beginning to feel weak and apprehensive.
In addition to the enervating fever, we seem to be threatened with another and more singular visita- settlements on the Coast, we copy from the Colonization
[As a contrast to the unfavorable report of the British tion, not less dreaded by the seamen. For the last Herald parts of a letter from Samuel Mercer, commander, two nights, the little tenement on the starboard U. S. Navy, to our old friend Elliott Cresson.) sponson, which having been comfortably fitted up by Lieut. Strange, for some of the blacks, went by
U. S. Ship JAMESTOWN, the name of Kru-Town, had been disturbed by un
Madeira, May 12th, 1848. welcome intruders in the shape of snakes, which
When we unexpectedly met at Havre de Grace were now abundant in the waters, being driven off the high grasses on the inundated islands. The for a few moments, when I was on my way to fear of these, as some were said to be venomous, Norfolk to take command of this ship, bound 10 was certainly one of the horrors; and in all the the coast of Africa, to cruise for the double purvessels several were killed at night, having either pose of preventing the slave-irade being carried twisted themselves up by the cable or by the paddle- on under our flag and to protect our constantly inwheels. While we lay aground at English Island, creasing commerce on the coast, you requested they were seen frequently coiled round the tops of that I would write you after I had visited Monthe reeds which appeared above water; and one of the officers of the Amelia tender absolutely prac- rovia, and give my opinion of the state of the coltised with a pistol at a bunch of these reptiles, col- ony of Liberia and of its future prospects. I lected in that way near the vessel. On questioning avail myself, with pleasure, of this opportunity to a nalive on the subject, he gave a very satisfactory comply with your request. explanation. During the dry season, when the We have been at Monrovia three times, and at river is low, much of the land, now overflowed, is each visit I was ashore repeatedly, mixed freely quite exposed and connected with the banks, and with the colonists, and took pains to inquire of the the grass soon springs up luxuriantly, affording a sunny and open resort for the numerous insects; most intelligent among them what were their fusnakes then come out of the surrounding woods of ture intentions and prospects, and also as to their these localities, and when the water rises, cutting present state and condition. On our first visit, in off large patches, like islands, communication is November last, the colony had just declared its inprevented with the banks. As the river gets still dependence and published its new constitution as higher, they are obliged to take refuge on the reeds; the basis upon which the Republic of Liberia was and when these are submerged, they swim off,
to be governed. Our intercourse with the govattaching themselves to the first object they meet in their course which may afford a refuge: in this ernor and inhabitants, was of a most cordial and way several must have accidentally come in contact friendly character. On our second visit, which with the vessels in the stream. Whenever a noise was in January last, the new government was in was heard in “Kru-Town," the people used to say, operation, Governor Roberts having been duly in" Another snake come !" One of a very venomous augurated as President, and the Senate and House character was killed on board the Soudan.
of Representatives in session. I took occasion We cannot enter into much of the diplomacy, listened with attention and interest to their debates
one day to visit both houses of congress, and but the following piece is a rare sample. The reader will pereive that the instructions of the Co- on the new revenue or tariff law. Everything lonial Office touching the completion of any pur
was done in the most decorous and orderly manchase were rigidly carried out, and, it would seem, ner, each member seeming to understand the subby some pupil of the office transmogrified into a
ject of discussion fully. The senate consists of “sea lawyer."
six members and the presiding officer, and the
house of eight members and the speaker. For the purchase of this territory we agreed to It was, indeed, to me, a novel and interesting give seven hundred thousand cowries, (nearly 45!.sight, although a southern man, to look upon these or goods to that amount; one fifth part of which was to be paid when the deed of cession was signed, emancipated slaves legislating for themselves, and as security for the purchase and delivery of the said discussing freely, if not ably, the principles of huland ; the remainder to be paid as soon as the British man rights, on the very continent, and, perhaps, people shall have had possession of the land for the very spot, where some of their ancestors were twelve months, provided they should at that time sold into slavery. Who can foresee what may yet wish to retain it, either at one payment, or in five spring from this germ of freedom for the regenerainstalments, as might be most convenient to the queen tion of Africa i of Great Britain?
I am quite certain if colonies were established King Obi requested a missionary to be left with along the coast on the same liberal principle as Liberia, that th slave-trade would have to be After a year's sojourn those who survive its atabandoned along the west coast of Africa as far tacks become so far acclimated as to suffer little south as the equator, in ten or fifteen years, and from it thereafter. I found several persons living at a cost too of less than is now consumed for two at Monrovia and enjoying excellent health, alor three
years, in keeping up the American, though old, who came over with the first colonists, French, and English squadrons, for its suppression. settled at Shubro Island. These have been living Two or three millions of dollars judiciously spent, in Africa twenty-five years. would do all this. I have no correct idea what In no part of the world have I met with a more has been the expense to the Colonization Society orderly, sober, religious and moral community than in planting and nourishing its colony on this coast, is to be found at Monrovia. On the Sabbath it is but imagine I am safe in estimating it at not more truly a joyful sound to hear hymns of praise, and than four hundred thousand dollars ; and with that a pleasure to observe how very general the attendamount it has, by its energetic, humane, and judi- ance upon divine worship is among these people. cious management, driven the slave-trade from I believe every man and woman in Monrovia, of an extent of coast of 320 miles, reaching from any respectability, is a member of the church. Cape Mount to Cape Palmas, with the single ex- If you take a family dinner with the president, ception of one slave establishinent at New Cess, (and his hospitable door is always open to stranwhich President Roberts, by stringent and ener- gers,) a blessing is asked upon the good things begetic measures, will soon cause to be abandoned. fore you set to. Take a dinner at Colonel Heck's, From Cape Palmas to Cape Three Points the (who by the way keeps one of the very nicest slave-trade does not exist ; indeed, I believe I may tables,) and “mine host," with his shiny black ininclude the coast as far down as Cape St. Paul, as telligent face, will ask blessing on the tempting freed from this abominable traffic. From the latter viands placed before you. Cape to Cape Formoso the trade is still in active In conversation with President Roberts during operation, whence thousands of slaves are taken our third and last visit to Monrovia, in March lasi, off yearly, notwithstanding the vigilance of the I expressed my apprehensions that if he and half many cruisers on the coast-the officers and crews a dozen others of the leading men of the republic of the English and French men-of-war being re- were cut off by death, it would be impossible to warded with the amount arising from the sales replace them with men of equal abilities. The of the vessels captured, besides getting twenty president did not at all participate in my apprehendollars a head for each recaptured slave. It will sions on this point, but expressed a perfect confibe perceived, then, that the only part of the coast dence in the belief, that from the general and innorth of the equator, with the exception of that creasing intelligence of the people, any gap occaportion extendiirg from Cape Mount to the Sheba sioned in this way, might be repaired without any river, which will require colonizing, reaches only detriment to the welfare of the republic. from Cape St. Paul to Cape Formosa, a distance On my second visit to Monrovia, while the connot exceeding three hundred miles. I am satisfied gress was in session, I had a fair opportunity of that this portion of the West Coast is quite as conversing with several members from the three healthy, or to speak more properly, not more un- counties in which the state is divided, from whom healthy than the coast of Liberia. There are por- I was pleased to learn that the people in the intetions of it, too, where the soil is exceedingly fer- rior had begun to turn their attention to agricultural 'tile, and, indeed, may compare advantageously in pursuits, being persuaded that their true interests this respect with any other part of the coast. Near lay in producing more than they have yet been in Quitta, (a Danish fort,) about fifteen miles east of the habit of doing. Of this pleasing fact I had Cape St. Paul, the abundance with which we previously been assured by President Roberts. were supplied with sheep, hogs, fowls and fruits, It will sound stranger, perhaps, to European and the cheapness of the articles, surprised us ears than to our own to hear that the secretary of very much.
the treasury and of state, and the chief justice, Liberia, I think, is now safe, and may be left, are storekeepers, and that the attorney general after a while, to stand alone. Would it not be of this little republic is a blacksmith. They advisable then, for the Colonization Society to were the best materials at hand, and it is to be turn its attention to some other portion of the coast, hoped that for some years to come the diplomatic and extend the area of its Christian and philan- relations and financial affairs of the republic will thropic efforts to bettering the condition of the col- | be of so simple a nature as to be easily managed ored people of our country, by sowing, on other by the present incumbents of the state and treasparts of the coast, some of the good seed which ury departments, who are men of good sense and have produced so bountifully on the free soil of honest intentions. Crimes of magnitude against Liberia ?
the state will be but few for some time, and such There is no part of the West Coast of Africa cases as are brought before the Supreme Court of exempt from fever, and the colonist must expect Liberia, will be so plain that honest Judge Beneto suffer from its effects for a while after landing dict, the storekeeper and chief justice, and the at Monrovia, Cape Palmas, or any other point on equally honest blacksmith and attorney general, the coast of Liberia. The number carried off by Major Brown, will be able to see to the bottom of the fever is not very large: the deaths are princi- them as clearly as Chief Justice Taney and Mr. pally confined to old people and young children. Attorney General Clifford in our Supreme Court. will unravel the knotty cases (made still more fecho, it is true, but “ damnable iteration,” for all knotty by the astute and learned gentlemen who that. Was there no friend at hand to weed the plead before them) submitted for their sage de- volumes of everything that sınacked of neighboring cision.
seed-plots? The two volumes might have shrunk I think Liberia may require a little pecuniary to one under a judicious hand; but Mr. Grant's unaid from abroad for a few years, until she can cast usual and unquestionable grace, facility, and tenabout and provide the ways and means to carry on derness, would have been all the better displayed the government from her own scanty treasury. within the narrower compass. Already, as in our own country, there are many
We should at once infer that these volumes are office-seekers, and each officer expects to receive a the product of a life passed away from the centre reasonable price for his services. To meet these of literary intercourse, cliquery, and gossip. A demands and others upon the treasury, congress Londoner would never have preserved his faculty has provided a tariff law, which, among its pro- of literary admiration so fresh as it shows through visions, embraces one authorizing the government these poems. He would never have risked the to monopolize the sale of crockery ware, salt, imputation of copyism, which the naïve expression powder, fire-arms and tobacco. From the duties of that admiration in Mr. Grant's verses will ceron these, and the general tariff on imports, they tainly suggest to unsympathetic readers. hope to realize a sufficient sum to meet the public The principal poem of two goodly volumes is an expenses ; and they feel so confident in not being expansion of Dante's theme of " Madonna Pia,”'disappointed in this expectation, that congress re- the lady of Sienna, who died in a bleak tower of fused to authorize a loan of twenty or forty thou- Maremma, victim to the jealousy (groundless, says sand dollars, before their own financial experiment the legend) of her husband. Her fate prompted had been tried.
one of those gushes of inimitable tenderness, such It is impossible to foresee what will be the fate as the tale of Francesca, which soften the stern of this infant republic struggling for national ex- horror of the Inferno, and are in truth the parts of istence; but, whatever that fate may be, it cannot it most cherished in common recollections of that be denied that its career of advancement, up to stupendous poem. Mr. Grant has spun out the four this period, has been the most astonishingly rapid lines of his original into some forty-seven pages of of any other people, under similar circumstances, ottava rima. The theme might have supplied matthat history, ancient or modern, brings to our ter for even a more elaborate treatment in sterner knowledge. It is not yet a quarter of a century hands ; but Mr. Grant has only used the obvious since the first colonists landed at the mouth of the topics of the legend; and his poem, graceful as it St. Paul's or Mesurado river, and took up their is and tender, while it aspires to give form and abode on a small island, from whence they were shape to the misty terror that broods round the four obliged to proceed to the main land in armed par-mysterious lines of Dante really brings down the sufties and fight the natives for the water for their fering of the wife to a disagreeable death from marslıdaily use. Now, the colony is peopled with more fever, and the vague vengeance of the husband tv a than five thousand emigrants. Its rule extends, positive act of groundless and disgusting barbarity. undisputed, along the coast from Cape Palmas Mr. Grant is happiest in his shorter poems. almost to Cape Mount, a distance of nearly three These are extemely various, both grave and gay, hundred and twenty miles-seventy thousand na- in theme; taking all forms, from the Wordsworthtives living within the limits of the republic, ac- ian sonnet and Catullian epithalamic song, to the knowledge its power and obey its laws. The swinging trisyllabic dance of Tommy Moore and capital of the State, Monrovia, boasts of about two the long roll of the Tennysonian trochaic, besides hundred houses, most of them well built, comfort- employing the whole range of the more common able dwellings, and a population of 1200 inhabi- lyric measures. Mr. Grant handles English with tants. The people are moral and religious; and to unusual propriety, and employs metre with great judge from what I saw at Monrovia, I don't think, ease, if not always with perfect ear. Throughout for the number of inhabitants, there is a greater he dedicates his verse in the spirit of a true worshipamount of human happiness to be found in any per of Nature, and (saving a little vein of middle-aged part of the world.
reminiscence of over-ardent love-making, coldly re
ceived) writes like a pure, thoughtful, honest, and From the Spectator.
affectionate man, and a genuine poet in his percep
tion of and reverence for the beautiful. JAMES GREGOR GRANT'S POEMS.
There are two series of sonnets; one a memorial The truest test of power in poetry is self-depend of the lake country, the other of Belgium.
We ence. There is enough in these volumes both of select from the first this purity and delicacy of sentiment, and musical finish of execution, to cause regret that the writer should have so often borrowed his inspirations. We would Ye lakes and streams, deep glens and valleys fair!
Yet once more, () ye mountains! and once more, not be understood to charge Mr. Grant with con- We drink the freshness of your gladsome air, scious plagiarism; but he has written too much By sounding cataract or silent shore, under the influence of sympathetic adıniration. One On pebbled marge, or shrubless summit hoar, half of his volumes is an echo; a very melodious On verdant lea, or craggy headland bare;
Or, on your mirrored depths, the deep hush there
awakes Louder or sterner than the gush of rills. 0, lovely forms! for your majestic sakes, Pure be each thought your loveliness instils ! Fresh as your fountains, lofty as your hills, Deep, pure, and placid, as your glittering lakes !
The desolation of Bruges inspires these graceful lines.
Me, gentle Bruges, in thy silent streets,
They can ward detraction's blow;
They oblivion's tide can stem;
Immortality to them ! These extracts will sufficiently prove that Mr. Grant may safely trust to himself. Let him take the counsel suggested by his own better judgment in his stanzas “ After writing certain paraphrases from Hazlitt."
Why thus my idle efforts bound
To clothing other's thoughts anew,
With inspiration true?
'Midst Alpine solitude and storms;
Fondly as mightiest forms.
And list her prompting accents there;
Shall never, never bear.
To dreaming “idlesse” shall not fa]).
And treasures hid from all.
(Or are ye one?) nurse ye my dreams!
A thousand prompting themes! Above all, let him stdy the great condition of limitation in art, which works to curtail poems as well as cut down volumes, and apportions unerringly the poetical dress to the dimensions of the poetical thought, making each couplet and collection of couplets what it is, and no other.
The writer's mastery, both of language and style, is fairly shown in this on
Poets are a joyous race!
O'er the laughing earth they go, Shedding charms o'er many a place
Nature never favored so; Still to each divinest spot
Led by some auspicious star, Scattering flowers where flowers are not,
Making lovelier those that are. Poets are a mournful race!
O'er the weary earth they go, Darkening many a sunny place
Nature never darkened so ; Still to each sepulchral spot
Called by spectral lips afar, Fancying tombs where tombs are not,
Making gloomier those which are. Poets are a gifted race !
If their gifts aright they knew ; Fallen splendor, perished grace,
Their enchantments can renew : They have power o'er day and night;
Life, with all its joy and caresEarth, with all its bloom and blight
Tears and transport all are theirs ! Poets are a wayward race !
Loneliest still when least alone, They can find in every place
Joys and sorrows of their own : Grieved or glad by fitful starts,
Pangs they feel that no one shares, And a joy can fill their hearts
That can fill no hearts but theirs. Poets are a mighty race!
They can reach to times unborn ; They can brand the vile and base
With undying hate and scorn ;
What London is.—London, which extends its intellectual, if not its topographical, identity from Bethnal Green 10 Turnham Green, (ten miles) from Kentish Town to Brixton, (seven miles,) whose houses are said to number upwards of two hundred thousand, and to occupy twenty square miles of ground, has a population of not less than two millions of souls. Its leviathan body is composed of nearly ten thousand streets, lanes, alleys, squares, places, terraces, &c. It consumes upwards of four million three hundred and sixty-nine thousand pounds of animal food weekly, which is washed down by one million four hundred thousand barrels of beer annually, exclusive of other liquids. Its rental is at least £7,000,000 a year, for luxuries it imports at least £12,000,000 a year duty alone. It has five hundred and thirty-seven churches, two hundred and seven dissenting places of worship, upwards of five thousand public-houses, and sixteen theatres.— Newspaper paragraph,
and it pays
From the Spectator. Russia, upwards of two to Austria, and about two KRASINSKI'S PANSLAVISM AND GERMANISM.
to Prussia. The total number of Sclavonians
subject to Austria is 16,791,000; to Prussia, Some few years ago, the author of “ Revela- 2,108,000; which, with the addition of 4,912,000 tions of Russia" drew attention to the growing in Russian Poland and some isolated seulers, feelings of nationality among the Sclavonic peo- makes four-and-twenty millions, as shown in the ples, and predicted the disturbance if not the disso- following table : lution of the Austrian empire on the death of Metternich. The French revolution in February Sclavonians subject to Austria, including
Poles subject to Russia,
4,912,000 precipitated the accomplishment of his prediction ;
2,341,000 Poles, and 4,370,000 involving Austria herself in turmoil, and her dis- Bohemians anu Moravians, 16,791,000 cordant members in revolt or confusion. The Sclavonians subject to Prussia, insame cause stimulated the German feelings of cluding 1,982,000 Poles,
2,108,000 nationality ; properly if not prudently when con
Sclavonians in Cracow,
130.000 fined to the affairs of Germany-not so properly
Sclavonians in Saxony,
60,000 when, under the vague pleas of ethnography or
24,001,000 geography, they waged war against the Scandinavians in Denmark and the Poles in Posen, or Some of these populations—as the Prussian threatened war against the Dutch. The affair of Poles and the Bohemians- penetrate into GerPosen as represented to Germany, and through many; others are seated on its frontier ; the HunGermany to Europe, with the expressed antipathy garian Sclavonians, in number more than sis of the Germans to the Poles, soon put an end 10 millions, though removed from Germany proper, the idea that the revolutionary explosion might are yet in the Austrian empire ; and the entire of reach Poland, and perhaps give rise to a success- these peoples, provoked by German arrogance, or ful attempt to reëstablish her nationality. The by German efforts to supersede their language disappointment consequent upon that failure has and overcome their nationality, have been in arms probably soured the Polish mind towards Germany, -as in Posen and at Prague, or still are—as in aggravated as the real injury has been by a tone Hungary. of arrogance on the part of the German press. These facts of the numbers of the Sclavonians This feeling finds utterance in Panslavism and connected with Germany, and of the conduct of Germanism; but, though M. Krasinski's general the Sclavoniaus, are dwelt upon by M. Krasinski views as to the numbers, power, and future great- at great length ; and the conclusion drawn is the ness of the Sclavonic race may find an echo in the imprudence of the German conduct, both for Germinds of the Poles, we doubt whether his plans man interests and to Europe at large. For some will excite much sympathy in their bosoms. years past, the educated Sclavonians, from Bohe
The primary though indirect object of the book mia to Russia, have been stimulated to cultivate a is to show, by historical parallel, the superior brotherhood by means of a language common in virtues and liberality of the Polish to the German its dialects, as well by their own olden literature. race, and the selfish manner in which that liberality Grant that, in the present state of public opinion has been requited. The exhibition, we conceive, in Europe, no efforts will be made for the reëstabrather supports the German claim; since it is lishment of Poland as a nation-grant that it is always found that the admission of foreign tri- even impossible to do it if the will existed, and bunals in a country, to settle questions where that it would be mischievous, (as the Germans foreigners are concerned, argues a superiority in say to their interests,) since Poland as a nation those foreigners over the natives. The same is would league itself with France—why exasperate the case where settled strangers are advanced the Sclavonians generally? why oppress the Poles over the natives to posts of authority. Hence, by military license, and insult them, as is the the fact that Germans were always well re- wont of the German press, by such feelings as ceived in Poland, and, advancing their fortunes, are expressed in the following passage from a took a superior social place, while the Sclavonic pamphlet by Mr. Wuttuke, a liberal German races in Germany were oppressed into something writer, and a deputy to the Frankfort parliament ? like “hewers of wood and drawers of water,” He is speaking in reference to the German claims seems to argue the superiority of the Germans in over the Polish cities. acquirements, if not by nature. A great if not the great object of the work Germans to be under the dominion of the Poles, or
The question is, therefore, as follows : are the before us is to exhibit the power, feelings, and the Pules under that of the Germans ? political tendencies of the Sclavonic peoples, and No German should hesitate about the answer to by that means to frighten something out of Ger- this question. We at least have but one answer to many or Europe for the Western Sclavonians. it. In such a case the Pole must not be placed The total numbers of this race reach to nearly if he will not, he may emigrate to Warsaw or to
above us—he must not command but obey us; and eighty millions ; of which six millions, in round his friends in Paris. We do not wish to oppress numbers, are subject to Turkey, and nearly forty- him ; but we shall not give up the space of a single eight are native Russians. The Poles are upwards foot of our land upon which Germans live, as long of nine millions ; nearly five millions belonging to as there are swords ground in Germany.