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but the flesh, to which the Word was joined, and which was the same as the soul in our bodies. These and some other tenets which they professed, were considered as heretical by the churches in this age. In the year 320, by a council at Alexandria, under Alexander, bishop of that city, Arius was accused of impiety, and expelled from the communion of the church. In the year 325, the same things were brought and transacted against him, by three hundred and eighty fathers in the general council of Nice, assembled by Constantine. His peculiar sentiments, however, continued to spread.
2d. The Greek, or eastern church, with all the branches which have sprung from it, has as great extent of territory, perhaps, as the Latin or western church. Greece, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Lybia, and Palestine, are chiefly under the jurisdiction of her patriarchs. The Russians adhere to the doctrines and ceremonies of the Greek church, though they are now independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Several other places, districts, and islands are connected and belong to the eastern or Greek jurisdiction. Therefore it is with impropriety, that the church of Rome is called by her members the Catholick or Universal church. About the middle of the ninth century, in consequence of religious dissentions and controversies between the Latin church and the Greek, the latter may be said to have separated from the former. They disown the supremacy, authority, and pretensions of the Pope. They grant no indulgencies, nor do they lay any claim to the character of infallibility, like the church of Rome. They deny that there is any such place as purgatory; notwithstanding they pray for the dead, that God would have mercy on them at the general judgement. Like the Romans, they believe the doctrine of consubstantiation, or the union of the body of Christ with the bread of the sacrament. Since the Geeks became subject to the Turkish yoke, they have sunk
into the most deplorable ignorance, in consequence of the slavery and thraldom under which they groan. Their religion is now greatly corrupted. The tenets of the Latin and Greek churches, are in some respects similar; but in others, widely different. The latter deny that the church of Rome is the true, catholick church.
3d. About the year 1380,appeared the Wickliffites, the followers of the famous John Wickliffe, called the first reformer, who was born in Yorkshire. He attacked the jurisdiction of the Pope and the Bishops. For this he was twice summoned to attend a council at Lambeth, to give an account of his doctrines; but being countenanced by the duke of Lan caster, was both times dismissed without condemnation. He therefore continued to spread his new principles as usual, and drew after him a great number of disciples. The archbishop of Canterbury called another council, which condemned twentyfour propositions of Wickliffe and his disciples, about which time he died. He was doubtless a very extraordinary man, considering the times in which he lived. He discovered the absurdities and impositions of the church of Rome, and had the honesty and resolution to promulgate his opinions; which, a little more support, would probably have enabled him to establish. They were, however, considered the foundation of the subsequent reformation.
4th. The Hussites were a party of reformers, the followers of John Huss, who adopted the sentiments of Wickliffe and the Waldenses; and in the year 1407, began openly to oppose and preach against divers errours in doctrine, as well as corruptions in point of discipline, then reigning in the church. This eminent man, whose piety was equally sincere and fervent, though his zeal was perhaps too violent, and his prudence not always circumspect, was summoned to appear before the council of Constance. He was declared a heretick, and condemned to be burnt
alive, because he refused to plead guilty against the dictates of his own conscience. When he came to the place of execution, he fell on his knees, sang portions of psalms, looked steadfastly towards heaven, and repeated these words: Into thy hands, O Lord, do I commit my spirit; thou hast redeemed me, O most good and faithful God. When the chain was put about him at the stake, he said, with a smiling countenance, My Lord Jesus Christ was bound with a harder chain than this, for my sake, and why should I be ashamed of this old rusty one? Being desired to abjure, No, says Huss, I never preached any doctrine of an evil tendency; and what I taught with my lips, I seal with my blood. In the midst of flames, he departed in the triumphs of faith.
5th. In the year 1467, in Bohemia a sect of Christian reformers sprang up, who were denominated the Bohemian brethren. They treated the Pope and Cardinals, as Antichrist; and the church of Rome as the whore spoken of in Revelation. They rejected the sacraments of the Romish church, and chose laymen for their ministers. They held the scriptures to be the only rule of faith, and rejected the popish ceremonies in the celebration of mass. They held in abhorrence the worship of saints and images, celibacy, and prayers for the dead. In the year 1535, there was a union concluded between them and the Lutherans; and, afterwards they were united to the Zuinglians, whose opinions after that, they continued to follow.
6th. The Lutherans are those who embrace the opinions of one of the most eminent reformers, Martin Luther. About the year 1512, this bold, intrepid Boanerges, ventured openly to oppose the abominations both in doctrine and practice, which had crept into the church of Rome. He dared protest against the unrighteous decrees of the Popes and his adherents. Hence the name Protestant, was first given in Germany, to those who adhered to the doctrine of
Luther. The same has also been given to those of the sentiments of Calvin. It has now become a common name, or denomination for all those of the reformed churches. Though the church of Rome was once a light to the world, Luther eventually was led to consider her as spiritual Babylon, and mother of harlots; and the Pope, as Antichrist. He rejected the doctrine of popish supremacy and infallibility; of indulgences, and many other popish tenets. He reduced the number of sacraments to two, viz. baptism and the eucharist: but he did not reject the doctrine of consubstantiation; that is, that the body and blood of Christ, in a mysterious manner, are materially present in the sacrament of the Lord's supper. In this article consists the main difference between the Lutheran and English churches.
7th. About this time the Anabaptists appeared; who maintain, that baptism ought always to be performed by immersion. The Anabaptists of Germany depended much upon certain ideas which they entertained concerning a perfect church establishment, pure in its members, and free from the institutions of human policy. The most prudent part of them considered it possible, by human industry and vigilance, to purify the church; and seeing the attempts of Luther to be successful. they hoped that the period had arrived, in which the church was to be restored to this purity. Others, not satisfied with Luther's plan of reformation, undertook a visionary enterprise, to found a new church entirely spiritual and divine. This sect was soon joined by great numbers, whose characters and capacities were very different. At one time, they undertook to propagate their notions by pretended visions and miracles; at another, by force of arms; saying that Christ himself was now to take the reigns of all government into his hands. The Baptists in England and Holland, are to be considered in a different light from the Anabaptists of Germany, They profess an aversion to all
principles of rebellion and insurrection, and to enthusiastick phrensy and fanaticism. In the year 1521, Munzer was the principal leader of this sect.
8th. The Calvinists are those who embrace the doctrines and sentiments of John Calvin, one of the celebrated reformers of the Christian church, from Romish superstition and doctrinal errours. This name seems to have been given at first to those who embraced not merely the doctrines, but the church government and discipline established at Geneva, and to distinguish them from the Lutherans. But since the meeting of the synod of Dort, the name has been chiefly applied to those who embrace his leading views of the gospel, to distinguish them from the Armenians. Calvin considered every church as a separate and independent body, invested with the power of legislation for itself. He acknowledged a real, though spiritual presence of Christ in the eucharist; and he confined the privilege of communion to pious and regenerate believers.. The principal doctrines of disagreement between the Armenians and Calvinists are what are called the five points, viz. the doctrines of predestination, particular redemption, total depravity, effectual calling, and the certain perseverance of the saints. Armenius had been educated in the opinions of Calvin; but thinking these doctrines as taught by him, too severe, he dissented from him. The genius, learning, eloquence, and piety of Calvin, rendered him respectable even in the eyes of his enemies.
9th. The church of England is the church established by law, in that kingdom. When and by whom Christianity was first introduced into Britain, cannot, perhaps, be exactly ascertained Popery, however, was established here by Austin, the Monk; and its errours were every where prevalent, until Wickliffe was raised up by divine providence to refute them. The church of England remained in subjection to the Pope, until the time of Henry VIII. who was a