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insulted his wiso ordinances, especially those connected with religion, as lazy and effominato, and who urged the pcoplo to tako up arms, was cut down in the midst of his boastings by a terriblo discase, and became subject to superstitious fears in no way resembling Numa's piety. Ilis subjects were lcd to sharo these terrors, more especially by tho manner of his death, which is said to have been by the stroke of a thunderbolto


reforms. Yet tho genius of Numa was kindly and gentle, and so softened and changed tho reckless fiery Romans that thoy becamo poacoful, law-abiding citizons; and if we must reckon Lykurgus' treatment of tho IIclots as part of his system, it cannot bo denied that Numa was a far more civilised lawgiver, sccing that ho allowed even to actual slaves somo tasto of liberty, by his institution of feasting them together with their mastors at tho festival of Saturn.

For this custom of allowing the labourers to share in the harvcut-feast is traced to Nuna. Somo say that this is in remembrance of the oquality which existed in the timo of Saturn, when thero was neither master por slavo, but all were kinsinen and had equal rights.

II. Both evidently encouraged tho spirit of indopendenco and self-control among their people, while of other virtues, Lykurgus loved bravery, and Numa loved justico best; unless indeed wo should say that, from tho very different tomper and habits of the two states, they required to be treated in a different manner. It was not froin cowardico, but becauso ho scorned to do an injustico, that Numa did not mako war; while Lykurgus made his countrymen warlike, not in order that they might do wrong, but that they might not bo wronged. Each found that tho existing system required very important alterations to check its excesses and supply its defects. Numa's reforms were all in favour of the people, whom he classified into a mixed and motley multitude of goldsmiths and musicians and cobblers; while the constitution introduced by Lykurgus was severely aristocratic, driving all handicrafts into the hands of slaves and forcigners, and confining the citizens to tho uso of tho spear and shield, as men whoso trade was war alono, and who knew nothing but how to obey their leaders and to conquer their enemies. In Sparta a free man was not pormitted to make money in business, in order that ho might be truly free.

Each thing connected with the business of making money, like that of preparing food for dinner, was left in the hands of slaves and helots. Numa made no regulations of this kind, but, while he put an end to military plundering, raised no objection to other methods of making money, nor did he try to reduce inequalities of fortuno,


but allowed wealth to increase unchecked, and disregarded the influx of poor men into the city and tho increase of poverty there, whereas he ought at the very outset, like Lykurgus, while men's fortunes were still tolerably equal, to havo raisod some barrier against the encroachments of wealth

, and to have restrained the terrible evils which take their rise and origin in it. As for the division of tho land among the citizens, in my opinion, Lykurgus cannot be blamed for doing it, nor yet can Numa for not doing it

. The equality thus produced was the very foundation and corner-stone of tho Lacedæmonian constitution, whilo Numa had no motivo for disturbing the Roman lands, which had only been recently distributed among the citizens, or to alter the arrangements mado by Romulus, which wo may supposo were still in force throughout the country.

III. With regard to a community of wives and children, each took a wise and statesman-like course to prevent jealousy, although tho mcans employed luy cach woro different. A Roman who possessed a sufficient family of his own might be prevailed upon by a friend who had no children to transfer his wife to him, being fully empowerod to give her away, by divorce, for this purposo; but a Lacedæmonian was accustomed to lend his wifo for intercourse with a friend, while sho remained living in his house, and without tho marriage being thereby dissolved. Dlany, we are told, even invited those who, they thought, would beget fine and noblo children, to converso with their wivos. The distinction between the two customs seems to be this : the Spartans affected an unconcern and insensibility about a matter which excites most men to violent rage and jealousy; the Romans modestly veiled it by a legal contract which seems to admit how hard it is for a man to give up his wife to another. Moreover Numa's regulations about young girls were of a much moro feminine and orderly nature, while those of Lykurgus were so highflown and unbecoming to women, as to havo been the subject of notico by tho pocts, who call them Phainomerides, that is with baro thighs, as Ibykus says; and they accuse them of lust, as Euripides says

- They stay not, as befits a maid, at home,

But with young men in sbameless dresses roam."

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