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a way heavenly portents would also put an end to the nieaning of the conventional signals used by mankind. The ringing of bells, the blaze of beacon fires, and the shadows on a dial are all of them produced by natural causes, but have a further meaning. But perhaps all this belongs to another subject.

VII. Perikles when young greatly feared the people. He had a certain personal likeness to the despot Peisistratus; and as his own voico was sweet, and he was ready and fluent in specch, old men who had known Peisistratus were struck liy liiy resemblance to him. Ilo was also rich, of noblo birth, and had powerful friends, so that he fcared bio might be banished by ostracism, and consequently held aloof from politics, but provod himself a brave and daring suldier in tho wars. But when Aristcidce was dead, Themistokles lanished, and Kimon generally alysent on distant campaigns, Perikles engaged in public affairs, taking the popular side, that of the poor and many against that of the rich and few, quito contrary to his own fcelings, which were entirely aristocratic. IIo fcared, it scems, that ho might be suspected of a design to make himself despot, and seeing that Kimon took the side of tho nobility, and was much beloved by them, he betook himself to the peoplo, as a means of obtaining safety for himself, and a strong party to combat that of Kimon. Ho immediately altered his mode of lifo; was never seen in any street except that which led to the market-place and tho national assembly, and declined all invitations to dinner and such liko social gatherings, so utterly that during the whole of his long political life he never dined with ono of his friends except when his first cousin, Euryptolemus, was married. On this occasion he sat at tablo till the libations were poured, upon which he at onco got up and went away. For solemnity is wont to unbond at festive gatherings, and a majestic demeanour is hard to keep up when one is in familiar intercourse with others. Truo virtue, indeed, appears moro glorious tho more it is seen, and a really good man's life is nover so much admired by the outside world as by his own intimate friends. But Perikles feared to make himself too common even with tho

people, and only addressed them after long intorvals-not speaking upon every subject, and, not constantly addressing them, but, as Kritolaus says, keeping himself liko the Salaminian triremo for great crises, and allowing his friends and the other orators to manage matters of less moment. One of these friends is said to have been Ephialtes, who destroyed the power of tho Council of tho Areopagus, "pouring out," as Plato, the comic poot, said, “a full and unmixed draught of liberty for the citizons," undor the influence of which tho poets of the time said that the Athenian peoplo

“Nibbled at Eubea, like a horse that spurns the rein,

And wantonly would leap upon the islands in the main." VIII. Wishing to adopt a style of speaking consonant with his haughty manner and lofty spirit, Perikles made free use of the instrument which Anaxagoras as it were put into his hand, and often tinged his oratory with natural philosophy. He far surpassed all others by using this “lofty intelligence and power of universal consummation," as the divino Plato calls it; in addition to his natural advantages, adorning his oratory with apt illustrations drawn from physical science.

For this roason somo think that he was nicknamed the Olympian ; though some refer this to his improvement of the city by new and beautiful buildings, and others from , his power both as a politician and a general. It is not by any means unlikely that these causes all combined to produce the name. Yet the comedics of that time, when they allude to hiin, either in jest or earnest, always appear to think that this name was given him becauso of his manner of speaking, as they speak of him as “thundoring and lightening," and “ rolling fateful thunders from his tongue. A saying of Thucydides, the son of Melesias, bus been preserved, which jestingly testifies to the power of Perikles's eloquence. Thucydides was the leader of the conservative party, and for a long time struggled to hold his own against Perikles in debatu. One day Archidamus, the King of Sparta, asked him whother ho or Perikles was the best wrestler. When I throw him in wrestling," Thucydides answered, "he beats me by proving that he

• Pluto, Phædrus.

nover was down, and making the spectators believe him.' For all this Perikles was very cautious about his worils, and whenever he ascended tho tribune to speak, used first to pray to tho gods that nothing unfitted for the present occasion might fall from his lips. He left no writings, except the measures which he brought forward, and very fow of his sayings are recorded. One of these was, that he called Agina "the eyesoro of the Peiræus," and that " he saw war coming upon Athens from Peloponnesus." Stesimbrotus tells us that when he was pronouncing a public funcral oration over thoso who fell in Samos, ho said that they had become immortal, even as the gods : for we do not sco the gods, but wo conceivo them to bo immortal by tho respect which we pay them, and the blessings which wo receive from them; and the same is the case with those who dio for their country.

IX. Thucyolides represents the constitution under Poriklcs as a democracy in name, but really an aristocracy, because the governmont was all in the hands of ono leading citizen. But as many other writers tell us that during his administration tho peoplo received grants of land abroad, and wero indulged with dramatic entertainments, and payments for their services, in consequence

of which they fell into bad habits, and became extravagant and licentious, instead of sober hard-working people as they had been beforo, let us consider the history of this chango, viewing it by the light of tho facts themselves. First of all, as we have already said, Perikles had to incasure himself with Kimon, and to transfer the affections of the peoplo from Kimon to himself. As he was not so rich a man as Kimon, who uscd from his own ample means to give a dinner daily to any poor Athenian who required it, clotho aged persons, and take away the fences round his property, so that any one might gathor the fruit, Perikles, unablo to vie with him in this, turned his attention to a' distribution of tho public funds among the people, at the suggestion, we are told by Aristotle, of Damonides of Oia. By the money paid for publio spectacles, for citizens acting as jurymon and other paid offices, and largesses, he soon won over the poople to his side, so that he was able to use them in his attack upon the Sanate of the

Areopagus, of which he himself was not a mombor, never having been choson Archon, or Thesmotheto, or King Archon, or Polemarch. These offices had from ancient times been obtained by lot, and it was only through them that those who had approved themselves in tho discharge of them were advanced to the Areopagus. For this reason it was that Porikles, when ho guined strength with thio populico, destroyed this Senato, making Ephialtes bring forward a bill which restricted its judicial powers, whilo ho himself succecded in getting Kiwon banished by ostracism, as a friend of Sparta and a hator of tho pcoplo, although ho was second to no Athonian in birth or fortune, had won most brilliant victories over tho Persians, and had filled Athens with plunder and spoils of war, as will be found related in his life. So great was tho power of Perikles with the common pooplo.

X. One of the provisions of ostracism was that the porBon banished should remain in exile for ten years. But during this period tho Lacedaemonians with a great force invaded the territory of Tanagra, and, as the Athenians at onco marched out to attack them, Kimou camo back from exile, took his place in full armour among tho ranks of his own tribo, and hoped by distinguishing himself in the battle amongst his fellow citizens to provo the falsehood of the Laconian sympathies with which he had been charged. llowever, tho friends of Perikles drovo him away, as an exile. On the other hand, lerikles fought more bravely in that battle than he had ever fought hefore, and surpassed every ono in reckless daring. The friends of Kimon also, whom Perikles had accused of Laconian leanings, fell, all together, in their ranks; and the Athenians felt great sorrow for their treatment of Kimon, and a great longing for his restoration, now that they had lost a great battlo on the frontier, and expectod to be hard pressed during tho summer by tho Lacedæmonians. Perikles, perceiving this, lost no time in gratifying the popular wish, but himself proposed the decree for his recall; and Kimon on his return reconciled the two Statos, for he was on familiar terms with the Spartans, who were hated by Perikles and the other leadors of tho common people. Some say that, befora Kimon's recall by Perikles, A secret compact was made with him by Elpinike, Kimon's

sister, that Kimon was to proceed on foreign service against tho Persians with a fleet of two hundred ships, while Perikles was to retain his power in the city. It is also said that, when Kimon was being tricd for his life, Elpiniko softened tho resentment of Porikles, who was ono of thoso appointed to impeach him. When Elpinike camo to beg her brother's lifo of him, he answered with a smile, Elpiniko, you are too old to meildlo in affairs of this sort.” But, for all that, he spoke only once, for form's sako, and pressed Kimon less than any of his other prosecutors. Ilow, then, can ono put any faith in Idomenous, when he accuses Perikles of procuring the assassination of his friend and colleaguo Ephialtos, becauso he was jealous of his reputation? This scems an ignoblo calumny, which Idomencus has drawn froin somo olscuro sourco to fling at a man who, no doubt, was not faultless, but of a generous spirit and noblo mind, incapable of entertaining so savayo and brutal a design. Ephialtes was disliked and feared by tho nobles, and was inexorablo in punishing those who wronged tho peoplo ; whorefore his enemics had him assassinated by means of Aristodikus of Tanagra. This we are told by Aristotle. Kimon died in Cyprus, while in command of the Athenian forces.

XI. The nobles now perceived that Perikles was tho most important man in the State, and far more powerful tha:2 any other citizen ; wherefore, as they still hoped to check luis authority, and not allow him to bo omnipotent, they set up Thucydilcs, of the township of Alopekæ, as his rival, a man of good sense, and a relativo of Kimon, but less of a warrior and more of a politician, who, by watching his opportunities, and opposing lerikles in debate, boon brought about a balanco of power. IIo did not allow the nobles to mix themselves up with the people in tho public assembly, as they had boon wont to do, so that their dignity was lost among tho masses ; but ho collected them into a separato body, and by thus concentrating their strength was ablo to uso it to counterbalanco that of the othor party. From tho beginning thcso two factions had been but imperfectly welded together, becauso their tondencies woro differont; but now tho strugglo for power between Perikles and Thucydidos drew a sharp líne of

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