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through the most violent political crises and outbreaks of personal hatred to himself, but also for his lofty dispo bition. He himself accounted it his greatest virtue that ho nover gave way to feelings of envy or hatred, but from his own exalted pinnacle of greatness nover regarded any man as so much bis enemy that he could never he his friend. This alono, in my opinion, justifies that ontrageous nickname of his, and gives it a certain propriety; for possessed of great power, might naturally be called Olympian. Thus it is that we believe that the gods, who us and over all created things, not as the pocts describe aro tho authors of all goud and of no evil to inen, rule over them in their bowildering fashion, which their own poems provo to bo untrue. Tho poets describe the abode of tho gods as a safo and untroubled place where no wina thinking such a place to be fittest for a life of immortal clouds are, always enjoying a mild air and clcar light, blessedness; whilo they represent tho goils themselves as full of disorder and anger and spite and other passi which are not becoming even to mortal mon of senso. Thero reflections, however, porhaps belong another subject.
Events soon made the loss of Perikles folt and regre by the Athenians. Those who during his lifetime bad complained that his power completely throw them za to
of tho shado, whon after his doath they had mado tria other orators and statesmen, were obliged to confess with all his arrogance no man over was really moderato, and that his real mildness in dealing with
her His power, which had been so grudged and envied, and was as remarkable as his apparent pride and assumption. been tho saving of the State ; such an amount of cort dealing and wickedness suddenly broke out in pu affairs, which he before had crushed and forced to bide itself, and so prevented its becoming incurable throush impunity
LIFE OF FABIUS MAXIMUS.
I. SUCH a man did Perikles show himsolf to be in his most memorable acts, as far as they are extant.
Let us now turn our attention to Fabius.
The first of the family is said to descend from one of the nymphs, according to some writers, according to others from an Italian lady who became tho mother of Fabins by Hercules near tho river Tiber. From him descended tho family of the Fabii, one of the largest and most renowned in Rome. Some say that the mon of this raco were the first to use pitfalls in hunting, and were anciently named Fodii in consequence; for up to the present day (litches are called fosse, and to dig is called fodere in Latin: and thus in time the two sounds becamo confused, and they obtained the name of Fabii. The family produced many distinguished men, the greatest of whom was Rullus, who was for that reason named Maximus by the Romans. From him Fabius Maximus, of whom I am now writing, was fourth in descent. Ilis own personal nickname was Verrucosus, because he had a little wart growing on his upper lip. The name of Ovicula, signifying sheep, was also given him whilo yet a child, because of his slow and gentle disposition. IIe was quict and silent, very cautious in taking part in children's games, and learned his lessons slowly and with difficulty, which, combined with his easy obliging ways with his comrades, made those who did not know him think that he was dull and stupid. Few there were who could discern, hiddon in the depths of his soul, his glorious and lion-like character. Soon, however, as time went on, and ho began to take part in public affairs, he proved that his apparent want of energy was really due to serenity of intellcct, that he was cautious becauso he weighed matters well beforehand, and that while he
was never cager or casily moved, yet he was always stcady and trustworthy. Observing the immense extent of the empire, and tho numerous wars in which it was engaged, he exercised his body in warliko exepuisis, regarling it as his natural mcans of defence, while he also studied oratory as the means by which to influence the people, in a style suited to his own lifo and character. In his speeches there were no flowery passages, no empty graces of style, but there was a plain common peculiar to himself, and a depth of scntentious maximis which is said to have resembled Thucydides. One of his specchos is extant, a funeral oration which he made in public over his son who died after he had been consul.
II. IIo was consul five times, and in his first consulship oltained a triumph over the Ligurians. They were defeated by himn and driven with great loss to tako roflage in the Aljis, and thus wero preventod from ravaging the neighbouring parts of Italy as they had been wont to do. When Hannicul invaded Italy, won his first battle at the Trobia, and marched through Etruria, laying everything wasto as he went, the Romans were terribly disheartened and cast down, and terrible proiligics took placo, somo the usual kind, tirat is, by lightning, and others of an entirely new and sirango character. It was said that shields' of their own accord became drenched with blood : that at Antium standing corn blod whon it was cut by the reapers ; that red-hot stoncs fell from heaven, and that the sky above Falerii was seen to open and tablets to fuli, on one of which was written tho words “ Mars is shaking his arms."
None of these omens had any offcot upon Caius Flaminius, the consul, for, besides his naturally spiritec and ambitious naturo, ho .was excited by the successo which he had proviously won, contrary to all reasonablo probability. Onco, against the express command of the Senato, and in spite of the opposition of his colleaguo, he engaged with the Gauls and won a victory over them Fabius also was but little disturbed by the omens, becauso of their strange and unintelligible character, though many woro alarmed at them. Knowing how few tho onemy were in numbers, and their great want of money and
supplies, he advised the Romans not to offer battle to a man who had at his disposal an army trained by many previous encounters to a rare pitch of perfection, but rather to send reinforcements to their allics, keep a tight hand over their subject cities, and allow Hannibal's brilliant little force to dio away like a lamp which flares up brightly with but littlo oil to sustain it.
III. This reasoning had no effect upon Flaminius, who said that he would not enduro to sco an enemy marching upon Rome, and would not, like Camillus of old, fight in the streets of Romo herself. Ilo ordered tho military tribunes to put tho army in motion, and himself lcaped upon his horse's back. The horso for no visiblo reason shied in violent terror, and Flaminius was thrown headlong to the ground. He did not, howover, alter his determination, but marched to meet Hannibal, and drew up his forces for battlo near the lako Thrasymenus, in Etruria. When the armics met, an earthquako took place which destroyed cities, changed tho courses of rivers, and cast down the crests of prccipices ; but in spite of its violence, no one of the combatants porccived it. Flaminius himself, after many feats of strength and courago, fell dead, and around him lay tho bravest Romans. The rest fled, and the slaughter was 60 grcat that fifteen thousand were killed, and as many moro taken prisoners. Hannibal generously desired to bury the body of Flaminius with military honours, to show his esteem for the consul's bravery ; but it could not bo found among the slain, and no one know how it disappeared.
The defeat at the 'Trebia had not been clearly explained either by the general who wrote tho despatch, or by the messenger who carried it, as they falsely represented it to have been a drawn battlo; but as soon as the prætor Pomponius heard the news of this second misfortuno, ho assembled the people in the Foruin, and said, without any roundabout apologies whatover, “ Romans, we have lost a great battle, the army is destroyed, and the consul Flam inius has fallen. Now, therefore, take counsel for your own safety." These words produced the samo impression on the people that a gust of wind does upon the sca. could calmly refloot aftor such a sudden downfall of their
No one tho
hopics. All, however, agreed that the State required one irresponsible ruler, which the Romans call a dictatorship, and a man who would fulfil this office with fearless energy. Such a man, they felt, was Fabius Maximus, who was sirfficiently qualified for the office by his abilitics and the respect which his countrymen bore him, and was moreover at that time of life when the strength of the body is fully capable of carrying out the ideas of tho mind, but wben courage is somuwhat tempered by discretion.
IV. As soon as tho people had passed their decree, Fabius was appointed dictator, and appointed Marcus Minucius his master of the horse. First, however, he begged of the Sonate to allow him the use of a horso during his cam. paigns. There was an ancient law forbidding this practice, either bocause the main strength of the army was thought to lie in the columns of infantry, and for that reason dictator ought to remain always with them, or else because, while in all other respects the dictator's power is equal to he should have to ask leave of the people. Next, however, l'alius, wishing at once to show the greatness and splendour of his office, and so make the citizens more oley him, appeared in public with all his twenty-four lictors at once; and when the surviving consul met him, ho sent an officer to bid him dismiss his lictors, lay aside his insignia of office, and come beforo him as a mere citizen. After this he began in the best possible way, that it was in consequence of the impiety and carelessness that is, by a religious ceremony, and assured the of their late general, not by any fault of the army, fear their enemies, but to respect the gods and render them
Thus ho encouraged them not to propitious, not that he implanted any superstitious by piety, and took away from them all fear of tho enemy oliservances among thein, but ho confirmed their valour by the hopes which he held out to them of divine protection. At this time many of the holy and mysterious books, which contain secrets of great value to the State, inspectod. These are called the Sibylline books. ise
of the sentences preserved in these was said to have • Liv., xxii. 8, sq.