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calling the retreat from Rome an act of treason, not indeed that he had betrayed any cities or armies to the enemy, but he had granted them time, by which all other things are won and lost. He had given the enemy a breathing time, they said, of thirty days, being no less than they required to put themselves in a posturo of defence.

İlarcius during this time was not idlo, for ho attacked and defeated the allies of the Romans, and captured seven large and populous towns. The Romans did not venturo to come to help their allics, but hung back from taking the field, and seemed as if paralysed and benumbcd. When the term had expired, Marcius presented himself a second time before Rome, with his entire army. The Romans now sent a second embassy, begging him to lay asido his anger, withdraw the Volscians from tho country, and then to make such terms as would bo for the advantago of both nations. The Romans, they said, would yield nothing to fear; but if he thought that special concessions ought to bo mado to tho Volscians, they would bo duly consideral if they laid down their arms. To this Marcins answered that, as general of the Volscians, he could give them no answer; but that as one who was still a citizen of Romo he would advise them to adopt a humbler framo of mind, and come to him in thrco days with a ratification of his proposals. If thoy should come to any other determination, he wamed them that it would not be safe for them to come to his camp again with empty words.

XXXII. When the ambassadors returned, and tho Senato heard their report, they determined in this drcadful extremity to let go their sheet anchor. They ordered all the priests, ministers, and guardians of the sacred mysteries, and all the hereditary prophets who watched the omens given by tho flight of birds, to go in procession to Marcius, dressed in their sacred vestments, and bescech him to desist from the war, and then to negotiate conditions of peace between his countrymen and the Volscians. Marcius received the priests in his camp, but relaxed nothing of his former harshness, bidding the Romans either accept his proposals or continue the

When the priests returned, the Romans resolved in future to remain within the city, repulse any assault which might be made on the walls, and trust to time and fortuno, as it was evident that they could not be saved by anything that they could do. Tho city was full of confusion, excitement, and panic terror, until there happened something like what is mentioned in Homer, but which men as a rulo aro unwilling to believe. He observes that on great and important occasions

"Atbono placod a thought within his mind;" and again,

“ But somo ono of th’immortals changed my mind,

And mudo mo think of what the folk would say;" and

" Becauso he thought it, or because the god

Commanded him to do so." Mon despiso tho poct, as if, in order to carry out bis absurd mythological schemo, ho deniod each man his liberty of will. Now Ilomer does nothing of this kind, for whatevor is reasonablo and likely ho ascribes to the oxerciso of our own powers, as wo sco in the common phrase.

But I reflocted in my mighty soul;" and

“ Thus spoko hc, but the son of l'eleus raged,

Divided was his soul withiu his breast;" and again,

“ But sho persuaded not Tho wiso Bellerophon, of noble mind." But in strange and unlikely actions, where the actors must havo been under the influence of somo supernatural impulse, he does speak of tho god not as destroying, but as directing tho human will; nor docs tho god directly produco any decision, but suggests idcas which influenco that decision. Thus tho act is not an involuntary ono, but opportunity is given for a voluntary act, with confidenco and good hopo superadded. For either we must admit that the gods have no dealings and influence ut all with men, or else it must bo in this way that they act when they assist and strengthen us, not of course by moving our hands and foot, but by filling our minds with

thoughts and iilens which eithor oncournge us to do what is right, or rostrnin us from what is wrong.

XXXIII. At Romo nt this timo tho women woro praying in all tho templos, especially in that of Jupitor in tho Capitol, where tho noblest ladies in Rome werv assembla. Among them was Valorin, tho sistor of the great Poplicoln, who had dono such great services to tho Stato both in peaco and war. l'oplicola died somo timo boforo, as hns been related in his life, but his sister was holil in great honour and estccm in Rome, as her life did credit to her noble birth. Sho now experienced one of the divine impulses of which I have spoken, and, inspired by lleaven to do what was best for her country, roso and called on the other ladics to accompany her to tho houso of Volumnia, the mother of Marcius. On entering, and finding her sitting with her daughter-in-law, nursing the children of Marcius, Valeria placed her companions in a circlo round them, and spoke as follows : “ Volumnin, and you, Virgilia, we have come to you, as women to women, without any decree of the Senate or instructions from a magistrate ; but IIcaven, it would appear, has heard our prayers, and has inspired us with tho idea of coming hither to beg of you to save our countrymen, anil to gain for yourselves greater glory than that of the Sabine women when they reconciled their husbands and their fathors. Como with us to Marcius, join us in supplicating him for mercy, and bear an honourable testimony to your country, that it never has thonght of hurting yon, however terribly it has been injured by Marcius, but that it restores you to hin uninjured, although possibly it will gain no better terms by so doing.” When Valeria had spoken thus, the othor women applauslod, and Volumnia answered in the follow. ing words: “My friends, besides those sufferings which all aro now undergoing, we aro especially to bo piticd. We have lost the glory and goodness of our Marcius, and now see him moro imprisoned in than protected by tho army of the enemy. But the greatest misfortune of all is that our country should havo becomo so wcak as to bo ol ged to rest its hopes of safety on us. I cannot tell if he will pay any attention to 118, secing that he has trcated his native country with scorn, although he uscd to lovo it

better than luis mother, his wifo, and his children. Ilow. ever, tako us, and muko wlint use of us you can. Scad us into his presenco, and thoro, if wo can do nothing clso, wo can dio nt his feet supplicating for liomo."

XXXIV. Javing poken thus, sho took Virgilia and her chillren, and proceeded, in company with tho other women, to tho Volscian camp. Their pitcons appearanco producel, even in their enemies, a silent respect. Marcius hinself was scated on his tribunal with tho chicf officers; and when he saw the procession of women was at first filled with amazement; but when ho recognised his mother walking first, although lio tried to support his nsual stern composure, he was overcomo by his emotion. lle could not bear to receive her sitting, but descended and ran to meet her. Ile embraced his inother first, and longest of all; and then his wife and children, no longer restraining his tears and caresses, but completely carried away by his feelings.

XXXV. When lie had taken his fill of embraces, perceiving that his mother desired to address him, ho called the chiefs of tho Volscians together, and listened to Volumnia, who addressed him as follows:

“ Yon may julge, my son, by our dress and appearance, even thongh we keep silence, to what a niserable condition your cxilo has reduced us at home. how unhappy we must be, beyond all otlıer wonen when fortuno has made the sight which ought to be most pleasing to us, most terrible, when I sco my son, and your wife here sces her husband, besieging his nativo city. Even that which consoles peoplo under all other misfortunes, prayer to the gods, has becomo impossible for us. Wo cannot beg of heaven to givo 118 tho victory and to kilve you, but our prayers for you must always resemblo the imprecations of our enemies aguinst Roine. Yunr wifo and children are in such a position, that they must either lose you or lose their nativo country For my own part, I cannot bear to live until furtuno dcciles the event of this war. If I cannot now persuarlo yon to make an lasting peaco, and so become the Benefactor instead of tho scourge of the two nations, lo well assured that


shall never assail Rome without first passing over the correo

Think now,

of your mother. I cannot wait for that day on which 1 shåll either sce my countrymen triumphing over my son, or my son triumphing over his country. If indeed I were to ask you to betray tho Volscians and savo your country, this would be a hard request for you to grant; for though it is base to destroy one's own fellow citizens, it is equally wrong to betray those who have trusted you. But we merely ask for a respite from our sufferings, which will save both nations alike from ruin, and which will be all the more glorious for tho Volscians becanse their superiority in the field has put them in a position to grant is the greatest of blessings, peaco and concord, in which they also will share alike with us. You will bo chicfly to be thanked for these blessings, if wo obtain them, and chiefly to be blamed if we do not. For though the issue of war is always doubtful, this much is evident, that if you succecd, you will become your country's evil genius, and if you fail, you will have inflicted tho greatest miscrics on men who aro your friends and bencfactors, merely in order to gratify your own privato spito.”

XXXVI. Whilo Volumnia spoko thus, Marcius listened to her in silenco. After sho had ccascal, he stood for a long whilo without speaking, until she again addressed him. “Why art thou silent, my son? Is it honourablo to make everything give way to your rancoronis hatred, and is it a disgraco to yield to your mother, whicn sho pleads for such important matters ? Docs it become a great man to remember that he has been ill treated, and does it not rather become him to recollect tho debt which children owo to their parents. And yet no one ought to be moro grateful than you yourself, who punish ingratitude so bitterly: in spite of which, though you havo already taken a deep revengo on your country for its ill treatment of you, you havo not mado your mother any return for her kindness. It would have been right for mo to gain my point without any pressure, when pleading in such a just and honourablo cause; but if I cannot prevail bywords, this resourco alone is left me." Saying this, she fell at his feet, together with his wife and children. Marcine, crying out, ** What have you dono to mo, mother?" raised her from

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