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view, not to the liberation of Syracuse, but the establishment of himself as despot there, had already had secret negotiations with the Carthaginians, though in public ho commended the Syracusans, and scnt ambassadors of his own with the rest to Peloponnesus: not that he wished that any assistance should come thenco, but, in case the Corin. thians, as was probablo, should refuse their help because of the disturbed stato of Grecco, he hoped that ho should more casily be able to bring matters round to suit the Carthaginian interest, and to uso them as allics cithor against tho Syracusan citizens, or against their despot. Of this treacherous design he was shortly afterwards convicted.
III. When the ambassadors arrived, tho Corinthians, who had always been in tho habit of watching over the interests of their colonies, especially Syracuse, and who were not at war with any of the Greek States at that time, but living in peaco and leisure, cagerly voted to help them. A General was now sought for, and while the government was nominating and proposing those who wero enger for an opportunity of distinguishing themsclvcs, a man of tho peoplo stood up and named Timoleon, tho son of Timodenius, ono wiic no longer took any part in politics, and who had no hopo or thought of obtaining the post : but some gol, it seems, put it into the man's mind to namo him, such a kind fortuno was at once shown at his election, and such success attended his actions, illustrating his noble character. Io was of a good family, both his father Timolemus, and his mother Demaristo being of rank in the city. IIo was a lover of his country, and of a mild temper, except only that he had a violent hatred for despotism and all that is base. llis nature was so happily constituted, that in his campaigns ho showed much judg. ment when young, and no less daring when old. He had an elder brother, Timophanes, who was in no respect like him, but raslı, and inflamed with a passion for monarchy by worthless friends and foreign soldiers, with whom ho spont all his time : ho was reckless in a campaign, and lovod danger for its own sako, and by this he won the hearts of his follow-citizens, and was given commands, as being a man of courage and of action. Timolcon assisted him in obtaining these commands, by concealing his faults
or making them appear small, and by magnifying the clever things which he did.
IV. Now in tho battlo which the Corinthians fought against tho Argives and Klconcans, Timoleon was ranked among the hoplites, and his brother Timophanes, who was in command of tho cavalry, fell into great danger. llis horso received a wound, and threw him off among tho enemy. Of his companions, somo at onco dispersed in panic, whilo thoso who remained by him, being a few against many, with difficulty held their own. When
Timoleon saw what had happened, ho ran to tho rescue, and held his shield in front of Timophanes as ho lay, and, after receiving many blows, both from missiles and in hand-to-hand fight, on his arms and body, with difliculty drove back the enemy and saved his brother.
When the Corinthians, fcaring lost they might again buffer what they did onco beforo when their own allics took their city, decreed that they would keep four hundred morcenary soldiers, they made Timophance their commander.
But he, disdaining truth and honour, immediately took measures to get tho city into his own power, and showed his tyrannical disposition by putting to death many of the leading citizens without a trial. Timolcon way grieved at this, and, treating the other's crimo as his own misfortune, endeavoured to arguo with him, and begged him to abandon his foolish and wicked design, and to seck for some mcans of making amends to his fellow-citizens. However, as he rejected his brother's advico, and treated him with contempt, Timoleon took Aischylus, his kinsman, brother of the wifo of Timophanes, and his friend tho scer, whom Thcopompus calls Satyrus, but Ephorus and Timæus call Orthagoras, and, after an interval of a fow days, again went to his brother. The three men now stood round him, and besought him even now to listen to reason, and repent of his ambition ; but as Timophanes at first laughed at them, and thon became angry and indignant, Timoleon stepped a little asido, and covering his face, stood weeping, while the other two drew their swords and quickly despatched him. V. When this deed was noised abroad, the more generous
Heavy armed foot-soldiers, carrying a spoar und sbield.
of the Corinthians praised Timoleon for his abhorrence of wickedness and his greatness of soul, becauso, though of a kindly disposition, and fond of his own family, he had nevertheless preferred his country to his family, and truth and justico to his own advantage. IIo had distinguished himself in his country's causo both by saving his brother’s life, and by putting him to death when he plotted to reduce her to slavery. Tlowever, thoso who could not enduro to livo in a democracy, and who were accustomed to look up to those in power, pretended to rejoice in the death of tho tyrant, but by their abuse of Timolcon for having dono an unholy and impious deed, reduced him to a state of great melancholy. Ilcaring that his mother took it greatly to heart, and that she used harsh words and invoked terrible curses upon him, he went to her to try to bring her to another state of mind, but sho would not enduro the sight of him, but shut the door against him. Then indeed he becamo very dejected, and disordered in his mind, so as to form an intention of destroying himself by starvation; but this his friends would not permit, but prevailed on him by forco and entreaty so that he determined to live, but alono by bimself. Ile gave up all interest in public affairs, and at first did not even enter tho city, but passcd his time wandering in the wildest part of the country in an agony of mind.
VI. Thus our judgments, if they do not borrow from reason and philosophy a fixity and steadiness of purposo in their acts, are easily swayed and influenced by tho praise or blamo of others, which make us distrust our own opinions.
For not only, it seems, must the deed itself bo noble and just, but also tho principlo from which we do it must be stablo and unchangcablo, so that we may make up our minds and then act from conviction. If we do not, then like thoso cpicures who most eagerly scizo upon the dainticst food and sooncst bocomo satiated and nauscate it, 60 we becomo filled with sorrow and remorse when the deed is done, because the splendid ideas of virtue and honour which led us to do it fade away in our minds on account of our own moral weakness. A remorseful change of mind renders even a noble action base, whereas the determination which is grounded on knowledge and reason cannot change even if its actions fail. Whereforo Phokion the Athenian, who opposed the measures of Leosthenes, when Leosthenes seemed to havo succeeded, and he saw the Athenians sacrificing and priding thenbelves on their victvry, said that he should have wished that he had himself done what had been done, but ho should wish to have given the same counsel that ho did give. Aristcides the Lokrian, ono of the companions of Plato, put this even more strongly when Dionysius the elder asked for ono of his daughters in marriago. “I harl rather," he said, “6co the girl a corpsc, than tho consort of a despot.” A short time afterwards whicn Dionysius put his sons to death and insultingly asked him whether hic were still of the same mind about the disposal of his daughter, ho answered, that ho was grieved at what had harpened, but had not changed his mind about what lo had said. And these worils perhaps show a greater and more perfect virtue thun l’hokion's.
VII. Now Timoleon's misery, after the deed was done, whether it was cansed by pity for the dead or filial roverence for his mother, so broke down and humbled his spirit that for nearly twenty years lio took no part in any important public affair. So when ho was nominated as General, and when tho people gladly received his namo and elected him, Telck]cides, who at that tiino was tho first man in the city for power and reputation, stood up and spoke encouragingly to Timolcon, bidding him proro himself brave and noble in tho campaign." If,” said he, “ you fight well, we shall think that we slew a tyrant, but if badly, that we murdered your brother."
While 'l'imolcon was preparing for his voyago and collecting his soldiers, letters wero brought to the Corinthians from Hiketes plainly showing that he haul changed sides and betrayed them.
For as soon as he had sent off his ambassadors to Corinth, he openly joined the Carthaginians, and in concert with them attempted to drivo out Dionysius and establish himself as despot of Syracuse.
* From these words, Grote conjectures that Telekleidcs was also prcscut at tho death of Tirumpliance.
Fearing that the opportunity would escape him if an army and general came from Corinth before he had succeeded, he sent a letter to the Corinthians to say that they need not incur the troublo and expense of sending an expedition to Sicily and risking their lives, especially as the Carthaginians would dispute their passage, and wero now watching for their expedition with a numerous feet; and that, as they had been so slow, he should be obliged to make these Carthaginians his allies to attack the despot.
When theso letters wero read, even if any of the Corinthians had been lukewarm about the expedition, now thcir anger against Hiketes stirrod them up to co-operato vigorously with Timoleon and assist him in equipping his force.
vill. When the ships were ready, and everything had been provided for the soldiers, the priestesses of l'roserpine had a dream that the two goddesses appeared dressed for a journey, and said that they wore going to aocuinpany Timoleon on his voyage to Sicily.
llercupon the Corinthians equipped a sacred trireme, and named it after the two goddesses. Timoleon himself proceeded to Delphi and sacrificed to tho god, and when ho came into the place where oracles were delivered, a portent occurred to him. From among the various offerings suspended thero, a victor's wreath, embroidered with crowns and symbols of victory slipped down and was carried by the air so as to alight upon tho head of Timoleon; so that it appeared that the god sent him furth to his campaign already crowned with success. He started with only soven ships from Corinth, two from Korkyra, and one from Loukadia ; and as ho put to sea at night and was sailing with a fair wind, he suddenly saw the leavens open abovo his ship and pour down a flood of brilliant light. After this a torch like that used at the mysteries rose up before them, and, proceeding on the same course, alighted on that part of Italy for which the pilots were steering. The seers explained that this appearance corroborated the dream of the priestesses, and that the light from heaven showed that the two gode desses were joining tho expedition; for Sicily is sacred to