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PLUTARCII'S LIVES. of the Lupercalia would seem, from the timo of its celo. Iration, to boa ceremony of purification ; for it is held during the omino118 days of February, a month whose namo ono might translato by Purification ; and that particular in Greck si vifics that of wolves, and it is thonglit, on this

originally callca Febrntó. 'l'ho namo of this feast account, to be very ancient, and dcriveil from the Arcadians

day was

question, for the name may havo arisen from the slc-wolf

, th, we see that the Luperci start to run their course from

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the place where Romulus is said to have been exposed. hard to conjecture their meaning. They slaughter goats, The circumstances of tho ritual are such as to make it and then two youths of good family are brought to thein. Then some with a blooly knifo mark the foreheads of thio dipped in milk. The youths are expected to laugh when youths, and others at onco wipe the blood away with wool it is wiped away. After this they cut the skins of tho goats into strips and run alout naked, except a girillo found the middle, striking with the thongs all whom they mect. Women in tho primo of Jifo do not avoid being struck, as they believo that it assists them in childbirth festival that tho Luperci sacrifico a dog. Ono Bontes, and promotes fertility. It is also a picculinrity of this myths, says that when Romulus and his party had killed

elegiac poem on the origin of the Roman the she-wolf suckled them when little, and that tho fcast

ran back in their joy to the placo whero is typical of this, and that tho young nobles run,

" As, smiting all they mct, that day

From Alba Romulus and Remus ran." The bloody sword is placed upon their forchcada in token of the danger and slaughter of that day, and the wiping

in of nursc. Cuius cattle of Romulus and Remus were missing, and they, after

that, before the foundation of Romo, tho invoking Faunus, ran out to scarch for them, naked, that they might not be inconvenienced by swcat; and that this dog, one would say that if the sacrifice is purificatory, it is

with the Acilius tells us

ancrificed on behalf of thoso who uso it. Tho Grcoks, in their purificatory rites, sacrifico dogs, and often mnko 1180 of what is called Periskylakismos. But if this feast bo in honour of the sho-wolf, in gratitudo for her suckling and preserving of Romulus, then it is very natural to sacrifico i dog, for it is an enemy of wolves; unless, indeed, tho beast is put to death to punish it for hindering the Luperci when they ran their course.

XXII. It is said also that Romulus instituted the service of the sacred firo of Vestw, and the holy virgins who keep it up, called Vestals. Others attributo this to Numa, though they say that Romulus was a very religious prince, and Icarncd in divination, for which purposo he uscd to carry tho crooked staff called lituus, with which to divido the heavens into spaces for the observation of tho flight of birile. This, which is preserved in tho l'alatium, was lost when the city was takon by the Gauls; but afterwards, when the barbarians had bcon ropulsod, it was found unharmed in a deep bed of ashes, whero everything elso had bucn burned or spoiled. lle also cnactcu somo laws, tho most arbitrary of which is that a wifo cannot obtain a divorco from her husband, but that a husband may put away his wifo for poisoning her children, contorfeiting keys, or adultery. If any ono put away his wifo on other grounds than thesc, ho enacted that half his property should go to his wife, and half to the templo of Corcs. Å inan who divorced his wife was to mako an offering to tho Chthonian gods.* A peculiarity of his legislation is that, whilo ho laid down no courso of proceduro in caso of parricido, ho speaks of all inurder by the name of parricido, as though tho ono wero an abominable, but the other an impossiblo crime. And for inany years it appeared that ho had rightly judgod, for no ono attempted anything of the kind at Rome for nearly six hundred years; but it is said that the first parricide was that of Lucius Hostilius, which he committed after the war with Hannibal. Enough has now been said upon theso subjects.

XXIII. In the fifth year of the reign of Tatius, some of his relatives foll in with ambassadors from Laurentum, on

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As the to Rome, and endeavoured to rob them. ambassadors would not submit to this, but defended theme Belves, they blew them. Romulus at once gave it as his opinion that the authors of this great and audacious crimno ought to be punished, but Tatinis hushed the matter up, and enabled them to escape. This is said to have been the only occasion upon which they were openly at variance, for in all other matters they acted with the greatest possiblo unanimity. The relatives, however, of the mure

men, as they were hindered by Tatius from receiving any satisfaction, foll upon him when he and Romulus were offering sacrifice at Lavinium, and slow him, but respected Romulus, and praised him as a just man. llo bronglit homo what is called the Armilustrium, on Mount Aventine. the body of Tatius, and buried it honourably. It lies near

But Romulus neglected altogether to exact any satisfaction for the murder. Somo writers sily that the city of Lavinium, in its terror, delivered up the murderers of Tatius, but that Romulus allowed them to depart, saying that blood had been atoned for by blood. This speech of at being rid of his colleague. However, it caused no disrevolt, but partly out of regard for komnulus, and fear of turbance in the state, and did not move tho Sabincs to to live under his rule with cheerfulness and respect. Many his power, and belief in his divine mission, they continued foreign tribes also respected Romulus, and tho more ancient friendship and alliance.

Faces sent him ambassadors, and made trvatics of and ordering them to cut tho pivots of the city gates, and authorities, by sending his cavalry thither on a sudden, then unexpectedly appearing in person. Others say that the peoplo of Filenw first invaded the Roinan territory, druvo oft pluniler froin it, and insulted the neighbourhood of the city itself, and that Romulus laid an ambush for but nailo it a Roman colony, and sont two thousand five them, sluw many, and took their city. Hodid not destroy it, huni ro Rominns thither as colonists on the Idoys of April. XXIV. After this a pestilence fell upon Rome, which

men suddenly without previous sickness, and a Micted



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the crops and cattle with barrenness. A shower of bloord also fell in the city, so that religious terror was added to the people's sufferings. As a similar visitation befell tho citizens of Laurentum, it became ovident that the wrath of the gods was visiting theso cities because of the unavenged murders of Tatius and of the ambassadors. The guilty parties were delivered up on both sides, and duly punished, after which the plague was sensibly mitigated. Romulus also purified tho city with lustrations, which, they say, aro oven now practised at tho Ferentino gate. But beforo the plaguo ceascd, the peoplo of Camcrium attacked the Romans, supposing that they would be unablo to dofind themselves on account of their misiurtuno, and overran their country. Nevertheless, Romulus instantly marched against them, slow six hundred of them in battle, and took their city. Half the survivors hc transplanted to Komo, ani settled twice as many Romans as the remainder at Caicrium, on the Kalends of Sextilis. So many citizens had he to spare after he had only inhabited Rome for about sixteen years. Among the other spoils, he carried off a vrazen four-horso chariot from Camerium; this he dcdi. cated in the temple of Vulcan, having placed in it a figuro of himself being crowned by Victory.

XXV. As the city was now so flourishing, the weaker of the neighbouring states made submission, and were glad to receive assurance that they would be unharmed; but the moro powerful, fearing and envying Romulus, considered that they ought not to remain quict, but ought to check the growth of Rome. First tho Etruscans of Vcii, a people possessed of wido lands and a large city, began the war by demanding the surrender to them of Fidenze, which they claimed as belonging to them. This demand was not only unjust, but absurd, secing that they had not assisted tho peoplo of Fidenw when they were fighting and in danger, but permitted them to bo destroyed, and then demanded their houses and lands, when they wero in tho possession of others. Receiving a haughty answor from Romulus, thoy divided themsclvcs into two bodice, with ono of which they attacked l'ilonw, and with tho othor went to meet Romulus. At Fidoniu thoy conquered the Roinans, and slow two thuusand; but they weru difuutud more than mortal.

their leading

by Romulus, with a loss of cight thousand men. A second battle now took place at Fidenæ, in which all agree that Romulus took the most important part, showing the greatest skill and courago, and a strength and swiftness

But somo accounts are altogether fabulous, such as that fourteen hundred were slain, moro than half of whom Romulus slew with his own hand. Tho Messenians appear to use cqually inflated language about Aristomencs, when they tell us that he thrice offered sacrifice for having slain a hundred Lacedemonians. After the victory, Romulus did not pursue the beaten ariny, but marched straight to the city of Veii. The citizens, after 80 grcat a disaster, mado no resistance, but for a hundred years, giving up a largo portion of their territory, called tho Septem Pagi, or seven districts, and their saltworks by the river, and handing over fifty of For his guccess at Veii, Romulus enjoyed another

men as liostages. triunph, on the Iles of October, when he led in his train many captives, amongst whom was the Vcientino general, foolishly and liko a boy. On this account to this day,

who was thought to have mismanaged matters through the Forum and up to the Capitol, clressed in a Loy's robo with wido purplo burilor, and with a child's

round his neck; and the heralıl calls out are said to be of Sardinian origin, and Veii is a Tyrrhenian "Sardinians for sale.” For the Tyrrhenians or Tuscans

XXVI. This was Romulus's last war. After it, ho, liko neariy all those who havo riscn to power and faine by a with self-confidenco and arrogance, and, in place of his great and unexpected series of successC8, bocuino filled

Popular manncrs, assiuned the offensive style of a loriler, and did business reclining instead of sitting on a

He woro a purple tunic, and a toga with a purpolo throno ; and was always attended by the band of youths walked before him with stavcs to keep off the crowd, and called Colores, from their quickness in service. Others were girt with thongs, with which to bind any one whom


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former despot.

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