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1. With regard to Lykurgus the lawgiver there is nothing whatever that is undisputed; as his birth, his travels, his death, and, besides all this, his legislation, have all becu related in various ways; and also the dates of his birth do not in any way accord. Some say that he was contemporary with Iphitus, and with himn settled the conditions of tho Olympic truce; and among these is Aristotle tho philosoilier, wlio adduces as a proof of it the quoit which is at Olympia, on which the name of Lykurgus is still preserved. Others, among them Eratosthenics and Apollodorus, by computing the reigns of the kings of Sparta,* prove that he must have lived many years before tho first Olympiau. Timans conjectures that there were two inen of the name of Lykurgus in Sparta at different times, and that the decis of both are attributed to one of them, on account of his celebrity. The eldur, he thinks, must have lived not far off

' the time of Ilomer; indeed some sny that he came into the presence of Homer. Xenophon gives an idea of his antiinity when he speaks of him as living in the time of the Hlerakleidie. By descent of course the last kings of Sparta are Herakluila, but ho appears to mean by lerakicida the varliest of all, who were next to Herakles himself.

Jlowever, in spito of these discrepancies, we will cndeavour, by following the least inconsistent accounts

* In the Spartan constitution there wero two kinga, who wero be. lieved to be descended from two brothers, Eurysthenes and Prokles, the two sons of Arintolemus. When the descendunts of Hesuklass returned to Polopommesus, and divided idant country amongst them, Lacedæinon fell to the lot of Aristremis, who left his two sons joint licirs to the nonnroly. Tio kings of Sportn bad little real power, and to thin no doubt thoy owed the fact of their retaining their dignity when every other Écllcnio slate adopted u di muciatic form of governinent.

life. Lykurgus

PLUTARCH'S LIVES. and the best known authorities, to write the history of his

Simonides the poet tells us that tho father of writers do not deduco his genealogy this, but say that

was not Eunomus, but lrytanis. But most Prytanie, Eunomus. Eunonins had two sons, Polydektis and that Soüs begat Euripris; Euripus, Prytanis, and

Soüs was thio son of Proklen, and grandson of Aristolomus, sixth in descent from Prokles, and eleventh froin lerakles. Dionassa, which makes him, according to Dientychiiles,'

II. The most remarkablo of his ancestors was Soüs, in whoso reign tho Spartans enslaved the Ilelots, and annexel water, and was compelleil to concludo a trenty to restoru besieged by tho Kleitoriana, in a fort where there was 110 the territory in disputo, if he and his men wero permittel to drink at the nearest spring. After this had been agroeid upon, ho called his men together, and ollüred his kingilom ono could do this, but all drank, last of all lie himself caro to any one who could refrain from drinking. But ns 116).

to the spring, and in the presence of tho enemy refusing to restore the disputed territory, on the ground

his face the water, oii that all did not drink. But though he gained great famo yet it was not ho but his son Eurypon who gavo

Eurypon was the first to relax the despotic traditions of his family as a consequence

his government with the .

of this the people were encourage to kin 88 opposcd the people and so became odious, while others prevailed in Sparta for a long time, beca 1150 soino of tho

found to yield to them, cither to preserve their during this period of disorder that the father of Lykurgis

or from sheer weakness of character. lost his life. He was cndcavouring to part two men who chopper,

quarrelling and was killed by a blow from a cook's

leaving tho kingilom to his elder son Polyelektes. He also died aftor a short time, and, as all thought, gue ought to havo licon the next king. And he did reign uutil his brother's wifu was found to be

down merely

, the namo

and But



It was

wero Lykur indoea

pregnant; but as soon as he heard this, he surrendered the crown to the chill, if it should bo a boy, and mercly zulministereil tho kingilom as guardian for the child. Tho Luccoliemonian namo for the guardian of a royal orphan is poronlikne. Now tho queen madu a secret proposal to him, that she should destroy her infant and that they should live together as king and queen. Though disgustod at her wickelness, he did not reject the proposal, but pretondel to approve of it. IIc said that sho must not risk her lifo and injure her health by procuring abortion, but that he would undertake to do away with tho child. Thus ho celuided her until her confinement, at which timo ho sent oficials and guarils into her chamber with orders to hand the child over to tho women if it was a girl, and to bring it to him, whatever he might be doing, if it was a boy. llo happened to be dining with the archons whon a malo child wild burni, and tho scrvants brought it to him. llo is said tu hivo taken tho chill and said to thoso present, “ A king is born to you, O Spartans," and to have luid him down in the royal seat and named him Charilaus, becanso all men were full of joy admiring his spirit and justice. Jo was king for cight months in all; and wis much lookod up to !.y the citizens, who rendered a willing obedienco to him, rather because of his eminent virtucs than because he was regent with royal powers. There was, nevertheless, a fiction which grudged him his clevation, and tried to opposo him, as lie was a young inan.

They consisted chicfly of the relatives and friends of the queen-mother, who considered that sho had been insult, '. ingly treated, and her brother Leonidas onco went so far in his abusivo language as to hint to Lykurgus that ho knew that ho meant to bo king, throwing tho suspicion mon Lykurgus, if anything should happen to the child, that he would be supposed to havo managed it. This sort of languago was used by the queen-mother also, and he grieved and alarmod, decided to avoid all suspicion by leaving the country and travelling until his nephow should Le grown up and havo an heir born to succeed him.

IV. With this intention ho set sail, and first came to Creto, whero ho studied the constitution and mixed with the leading statesmon. Some part of their lawe he


PLUTARCU'S LIVES. approved and made himself master of, with the intention ho was dissatisfied. Ono of the men who had a reputation of adopting them on his return home, whilo with others there for learning and stato-cruft ho made his friend, and induccrl him to go to Sparta. This wns Thule, who was to conceal his graver ncquirements, being in reality leopoly thought to be merely n lyric poet, and who l this art unity and concurl in verne, breathing a spirit of culin and versei in legislation. This poems woro exhortations to order, urging them to the pursuit of honourablo oljects leel the

Which insensibly civilised their bearers and liy to lay asido tho feelings of party strifu 8o prevalent in educated tho peoplo and preprired thein to roccivo tho Sparta ; 80 that ho may bo nil in somo degree to havo reforins of Lykurguis. jo siil, to contrast tho thristy and listero 11olo of lito of

Froin Creto Lykurgus siled to Anin Minor, wishing, it Tralies, and to noto tlo points of villirorice in the two lonians, as a physician compares lealthy and lineared

Crotons with the extravnico al luxury of tho llonner, which wero by tho

Thero, it seems, ho first met with the poems of Krcophylus, and observing that they were no lo scul be ea gorly copicel and compiled them, with tho intention for Politics and cluention than for relaxation and pleasuro,

, of bringing them home with him. There was alrearly some din idea of the existenco of these poems among tho Greeks but few PORSCHSC any portions of them, as they known. The Egyptians suppose that Lykurgus visited

scattered in fragments, but Lykurgus first made them

also, and that he capecially admired their institution Spartan, and, by excluding working men and the lower

Scparato casto of warriors. This he transferred to indlased, puro from all adınixture. Somo Grock writers

from the government, mado tho city a city havine visited Lilya and Iberia, or his journoy to India

corrol worato tho Bryptians in this, but as to Lykurgis Spartan Aristokrates, tho son of Ilipparchus. phero, there, no one that wo know of tells this except tho

ccting with tho Gymnosophists, or naked philoso

During Lykurgus's absence the Lacedæmonians re

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gretted him and sont many ombassics to ask him to retur, telling him that their kings had indeed the royal namo and state, but nothing clso to distinguish them from tho cominon pcoplo, and that ho alono had the spirit of a ruler and tho power to influenco men's minds. Tiven the kings desired his presence, as they hopel :hunt ho would assist in establishing their authority and woull ronilor the missCS loss insolont. Returning to a pooplo in this condition, lio at onco began alterations and ruforms on a swcoping scale, considering that it was useless and unprofitablo to do such work by lulves, but that, as in tho casu of a discascú boly, the original cause of the disoriler must bo burnod out or puurgel away, and the patient begin an entirely new life. After reflecting on this, ho mado a journey to Delphi. llero ho sacrificed to the you, and, on consulting the oriclo, receiveil that celebrato answer in which the l’ythin speaks of him as beloved by the gols, and a god rather than a man, and when he asked for a good system of laws answered tlint the good gives him what will provo luy far tho best of all constitutions. Eluted by this ho collected tho lending men and berred them to help him, tirnt liy talking privately to his own friends, and thus littlo ly little obtaining a holel over moro men and landing them together for the work. When the timo win ripe for the attempt, ho hadlo thirty of the noblos go into the market-place curly in the morning completely armed, in order to overawe trio opposition. The names of twenty of the most distinguished of these mon have been preserved by llermippus, but tho man who took tho greatest part in all J.ykurgno's worko, and who helped him in establishing his laws, was Arthmiaclco. At first king Charilaus was terrified at the confusion, imagining that a revolt had broken out against himself, and fled for refugo to tho temple of Minerva of tho Brazon Blousc; but, afterwarı renssured and having received solemn plelges for his safety, returned and took part in their proceedings. Ile was of a gentlo naturo, as is proved by tho words of his colleague, King Archeluns, who, when Bomo wero praising the youth, said, “How can Charilaus be a good man, if he is not harsh even to wicked men ?"

Of Lykurguis's many reforms, the first and most impor. taut was the establishinout of tho Council of Elor's, which

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