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porson who is not much acquainted with Roman history and Roman usages; but they will also bo useful to others. The notes of Kaltwassor havo often remindel me of the passages whero somo noto would bo useful, and havo occasionally furnished materials also. But as I havo always referred to tho original authorities, I do not consider it necessary to mako moro than this general acknowledgment. The notes added to this translation aro all my own, and contain my own opinions and observations.

This translation has been made from the edition of C. Sintonis, Leipzig, 1839, and I have compared the text of Sintonis with that of G. II. Schaefer, Leipzig, 1820, which has been severely criticized : this edition contains, however, somo uscful notes. I havo very scliom mailu any remarks on the Greek toxt, as such kind of remark would not havo suited the plan and design of this version, which is not intended for vorbal critics.

I shall explain by two brief extracts what is my main design in this version and in the notes, which must be my apology for not affecting a learned commentary, and my excuso to those who shall not find here the kind of remarks that aro suitablo to a critical clition of an ancient author. I havo lind another olject than to disC1BB tho nicotics of worils and tho forms of plurnsis, it labour which is well in its polaco, if it bo dono well, but is not what needs to loo dono to such an anthor 118 l'lutarch to render him isoful. A man who was a great render of l’lutarch, a just and solid thinkor abovo tho measure of his age, and not surpassed in his way ly any writer in our own, Montaigne, oliserves in his Essay of the Education of Childron '-" Lot him enquiro into the manners, revenucs, and alliances of princes, things in themselves very pleasant to learn, and very useful to know. In this conversing with men, I mcan, and principally those who only live in the records of history, he

shall by reading those books, converso with thosc great und heroic souls of former and better ages. "Tis an idlo and vain study, I confuss, to thoso who mako it so, by doing it after a negligent manner, but to those who do it with care and observation, 'tis a study of inestimable fruit and valuo; and tho only one, as Plato reports, the Lacedæmonians reserved to themselves. What profit shall ho not reap as to tho business of men, by reading the Lives of Plutarch? But withal, let my governor remember to what cnd his instructions are principally directod, and that ho do not so much imprint in his pupil's memory tho dato of the ruin of Carthage, as tho manners of llannibal and Scipio; not so much whero Marcellus dicd, as why it was unworthy of his duty that hc dicd there. That ho do not teach him so much tho Jarrativo part, as the business of history. Tho reading of which, in my opinion, is a thing that of all others wo apply oursclves unto with the most differing and uncertain measures." North, in his address to tho Rcarler, 6:1y8: "The profit of stories, and the praise of the Author, are sufficiently dcclared by Amiot, in his Epistlo to tho Header: so that I shall not need to mako many worils thercof. And indeed if you will supply tho defects of this translation, with your own diligenco and good understanding: you shall not need to trust nim, you may Jirove yourselves, that there is no prophane study better than Plutarch. All other lcarning is private, fitter for Universities than Cities, fuller of contemplation than experienco, more commendablo in students themselves, than profitable unto others. Whereas stories aro fit for every place, reach to all porsons, scrve for all times, teach the living, revive the dead, so far oxrolling all othor books, as it is better to see learning in Noblemen's lives, than to read it in Philosophers' writings."

GEORGR Lorn. Cotton's Translation,

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PLUTARCI was born probably between A.D. 45 and A.D. 50, ut the littlo town of Chaeronca in Buotia. His family appears to havo beon long establishod in this place, the scuno of the final destruction of tho liberties of Greece, when Philip defcated tho Athenians and Baotian forces there in 338 B.C. It was hero also that Sulla defeateil Mithridates, and in the great civil wars of Romo wo again hear, this time from Plutarch himself, of the sufferings of tho citizens of Chacronca. Nikarchus, Plutarch's greatgrandfather, was, with all the other citizens, without any exception, orleroil luy a lieutenant of Marcus Antonius tu transport a quantity of corn from Chavronca to the coast Opposito the island of Antikyrn. They wero compelled to carry the corn on their shoulders, liko slaves, and weru threatened with the lash if they were remiss. After they had porformed ono journey, and were proparing their burdens for a second, the welcomo nows arrived that Marcus Antonius had lost tho battlo of Actium, wheroupon both the officers and soldiers of his party stationed in Chaeronca at onco fied for their own safoty, and the provisions thus collected wero divided among tho inhabitants of the city.

When Plutarch was born, however, no such warlike scenes as theso were to bo expected. Nothing more than the traditions of war romained on the shores of the Moditerraneun. Occasionally somo fuiut echo of strifo

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