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Julian Pe- 4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born Jerusalem. riod, 4740. when he is old? can he enter the second time into his Vulgar Æra,


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mother's womb, and be born?

in my name, and receive the influences of the Holy Spirit.
Such appears to be the occasion of the words, and such their
import: and the earlier fathers of the Christian Church be-
lieved, that as our Lord thus connected the waters of baptism
and the operation of the spirit-and as the Jews united certain
spiritual advantages with the idea of circumcision, our Lord
taught that the new birth, at the baptism of a Christian, like the
new birth at the circumcision of the Jew, was produced by the
power of the Holy Spirit accompanying an act of faith. The
Jews, then, as the Christians at present, were accustomed to
see repentance, and sudden changes from profligacy to holiness;
but though they believed in the influences and powers of the Holy
Spirit, they did not denominate either of these blessings by the
name of a new birth. This term was confined to the initiation
into a new faith, or state, or relationship. The other inesti-
mable influences of the spirit must be called by other names,
such as renovation, which may imply the power of the spirit,
while they exclude the idea of initiation.

The fathers of the primitive Church, as well as the ancient
Jews, were accustomed to unite with baptism the idea of the
new birth, and all its spiritual advantages. Thus baptism was
called by various names, all of which were descriptive of some
internal effect of a superior power, upon the mind of the bap-
tized person. St. Augustine, in his controversy with the Do-
natists, calls it the sacrament of grace, and the sacrament of
Absolution (h). By others it was called, as by Cyril, the rege-
neration of the soul (i); or, with Justin Martyr, the water of
life (k). Because, (says Bingham, from whose authorities I am
now selecting my testimonies) this new birth was wrought by
the power and influence of the spirit, therefore it was called the
spiritual birth, whereby those who were carnally born to the
world before, were now born spiritually to God. And so, as
Optatus words it, God was hereby made the Father of men, and
the holy Church their mother (1). Gregory Nazianzen speaks
also of baptism with reference to the same ideas of its excellence
and vital importance. We call it, he says, the gift, and grace,
and unction, or anointing of the spirit, illumination, the gar-
ment of immortality, the laver of regeneration, and whatever
else is honourable and precious (m). In addition to these testi-
monies, Chrysostom, the author who wrote under the name of
Dionysius the Areopagite, Clemens Alexandrinus, Augustine,
Fulgentius, Epiphanius, and Basil, are quoted, as expressing
themselves in such strong language respecting baptism, that
they either assert or imply that the new birth which made a
Christian the child of God, was identified with baptism, and
was never distinguished or separated from that ordinance.

The learned Waterland, in his Sermon on Regeneration, has summed up the opinion of the primitive Church, and explained with great accuracy the difference between regeneration and renovation; and his statement is evidently grounded on a severe examination of their works, and a judicious induction of particulars (n).

He first teaches us, in conformity to the opinion of the ancient Christians, that regeneration is a spiritual change wrought upon any person in the right use of baptism, whereby he is translated from his natural state in Adam to a spiritual state in Christ. That every one must be born of water and of the

Julian Pe

5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Jerusalem. riod, 4740. Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he canVulgar Æra, not enter into the kingdom of God.


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spirit; not once of water, and once of the spirit, but once of
the spirit in and by water; of the spirit primarily and effec-
tively, of the water secondarily and instrumentally. That the
word regeneration is so appropriated to baptism as to exclude
any other conversion or repentance, not considered in conjunc-
tion with baptism, from being signified by that name. That
in an active sense it signifies our admission into a spiritual
state in Christ, in a passive sense, our entrance into it; and
that it carries with it the remission of sins, and a covenant
claim to everlasting happiness.

He then proceeds to lay down the distinction between rege-
neration and renovation. He states, that they are always dis-
tinct in theory, and often, particularly in the case of infants,
in fact and reality. That regeneration is a change of the whole
spiritual state; renovation a change of the inward frame or
disposition, which in adults is rather a qualification or capa-
city for regeneration than regeneration itself. That in infants
regeneration necessarily takes place without renovation, but
in adults renovation exists (or at least ought to exist) before,
in, and after baptism.

Regeneration, he proceeds, is the joint work of the water and of the spirit, or to speak more properly, of the spirit only; renovation is the joint work of the spirit and the man.

Regeneration comes only once, in or through baptism. Renovation exists before, in, and after baptism, and may be often repeated. Regeneration, being a single act, can have no parts, and is incapable of increase. Renovation is in its very nature progressive. Regeneration, though suspended as to its effects and benefits, cannot be totally lost in the present life. Renovation may be often repeated and totally lost.

Afterwards he illustrates this doctrine by applying it to four separate cases.

1. Grown persons, coming to baptism properly qualified, receive at once the grace of regeneration: but, however well prepared, they are not regenerate without baptism. Afterwards renovation grows more and more within them by the indwelling of the Spirit.

2. As to infants, their innocence and incapacity are to them instead of repentance, which they do not want, and of actual faith, which they cannot have: and they are capable of being born again, and adopted by God, because they bring no obstacle. They stipulate, and the Holy Spirit translates them out of a state of nature into a state of grace, favour, and acceptance. In their case, regeneration precedes, and renovation follows after, and they are the temple of the Spirit, till they defile themselves with sin.

3. As to those who fall off after regeneration, their covenant state abides, but without any saving effect, because without present renovation: but this saving effect may be repaired and recovered by repentance.

4. With respect to those who receive baptism in a state of hypocrisy or impenitency, though this sacrament can only increase their condemnation, still pardon and grace are conditionally made over to them, and the saving virtue of regeneration, which had been hitherto suspended, takes effect, when they truly repent and unfeignedly believe the Gospel.

This clear statement of the learned author, contains an

Julian Pe- 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that Jerusalem. riod, 4740. which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

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accurate representation of the grace conferred, and the change
which takes place, in baptism; and this is what is meant by
those divines, who maintain that regeneration is, in the strict
sense of the word, the inward and spiritual grace of baptism.

The doctrine of the Church of England, on the subject of
baptism, and whether regeneration as the attendant on that
ordinance, must be next considered.

The first article (Art. IX.) which alludes to this doctrine is that which treats of original or birth sin. In this article we are taught that "this infection of our nature doth remain, yea in them that are regenerate:" and that "although there is no condemnation to them that believe and are baptized, yet the apostle doth confess that concupiscence or lust hath in itself the nature of sin." In this sentence the word (renatis or) regenerate in the Latin copy, answers to the word baptized in the English, which plainly shews that our Reformers, in compliance with the ancient doctrine, identified regeneration with baptism. We arrive at the same conclusion from considering the state of the controversy. For this part of the article is pointed at the doctrine of the Roman Church, which was established by the Council of Trent, that the whole infection of original sin is washed away, and the soul rendered altogether pure in baptism.

The fifteenth article, speaking of Christ alone without sin, says, "All we the rest (although baptized and born again in Christ) yet offend in many things:" evidently speaking of our regeneration in baptism.

In the next article likewise, which treats of sin after baptism, it is assumed, in conformity to the doctrine of the universal Church, that "we receive the Holy Ghost in baptism."

In the twenty-fifth article sacraments are defined to be "not only badges or tokens of Christian men's profession, but rather certain sure witnesses and efficacious signs of grace, and God's good will towards us." This is precisely the doctrine which the ancient Christians held-that sacraments are not only signs significant or symbolical, but signs accompanied with a conveyance of grace, and a saving efficacy upon the soul: and that they are sure witnesses, testimonies, pledges, and securities of God's present and actual, and lasting good will toward us.

In the twenty-seventh article we are taught that baptism is not only a sign of profession or "a mark of difference, but also a sign," an efficacious sign, "of regeneration or new birth," a sign through means of which the inward grace of regeneration is actually bestowed on us, in virtue of Christ's institution and promise; "whereby, as by an instrument," after the manner of a legal instrument, which makes over to a man the freedom of a public body, or his title to any property or privilege, "they that receive baptism rightly," from the proper hands, and with the proper qualifications, "are grafted into the Church, the promises of forgiveness of sins, and of our adoption to be the sons of God by the Holy Ghost, are visibly signed and sealed," are openly ratified and made good to us, as it were by the signing and sealing of a deed or instrument. "Faith is confirmed and grace is increased," in those recipients who are capable of an increase of faith and grace, "by virtue of prayer unto God. The baptism of young children is in any wise to be retained in the Church as most agreeable to the institution."

Julian Pe- 7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born Jerusalem. riod, 4740. Vulgar Æra, 27.

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In this part of the article there can be no reasonable doubt that the meaning of the Church is (a point never doubted among orthodox Christians previous to the time of the Reformation) that every individual infant, receiving baptism rightly, partakes of those graces of which infants are capable-the new birth, incorporation into Christ, forgiveness of sin, and adoption to be the sons of God by the Holy Ghost. For, independently of the argument for infant baptism drawn from the analogy between Christian baptism and Jewish circumcision, baptism was instituted for the salvation of sinners; and since infants are born in sin and stand in need of forgiveness, and are capable of grace and salvation, it is most agreeable to the institution that they should be baptized, in order that they may partake of the Gospel promise, and be saved or regenerated, without respect of persons, in the way which Christ has appointed.

In the different offices for the administration of baptism, the same doctrine is taught with particularity and plainness, and a studied conformity to the language and opinions of the ancient Christians. Previous to the sacramental act the person to be baptized is represented as not regenerate, but from the moment that the ceremony has been performed, he is pronounced regenerate, without a hint or suspicion of any reserve, or of any doubt existing in the minds of the minister or the congregation. We are first told, that "all men are conceived or born in sin," and that "none can enter into the kingdom of God unless they be regenerate, and born anew of water and of the Spirit; and are therefore besought to call upon that God that the infant "may be baptized with water and with the Holy Ghost." Accordingly the congregation joins with the minister in praying" that he, coming to God's holy baptism, may receive remission of his sins by spiritual regeneration, and that God will give his Holy Spirit to him, that he may be born again, and made an heir of everlasting salvation:" and God is intreated to "sanctify the water to the mystical washing away of sin." As soon as the child has been baptized, and received into the congregation, the minister solemnly pronounces him "regenerate, and grafted into the body of Christ," and the congregation returns thanks to God, for having been "pleased to regenerate him with his Holy Spirit, to receive him for his own child by adoption, and to incoporate him into his holy Church."

In the office for receiving children privately baptized into the Church, instead of praying God to "give his Holy Spirit to the infant that he may be born again," we beseech him to "give the infant his Holy Spirit, that he, being born again," that is, having been already born again, when he was baptized, "may continue his servant, and attain his promises :" plainly expressing our firm persuasion that baptism is the point in which the new birth takes place.

In short, these offices, from one end to other, unequivocally exhibit the doctrine of regeneration in baptism, and are compiled in strict conformity to the language and sentiments of the ancient Churches. Indeed the views which they present to us, of the connection between this sacrament and the new birth, and of the opinion of our reformers on this head of doctrine, are most clear and explicit; and appear scarcely to leave any opening for cavils and disputes upon the subject.

Julian Pe- 8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest Jerusalem. riod, 4740. the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and Vulgar Era,

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In the Catechism it is affirmed, that we are made members of Christ, children of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven in baptism:" that a sacrament is "an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace given unto us," and that this sign or sacrament is "ordained by Christ himself as a means," that is an instrumental cause, or instrument of conveyance, "whereby we receive the same" inward grace, "and a pledge to assure us" of its collation: and that the inward and spiritual grace of baptism is "a death unto sin and a new birth unto righteousness;" the forgiveness of sin, implying the promise of power to resist and overcome it, and the gift of the Holy Ghost as the principle of a new life of righteousness. In proof of this, we are reminded that "being by nature born in sin, and children of wrath, we are made children of grace," children of God, and partakers of his grace, by baptism. For if we are born in sin and children of wrath, we cannot become children of grace by baptism, unless we receive the forgiveness of sin and a new principle of righteousness, in the right use of that sacrament.

In the office of confirmation, the regeneration of the parties before the Bishop, and the forgiveness of their sins in baptism, are directly and unequivocally asserted. "Almighty God, who hast vouchsafed to regenerate these thy servants by water and the Holy Ghost, and hast given them forgiveness of all their sins; strengthen them, we beseech thee, with the Holy Ghost the Comforter." And precisely in the same manner, we intrcat God in the Collect for Christmas Day, that "we being regenerate," that is, having been born again, " and made his children by adoption and grace, may be daily renewed by his Holy Spirit.” For since the Liturgy every where teaches and assumes our adoption and regeneration in baptism, and never uses the word except in reference to baptism, the supposition that in this prayer the congregation is contemplated as unregenerate, and that we are praying for some other regeneration and adoption, is totally inconsistent with sound and just principles of interpretation.

From a review then of the Articles and Liturgy we may derive the following conclusions.

1. They maintain the doctrine of regeneration in baptism in the most decided and unrestricted manner, grounding it on the same texts of Scripture, from which the ancient Christians had deduced it including under it the forgiveness of sin, the gift of the Holy Ghost, and the inheritance of the kingdom of heaven and never introducing the word itself except in conjunction with baptism.

2. They teach, in common with the writings of the ancient Christians, the necessity of faith and repentance as qualifications for the salutary effects of baptism. But they never contemplate any person, however qualified, as regenerate, till he is actually baptized.

3. They suppose that infants, who are necessarily free from actual sin, are duly qualified for baptism, and are looked on by God precisely in the same light as penitents and believers: and they unequivocally assert that every baptized infant without exception is born again.

4. They suppose that all baptized persons, whether infants or adults, contract a solemn engagement to holiness and newness of life; and that their continuance in the state of salvation to which they are called depends on their future conduet.

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