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Schoetgen, nisi Lightfootus basset, multi non saltassent. (cc) Mr. King's remarks upon Palestine, considered as the centre of the millenian empire of Christ upon earth, are highly worthy of notice. “How capable this country is of a more universal intercourse than any other, with all parts of the earth, is most remarkable, and deserves well to be considered, when we read of the numerous prophecies which speak of its future splendor and greatness; when its people shall at length be gathered from all parts of the earth unto which they are scattered, and be restored to their own land. There is no region in the world, to which an access from all parts is so open. By means of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, there is an easy approach from all parts of Europe, from a great part of Africa, from America by means of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, and the well known roads from thence; there is an approach from the rest of Africa from the East Indies and from the Isles; and, lastly, by means of the Caspian, the lake or Sea of Bayball, and the near communication of many great rivers, the approach is facilitated from all the northen parts of Tartary. In short, if a skilful geographer were to sit down to devise the fittest spot on the globe for universal empire, or, rather, a spot where all the great intercourses of human life should universally centre, and from whence the extended effects of universal benevolence and good-will should flow to all parts of the earth, and where universal and united homage should be paid, with one consent, to the Most High; he would not find another so suited, in all circumstances, as that which is, with emphasis, called the Holy Land. These observations, perhaps, may not deserve great weight, but they ought not to be wholly neglected, especially when it is considered how many passages of Scripture there are which plainly declare; that the time shall at length come, when Zion shall be the joy of the whole earth."-Note to Hymns to the Supreme Being, p. 126. ap Hales Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. p. 1351. (dd) See Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. pt. 2. p. 482. (ee) Bishop Kidder, Dem. of the Mess. dedication, p. 1.



A.D. 44.


From the Birth of Christ to the Temptation.



1 MARK i. 1.

The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son Probably of God;

The place assigned in this arrangement to Mark i. 1. is sanctioned by the authorities of Dr. Campbell (a), Le Clerc (b), and Pilkington (c); the latter of whom prefixes it to his harmony as an appropriate preface to the whole of the Evangelical Darrative. The word vayyeλiov, in this passage, appears to bear the same signification as in another text of the same Evangelist, Mark xiv. 9. ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὅπου ἂν κηρυχθῇ τὸ ἐυαγγέ λιον (d) τοῦτο εἰς ὅλον τὸν κόσμον, κ.τ.λ. In both these passages the more obvious sense of the word seems to be," the narrative or record, of our Lord's life and actions-Mark i. 1. The beginning of the History of Jesus Christ, &c.- and in Mark xiv. 9. Wherever the relation of my actions shall be told, through the whole world, there also," &c. &c. To this opinion, however, are opposed the eminent authorities of Michaelis (e), Bishop Marsh (f), Archbishop Newcome (g), Lightfoot (h), Doddridge(1), Markland (k), Whitby (1), Grotius (m), Kuinoel (n), and many others, who consider the passage in question but the first phrase of a long sentence; and consequently not to be separated from the context. They would render the passage thus-" The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was made by John, who baptized in the wilderness, and preached the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins; as it is written," &c. &c. It is thus translated in the German New Testament of Michaelis, and Bishop Marsh is of opinion that it is correct: "If the first sentence," he observes, "The beginning of the Gospel of," &c. was used as a title only to the rest of the book, then St. Mark's Gospel would have begun with wę ytypakraι, which would be an unsuitable commencement to any narrative." But to this it may be answered, that the commencement, which would be unsuitable to a profane writer, who carefully studied the arts of composition, and weighed his son

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written at Jerusalem

A. D. 64.

LUKE i. 1-4.

Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in Written in

tences, and balanced his periods, would be by no means so, to
the Evangelical writers, who are careless on these points, and
express themselves with that simplicity, which is the distinguish-
ing characteristic of every composition, solely aiming at the plain
narration of facts. The sacred penmen expressed themselves in
the common idiom of their country, and the commencement of
a narrative with an appeal to their ancient prophets, would not
have appeared unnatural, or singular, to the persons to whom St.
Mark's Gospel was addressed. Dr. Campbell very justly ob-
serves, that the expression άρχη τοῦ ἐυαγγελίω ἐγένετο Ιωάννης
Bantilov, &c. is no wise agreeable to the style of the sacred
writers, whereas ἐγένετο Ιωάννης βαπτίζων is quite in their
idiom. The point itself, indeed, is comparatively unimportant,
but after an attentive perusal of the references, I cannot but
decide in favour of one of these two readings." The begin-
ning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. John was
baptizing in the wilderness, and preaching the baptism of re-
pentance for the remission of sins. As it is written in the pro-
phets, behold I send my messenger before, &c. &c. the voice of
one crying in the wilderness"-or, as Campbell renders it,
"The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God
-As it is written in the Prophets-Bebold I send mine angel
before thee, who shall prepare thy way: the voice of one crying
in the wilderness, prepare the way of the Lord, for thus came
John baptizing." I deduce no argument from the superscrip-
tions to the Gospels, Ευαγγελίον κατὰ Ματθαιον, ευαγγέλιον κατὰ
Mápkov, &c. (though it is not by any means improbable that the
word ivayyedior bears the signification of a narrative, or rela-
tion of the life of Christ,) as these superscriptions were not writ-
ten by the Evangelists themselves. Father Simon (o) shews
from St. Chrysostom that this was the case. They are however
so ancient, that Tertullian reproves Marcion for having no title
at the head of the copy of St. Luke's Gospel, which Marcion
acknowledged to be genuine.-Vide the Chapter of F. Simon,
and Dr. Campbell's note on Matt. i. 1. vol. ii. p. 345, of his
translation of the Gospels.

(a) Campbell on the Gospels, vol. ii. p. 463, note 4, edit. 1789, 4to.
(b) Apud Elsley in loc. vol. ii. p. 2. (c) Evangelical History and Har-
mony, note, p. 1. (d) Vide Schleusner in voc. vayyɛλiov-14-meto-
nymice designat singulas religionis Christianæ partes, v. c. historiam
evangelicam de vita, factis, et fatis J. C. Matth. xxvi. 13. Marc. xiv. 9.
Ita capitur quoque in inscriptionibus Matth. Marc. Luc. et Joh. pro
libro de dictis, &c. &c. &c. (e) Introduction to the New Testament,
vol. iii. part i. p. 2. (f) Notes to Michaelis, vol. iii. part ii. p. 5.
(g) Notes to the Harmony of New Testament, p. 1. (h) Works, fol.
edit. 1684, vol. ii. p. 331. (i) Family Expositor, vol. i. p. 93. 8vo.
1810. (k) Apud Elsley in loc. (1) Commentary in loc. (m) Grotius
-Annotationes in V. & N. T. in compendium deducta a Sam. Moody,
4to. 1727. (n) Comment. in lib. N. T.historicos, vol. ii. p. 11. (0) Cri-
tic. History of the Text of the N. T. part i. ch.ii. p. 12.

2 The Harmonists have generally agreed, in placing the introduction to St. Luke's Gospel as the preface to their respective works and among them, the five whose labours form unitedly the basis of the preseut arrangement-Lightfoot, Archbishop Newcome, Michaelis, Doddridge, and Pilking ton. This preface of St. Luke may be considered as demonstrating to us the very great care with which the first dis


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