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Mat. xü.17. For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and
righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them: and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.
MATT. xiii. part of ver. 10. and ver, 13. 10 -and
13 Therefore speak I to them in parables : because they see. ing, see not; and hearing, they hear not: neither do they un. derstand.
MARK IV. yer. 11. 11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God
LUKE viii. part of ver. 9. and ver. 10. 9 And his disciples asked him10 And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seoing they might not seo, and hearing they might not understand.
LUKE viii. part
of ver. 9. and 11-15. Mark iv, 10. They that were about him with the twelve asked of him
the parable. Luke viii. 9. saying, What might this parable be? Markiv.13. And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable ?
and how then will ye know all parables ? Mat.xii. 18. Hear
therefore the parable of the sower.
understandeth it not, then
This is he which received seed by the way-side.
same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy re
ceiveth it; Markiv. 16. immediately receiveth it with gladness : Mat, xiii.21. Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while; Lakeviij.13. for a-while believeth, and in time of temptation Mat, xii.21. for Markiv. 17. afterward, when affliction, Mat, xiii.21. when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the
word, by and by he is offended. Lakevüi.13. and falleth away.
Mat, xiii.22. He also that received seed among the thorns, is he
that heareth the word : Lukeviii.14. and when he hath heard goeth forth, Mark iv.19. and the cares Mal. xiii.22. and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, Lakeviii.14. and pleasures of this life, Markiv. 19. and the lusts of other things entering in, Mat. xiii.22. choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful.
But he that received seed into the good ground, is he
that heareth the word, and understandeth it. Mark iv. 20. and receiveth it Lukeviii.15. in an honest and good heart ; and having heard the word,
keepeth it, and with patience, Mal. xiii.23. which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth some an hun
dred fold, some sixty, some thirty. Mark iv.21. And he said unto them, Lukevič.16. No man, when he hath lighted a candle, covereth it
with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed; but setteth it on
a candlestick, that they which enter in may see the light. 17. For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest ;
neither any thing hid, that shall not be known, and come
abroad. Mark iv, 23. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. YARK iv. part of ver. 15, 16, 17. ver. 18. part of ver. 19, 20, 21.
and ver. 22. 15 And these are they by the way-side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard Satan cometh—and taketh away-that was sown in their hearts.
16 And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word
17 And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time-or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.
18 And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word.
19 -of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.
20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word—and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.
21 -Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed ? and not to be set on a candlestick ?
22 For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested ; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad.
LUKE viii. part of ver. 12, 13, 14, 15. 12 Those by the way-side are they that bear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts
13 They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy ; and these have no root, which
14 And that which fell among thorns are they, which-and are choked with cares and riches and bring no fruit to perfection.
15 But that on the good ground are they, which-bring forth fruit
LUKE viii. 18.
hear: Lukevič.18. how hear : Mark iv. 24. with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you ;
and unto you that hear, shall more be given. 25. For he that hath, to him shall be given : and he that
hath not, from him shall be taken away even that which
he hath. Lukevič.18. even that which he seemeth to have.
LUKE viii. part of ver. 18. 18 Take heed therefore--for whosoever bath, to him shall be given ; and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken
MATT. xiii. 24–53. MARK iv. 26–34.
And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground ; 68 This phrase,
“ the kingdom of heaven," is used in the New Testament to denote the various gradations of that dominion which the Messiah was about to establish. It sometimes alludes to its commencement, Matt. iii. 2. by the preaching, influence, and death of Christ; sometimes it refers to its gradual progress, and the consequent setting up and establishment of the Chrisa tian Church, Matt. xiii. 47. Sometimes it is used to express the future perfection and consummation of the happiness of mankind and of the Church in a future state. The word baotlela, ought frequently to be translated “the reign," instead of the kingdom.
“ Isaiah, Daniel, Micah, and others of the prophets, had encouraged the people to expect a time when the Lord of Hosts should reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, when the people of God should be redeemed, and made joyful in Messiah their king." “ This period was generally understood by the phrases βασιλεία τη θεά and βασιλεία των ουρανών; the first approach of which was preached by the Baptist, and afterwards by Christ.” When the word therefore refers to the time, it ought to be rendered the reign of God—the reign of heaven; when to place, it should be translated kingdom (a).
We read also (Luke xvii. 21.) “ the kingdom of God is within you.” There is a dominion over the passions and the inferior nature of man, which may be justly called the kingdom of heaven, or the reign of divine power within us. And it is of little consequence to us, personally and individually, what may be the nature, origin, progress, extent, and consummation, of all the plans of Providence, which shall establish the kingdom of God in the world; unless, obedience to God, and faith in God, and the peace of God, be so known to us, that our nature become changed before Him. We may even assist to build up the ark which shall save a drowning world, but without repent. ance and faith, we, like the builders of the ark, may be destroyed by the deluge.
I am aware that the original, η βασιλεία του θεά εντός υμών Mark iv. 27. And should sleep, and rise night and day; and the
seed should spring up, and grow, he knoweth not how. ļotiv, may be translated the kingdom of God is among you, or, is now being established in the midst of you; and the èvrós is 60 used by Xenoph. Cyrop. I. 1. and in the Auab. lib. 6. c. 5. 8.5. we read évtos tñs pádayyos, intra spatium, in quo exercitus erat. The word is used twice only in the New Testament-in Matt. xxiii. 26. where it evidently signifies the inside of the cup, &c.--and in this passage, Luke xvii. 21. where it is contrasted with the outward pomp and shew with which the Jews expected the reign of their Messiah would commence. The kingdom of God comcth not μετά παρατηρήσεως Heinsius paraphrases the word " non venit præstolando, aut ex. spectando regnum Domini. Schleusner quotes from Suidas, εντός οι λογισμοί και ενθυμήσεις και πάντα τα της ψυχής κινήματα, , and the Alexandrian version translates the word 27p in the last clause of Ver. 1. of Ps. ciii. by the word évrós, &c. '7p bor, wbere no other meaning can be assigned but that which is internal: that is, the thoughts and motives of the beart. The phrase also, down niin, was used among the Jews to denote the influence of religion within the heart 6).
The Jews had long spoken of, anticipated and described the future reign of the Messiah by the phrase now in question. They had been taught by their ancient prophets to expect a Messiah, who should restore the true reigion, reform the Jewish people, atone for their sins, and release them from a foreign yoke. The apostles and our Lord used only the popular language, when they adopted the term expressive of this dominion of the Messiah, That the expressions βασιλεία τα θεά-βασιλεία των ερανώνβασιλεία τ8 Ιησύ, did not refer only to the kingdom or dominion of Christ in the future world, is evident from the proclamation of the Baptist, Matt. iii 2. ryyice yap Caorleia, &c. and from the nature of the addresses of our Lord, such as in Matt. vi. 33. ζητείτε πρώτον την βασιλείαν τ8 θεέ, and those in the Lord's prayer, “thy will be done in earth.” &c.
As the treatise of Schoetgen is bound up with his larger work, and is rarely to be met, I have made an extract from bis observations on this phrase.
yj Baoileia Spavwv frequently occurs in Jewish writers. In general it means the polity of the children of Israel under the old covenant, having God at its head. The kingdom of heaven is the same as the kingdom of God. In that kingdom the Jews were the subjects. Thus Josephus properly calls that government Deokparia, 1. and 2.
To shew that Jewish writers used the expression in this sense, several quotations are brought, sect. 3. One is from Rabbi Schemoth: “When they (the Israelites) came to Sinai, and received the kingdom of God,” &c. Our author supposes this “receiving the kingdom of God,” to imply a confession of faith, that may be repeated for the greater confirmation therein. He quotes Sohar Genes: “When a man goes to bod, he ought first of all to take upon himself the kingdom of heaven, and then repeat one or more prayers,” $ 4.
It appears that when a man used the prayer Krischma, it was necessary first, suscipere regnum cælorum, $ 5. in fine. This is the common meaning of the phrase, “ kingdom of heaven," among Jewish writers. Still they havo used it (but rarely) in the sense of the times of the Messiah and the now dispensation. Targum, Micah iv. 17. “ The kingdom of heaven shall be revealed unto them on Mount Zion, from this time to all eternity.” But, independently of quotations from
Mark iv. 28. For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the
blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. 29.'
But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he
putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come. Mat. xiij.24. Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The
kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man, which sowed
good seed in his field : 25. But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares
among the wheat, and went his way. 26, But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth
fruit, then appeared the tares also. 27. So the servants of the householder came, and said unto
him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field ?
from whence then hath it tares ? 28.
He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and
gather them up ? 29. But he said, Nay; lest, while ye gather up the tares,
ye root up also the wheat with them. 30. Let both grow together until the harvest; and in the
time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles, to burn them : but gather the wheat into my
barn. 31. Another parable put he forth unto them, Mark iv. 30. and he said, Mat. xiii.31. saying, Mark iv.30. Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with
what comparison shall we compare it?
The expression took its origin from that passage of Daniel, where it is said, “ Unto him was given a kingdom, &c. and his kingdom shall not be destroyed,” 07.
In the New Testament, the expression » Baoilea te Dee, means the Christian Church, or dispensation. The Apostle, Rom. xiv. 17. ex borts Christians not to condemn others about meats;.." for,” says he, “ the kingdom of God is not meat and drink;" that is, the Christian Church, under its king, the Messiah, is not bound by the ceremonies enjoined under the law, $ 8.
There is sometimes an ellipsis of tă°0eg, or râv spavūv; the word Baoiléia occurring alone. Thus Christ is said to have preached tho Gospel of the kingdom, i. e. of the kingdom of the Messiah. The Jews are called vioi tons Baodeias, because the kingdom of Messiah was first sent to them, s 9.
It also denotes subjection to the kingdom of Messiah, Mark X. 15. “Whoever does not receive the kingdom of heaven,” &c.
It is not denied that “the kingdom of heaven” is sometimes used to denote eternal life, s 11.
(a) Campbell's Preliminary Dissertations, vol. i. p. 140. (6) Vide Schoetgen. Dissert. de regno Cælorum, Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 1149. fleinsius Exercit. Sacræ, p. 172, Schleusner in vo. cévtós, and Valpy's Greek Test, in Luke xvii. 20.