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culation can remove the foundation of its truth. It will be as
evidently discoverable as the Mosaic institutions. Its prin.
ciple will be as clear, its facts as evident, its origin as unde-
niable. If there is, or was such a government, its whole pro-
gress will be matter of record; every innovation, every cor-
ruption would be accurately registered, and so engrafted with
the history of Christianity, that they could not be put asunder.

The various forms of Church government which we have now
considered, may be distinctly traced to human invention. They
have originated in the circumstances of the times in which they
commenced. Episcopacy only is traced to the days of the
apostles, and their and our divine Master; and originated in
his instructions, and their practice. But, that we may arrive
at some certain conclusions on the subject of Church govern-
ment, it will be necessary to refer to Scripture, and enquire
into the facts which are there recorded. I shall here confine
myself to a review of the manner in which the Church was
established while our Lord was upon earth and defer to other
notes the consideration of the nature of that government, by
means of which the doctrines of the Gospel were perpetuated,
in the three periods, after the ascension; when the Church
consisted of Jewish converts only; when it was extended to the
proselytes of the Jewish religion; and when it embraced the
converts from idolatry, throughout the whole Gentile world.

The period from our Lord's birth to his baptism was marked by no recorded instances of divine power, or sovereignty; nor by the assumption of his ministerial dignity. His ministry began by a public and solemn inauguration into his high office. "The heavens were opened, and the Spirit of God, as a dove; descended and lighted upon him; and lo, a voice from heaven, this is my beloved Son: hear ye him." To fulfil every type, he was anointed, like the ancient Jewish kings, priests, and prophets, not with the material unction of oil, but with the Holy Ghost, and with power, Eph. iv. 7. Immediately after his inauguration, guided by the same Spirit, he overcame the great enemy of his spiritual kingdom. He then began the office to which he was anointed, by preaching the Gospel to the people of Galilee, in the synagogues, of his own city Nazareth, Luke iv. 14-18. His laws were delivered in his own name: "I say unto you." He enlarged and refined the law of Moses, and enforced his precepts with the promise of higher rewards, and the threatenings of severer punishments. He confirmed the truth of his assertions, and demonstrated the certainty of his Messiahship by stupendous wonders and miracles. By these means, and by his example, and his precepts, he collected multitudes of disciples, whom he baptized, not as John had done, in the name of another, but in his own name, John iii. 5. After a certain time had elapsed, he selected twelve from his followers, and imparted to them some of the same powers and privileges which himself had received from the Father. He gave them power and authority over all devils, and to cure all manner of disease, Luke ix. 1. Mark vi. 7. Matt. x. 1—5.

Some time after the twelve Apostles had been thus chosen, our Lord appointed other seventy also. In some respects, their commission was the same as that of the twelve; in others there was a remarkable difference. The twelve return to our Lord, and continue with him to the end; tho seventy return to give

On a progress, probably in Galilee.

Luke ix. 2. to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick.
Matt. x. 5.




Mark vi. 8.

Luke ix. 3.

On a pro

and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of gress, probably in the Gentiles and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye Galilee.



But go
rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
And, as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven
is at hand.

Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast
out devils: freely ye have received, freely give.

And [he] commanded that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only;

And he said unto them,

an account of their mission, and are again blended with the
general mass of the brethren. The seventy were more limited
In their office. They were sent only to precede our Lord, in
those towns whither he was himself going, (Luke x. 1.); the
Apostles had a more extensive and discretionary power, which
extended to all the lost sheep of the house of Israel. The
Apostles were ordained to be with our Lord, (Mark iii. 14.)
as his constant attendants; whereas the seventy were only ap-
pointed to preach, Luke x. 1. Before the inauguration of the
twelve, our Lord not only commanded his disciples to pray to
God, to send labourers into his harvest, but he continued a
whole night himself in prayer; and even after the mission of
the seventy, they were always distinguished by the name of
Apostles. Our Lord particularly addressed the twelve more
than the other disciples, expounding to them his parables, and
revealing to them apart the mysteries of his kingdom, (Matt.
xx. 17, &c.) In two instances their powers were enlarged. At
the time of the institution of the eucharist, the Apostles were
commanded to commemorate his death, until his second advent
to judge the world. When our Saviour was on the point of
leaving earth, on the day of his ascension, he invested them
with still higher powers. At first, like their divine Master,
they had been sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
His death destroyed the distinction between the Jew and the
Gentile. All power was now given unto him, in heaven, and
in earth, and his last parting command to them was, to preach
the Gospel to all nations. A kingdom was given to them, as a
kingdom had been given to our Lord: as he had ordained and
appointed spiritual governors and rulers, over the converts, to
them also was committed the same delegated authority.

Such were the two classes to whom our Lord, while upon
earth, confided a share of the ministerial office to which he had
been commissioned from above. He was the prophet like unto
Moses, in this, as well as in other respects, that he instituted
a new priesthood, with new authority and powers. The Levi-
tical priesthood was now to be abolished, by the same divine
Lawgiver who had at first ordained it; and another erected on
its foundation, Christ himself being the chief corner stone.

The next stage of the Church, and its ecclesiastical discipline, we shall consider, as I have observed, in future notes; remarking only here that the people had no choice nor part, either in the appointment or consecration of the twelve, or the seventy. They exercised no power, they conferred no right. The discipline of the Church was established by its spiritual head, Christ himself, and after his ascension it was delegated to his twelve Apostles.

Matt. x. 9.


Mark vi. 9.

Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your On a progress, propurses, bably in

Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither Galilee.


But be shod with sandals;

Matt. x. 10. nor yet staves,

Luke ix. 3. neither bread,

Matt.x. 10. for the workman is worthy of his meat.

Mark vi. 10. And he said unto them,

Matt.x.11. into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter, enquire who in it is worthy; and

Luke ix. 4. into whatsoever house ye enter into,

Mat. x. 11.




there abide, till ye go thence.

And when ye come into an house, salute it.

And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet.

Luke ix. 5. the very dust from

Mark vi. 11. under your feet, for a testimony against them.

Matt.x. 15.











Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city.

Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.

But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the
councils, and they will scourge you in their synagogues;
And ye shall be brought before governors and kings
for my sake, for a testimony against them and the Gen-

But when they shall deliver you up, take no thought
how or what ye
shall speak for it shall be given you in
that same hour what ye shall speak.

For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your
Father which speaketh in you.

And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death,
and the father the child; and the children shall rise up
against their parents, and cause them to be put to death.

And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved.

But when they shall persecute you in this city, flee ye into another for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of Man be


The disciple is not above his master, nor the servant above his lord:

It is enough for the disciple, that he be as his master, and the servant as his lord: if they have called the mas

Matt.x.25. ter of the house Beelzebub, how much more shall they On a pro

them of his houshold?

gress, probably in

26. Fear not them therefore: for there is nothing covered Galilee.
that shall not be revealed; and hid, that shall not be

27. What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light;
and what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the

28. And fear not them which kill the body, but are not
able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to
destroy both soul and body in hell.


Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of
them shall not fall on the ground without your Father*.
But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.
31. Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many







Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven.

But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I
also deny before my Father which is in heaven.

Think not that I am come to send peace on earth:
I came not to send peace, but a sword.

For I am come to set a man at variance against his
Father, and the daughter against her mother, and the
daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.

36. And a man's foes shall be they of his own household.
He that loveth father or mother more than me, is not
worthy of me and he that loveth son or daughter more
than me, is not worthy of me.

After the return of the Jews from Babylon, when the Hebrew language was no longer spoken among the common people, the Jews adopted the custom to which our Lord here alludes. The Scripture was publicly read in the original, but the doctor of the law whispered the meaning in the ears of an interpreter, or Targumista, who publicly proclaimed what was communicated to him to the people. Our Lord here intimated to his disciples, that those things which were now revealed to them; such as the calling of the Gentiles, the abolition of the Jewish law, not yet to be openly declared, and other doctrines, should be hereafter publicly promulgated. The houses of the Jews had flat roofs, from whence they made proclamations to the people. Both Lightfoot and Schoetgen have treated copiously on this subject.

The Jews were of opinion that a superintending Provi

Ex יושב חק"בה מקרני ראמים .dence, protected the minutest objects

Schabbath, fol. 107. 2. □
. Sedet Deus S. B. et nutrit
inde a cornibus unicorum, usque ad ova pediculorum. Schoet-
gen quotes also Jalhut Rubeni, fol. 171, 2. There is not the
least herb on earth, over which there is not an appointed guar-
dian in heaven-and from R. Simeon's
part i. fol. 6. 2.
a man cannot hurt his finger upon earth, but it is cried out
aloud in heaven.-Schoetgen. Hor. Heb. vol. 1. p. 105.

Matt. x. 38.



And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after On a prome, is not worthy of me.

gress, probably in

He that findeth his life shall lose it: and he that loseth Galilee. his life for my sake shall find it.

He that receiveth you receiveth me', and he that re-
ceiveth me receiveth him that sent me.

41. He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet
shall receive a prophet's reward; and he that receiveth a
righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall re-
ceive a righteous man's reward.



Luke ix. 6.

And whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of cold water only in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward.

And it came to pass when Jesus had made an end of commanding his twelve disciples, he departed thence, to teach and to preach in their cities.

And they departed, and went through the towns, preaching the Gospel, and

Mark vi.12. that men should repent.


And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them.

Luke ix. 6. and healing every where.

MARK vi. part of ver. 7, 8. ver. 9. and part of ver. 10, 11, 12, 13.
7 And he called unto him the twelve, and began to send them
forth-and gave them power over unclean spirits;

8-no scrip, no bread, no money in their purse :

9 But be shod with sandals; and not put on two coats.
10-In what place soever ye enter into an house, there abide
till ye depart from that place.

11 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when
ye depart thence, shake off the dust-Verily I say unto you, It
shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of
judgment, than for that city.

12 And they went out, and preached

13 And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them—

LUKE ix. part of ver. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

1-and to cure diseases.

2 And he sent them

3-Take nothing for your journey, neither staves, nor scrip -neither money; neither have two coats apiece.

4 And there abide, and thence depart.

5 And whosoever will not receive you, when ye go out of that city, shake off-your feet, for a testimony against them.

$ It was a common saying among the Jews, "He that receiveth a learned man, receiveth the Shechinah." Our Lord, therefore, in this, as in numerous other passages, which, from the general inattention to the opinions of the ancient Jews, are unnoticed, claims those honours which were assigned by the people to the Angel Jehovab, the God of their fathers. See Schoetgen Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 106, 7.

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