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Mark xii.36.

For David himself said by the Holy Ghost,

Luke xx.42. in the Book of Psalms,

Mat.xxii.43. saying,

44. The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right
hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.

Mark xii.37.


David therefore himself calleth him Lord;
If David then call him Lord, how is he his son ?

And no man was able to answer him a word: neither
durst any man from that day forth ask him any more

Mark xii.37. Ând the common people heard him gladly.

Luke xx.45.


MARK Xii. part of ver. 36, 37.

The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand till I make thine enemies thy footstool.


and whence is he then his son ?

LUKE XX. part of ver. 41, 42. and ver. 43, 44.

41 And he said-How say they that Christ is David's son?
42 And David himself saith-The Lord said unto my Lord,
Sit thou on my right hand.

43 Till I make thine enemies thy footstool.

44 David therefore calleth him Lord; how is he then his son ?


Christ severely reproves the Pharisees.

MATT. xxiii. 1. to the end. MARK Xii. 38-40,
LUKE XX. 45. to the end.

Then, in the audience of all the people,

Mat.xxiii.1. spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples,
Mark xii.38. And he said unto them in his doctrine,

Mat. xxiii.2. The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat:

3. All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that
observe and do: but do not ye after their works: for
they say, and do not.

Mark xii.38. Beware of the Scribes,



For they bind heavy burdens, and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not touch them with one of their fingers.

But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they Mark xii.38. love to go in long clothing,

Mat.xxiii.5. they make broad their philacteries, and enlarge the bor



ders of their garments,

And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief
seats in the synagogues,

And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men,
Rabbi, Rabbi.

Luke xx.47. Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew
Markxii.40. for a pretence,

Lukexx.47. make long prayers; the same shall receive greater dam




But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, Jerusalem. even Christ, and all ye are brethren. 9. And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.








Neither be ye called Masters: for one is your Master, even Christ.

But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant. And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased: and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.

But woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!

for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for

ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that
are entering to go in.

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for
ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long
prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.
Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for
ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when
he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell
than yourselves.

Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever
shall swear by the temple, it is nothing: but whosoever
shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor !
17. Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or
the temple that sanctifieth the gold?


And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing;
but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is

19. Ye fools and blind for whether is greater, the gift, or
the altar that sanctifieth the gift?








Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon.

And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein.

And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint, and anise, and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.

Thou blind Pharisee 13, cleanse first that which is within

13 Our Lord, no longer under restraint from fear of apprehension, as he was now on the point of offering Himself a willing victim, reproached the Pharisees in the strongest terms, in

Mt.xxiii.26 the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean Jerusalem. 27. also.

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, 28. and of all uncleanness.

Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, 29. but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the 30. sepulchres of the righteous,

And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we
would not have been partakers with them in the blood of
31. the prophets.

Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye
32. are the children of them which killed the prophets.
Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.


Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape 34. the damnation of hell?

Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and Scribes: and some of them ye shall kill

the presence of all the people, for their shameful pride and
hypocrisy, and for their wilful misapprehension of the spirit
and intent of the law of Moses. In this passage he seems parti-
cularly to allude to the custom prevalent among the more osten-
tatious of them, but condemned by others; of covering their head
and eyes, lest they should even look upon the wickedness of
the world, upon wicked men, or upon any thing which might
incite them to evil. In consequence of this practice, they
would sometimes strike against a wall, and cover themselves
with blood. The Talmudist, who describes it, on owh nhi

eos hoc non fecisse ad gloriam Dei, sed ut אלא לרמות בני אדם:

homines deciperent. Vides (Schoetgen adds) ergo Judæos
αὐτοκατακρίτες. et veritatem servatoris etiam inimicorum ipsius
testimonio comprobatam (a). It must, however, be remembered,
that the Pharisees did but disguise the traditional truth re-
ceived from their ancestors. Archdeacon Blomfield has admi-
rably discussed this subject, with great skill and learning. His
conclusions may be expressed in that of Schoetgen.

Quamvis vero Christus Pharisæos tantopere refutat, non ta-
men existimandum est, ipsum omnes Judæorum doctrinas ab-
solute rejecisse. Credibile quippe est in antiquiore Judæorum
Ecclesia circa el post Esræ tempora multa viguisse Veritatis an-
tiquæ ac nondum depravatæ vestigia. Veritatis, inquam, il-
liusque tum quod ad dogmata, tum quod ad mores spectat con-
sideratæ. Quæcunque ergo cum œconomiâ novâ et perfectione,
quam a nobis Christus requirit, conveniebant, illa omnia re-
tinuit. Unde non mirum, multa a Lightfoot et nobis ex Pan-
dectis Judæorum adferri potuisse, quæ cum doctrinâ Salvatoris.
omnino conveniunt. Fermentum Pharasaicum omnia polluerat.
Schoetgen, vol. i. p. 27.

(@) Anich, fol. 127. 4. ap Schoetgen, Hora Hebraicæ, &c. vol. i. p. 205. Archdeacon Blomfield's tract, Knowledge of Jewish Traditions essential to an Interpretation of the New Testament.


Mt.xxiii.34. and crucify; and some of them ye shall scourge synagogues, and persecute them from city to city.





in your

That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings", and ye would not!

Behold, your house" is left unto you desolate.

14 When a Gentile was converted to Judaism, he was said to have come, under the wings of the Shechinah. In using this expression, therefore, our Lord again asserted his divinity, and reminded the Jews of the doctrine he had before taught Nicodemus, that the people of Israel themselves were required to enter into his kingdom as new creatures, as proselytes to a new dispensation. See many instances in Schoetgen. Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 208.

The remark of Dr. Hales on this passage, appears to me to be too refined and hypercritical, and censures unjustly the translation in the authorized version. He observes, "the word in the original is öovic, which is generic; and surely more applicable to that noblest of birds, the eagle and his brood, than to the hen and chickens' of the English Bible." And he supposes that our Lord, "as the tutelar God of Israel, alludes to his former comparison, in the divine ode of the parent eagle, training his young brood, after he had brought them on eagles wings to himself, to Mount Sinai (a)." This learned writer, however, has not taken into consideration, that the comparison of the hen and chickens was known from the earliest times to the Jews, and was frequent and familiar among them; and that this humble metaphor was much more suited to the genius and nature of the Christian religion. When the tribes of Israel, under the guidance of the God of their fathers, departed from the wilderness, with the fierceness and fearlessness of youthful and impetuous warriors; when they seized upon their divinelyconquered provinces, and triumphed in the spoil of their enemies, they were as justly, as they were sublimely, compared to the young eagles soaring from their inaccessible heights at the call of their parent, and darting like lightning upon their ignoble prey. The comparison of our Lord is consistent with the nature and design of his more perfect dispensation of reconciliation and love. His disciples, like their Master, were to be meek and lowly in spirit, and they were to be sheltered and nourished under the saving wings of their kind and merciful Protector.

(a) Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. part 2.

15 The ancient Jews were accustomed to call the temple an, the House, to shew its great superiority to any other building. They called it likewise domus sanctuarii, panna, and

ya, domus æterna (a). And this house, or temple, which has now, for near eighteen centuries, continued desolate, in fulfilment of the prophecy in the next verse, shall be again rebuilt, and on the mountains of Israel the tribes shall again plant the

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Mark xii.41.

Luke xxi. 1.

For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, Jerusalem. till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

MARK Xii. part of ver. 38. and ver. 39, 40.

38 -which-and love salutations in the market-place,

39 And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts;

40 Which devour widows' houses, and-make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation.

LUKE XX. part of ver. 45. and ver. 46.

45-he said unto his disciples,

46 Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts;


Christ applauds the Liberality of the poor Widow.

MARK xii. 41. to the end.

LUKE xxi. 1—4.

And Jesus sat over against the treasury,

And he looked up,

Mark xii.41. and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much.


And there came

Luke xxi. 2. also a certain poor widow,


Mark xii.42. and she threw in two mites 16, which make a farthing. And he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury.

Luke xxi. 4.

For all these have of their abundance cast in unto the offerings of God: but she of her penury hath cast in Markxii,44. all that she had, even all her living.

MARK Xii. part of ver. 44.

44 For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her
want did cast in-

LUKE xxi, part of ver. 1, 2. ver. 3. and part of ver. 4.,
1-and saw the rich men casting their gifts into the treasury.
2 And he saw also-casting in thither two mites.

3 And he said, Of a truth I say unto you, That this poor
widow hath cast in more than they all:

4 -all the living that she had.

olive and the vine, and offer up their praises and thanksgiving in
a more glorious temple than that of Solomon. Glorious things
shall be spoken of thee, thou city of God.

(a) Schoetgen. Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 211.

16 A curious law, which prevailed among the Jews at that time, prohibited one mite, as we translate the word λɛntov, to be put into the treasury. The poor widow, therefore, in casting two mites, her little all, into the treasury, gave the smallest

,לא יתן אדם פרוטה לארנקי של צדקה: .sum permitted by the law

non ponat homo λETTòv in cistam eleemosynarum. - Bava
Bathra, fol. x. 2. ap Schoetgen, Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 250.

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